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Aftershock: The Continuing Effects of Japan's March 11, 2011 Earthquake
(Released February 2012)

 
  by Kathryn Mori & Carolyn Scearce  

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  1. Understanding human adaptation to traumatic stress exposure: Beyond the medical model

    Charles C. Benight.

    Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy, Vol. 4, No. 1, Jan 2012, pp. 1-8.

    This special section in Trauma Psychology: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy provides the reader with a collection of theory driven papers that look beyond the current medical model approach. This first paper introduces many of the primary theoretical frameworks used for trauma research. Each of the subsequent empirical papers addresses a different theoretically based question on human adaptation to traumatic stress. The concluding paper reviews the research on human resilience after trauma emphasizing the importance of healthy adaptation. We hope this collection provides the reader with a useful launch pad for future theory driven studies in our field. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)(journal abstract)

  2. Can we remove iodine-131 from tap water in Japan by boiling? – Experimental testing in response to the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident

    K. Tagami and S. Uchida.

    Chemosphere, Vol. 84, No. 9, 2011, pp. 1282-1284.

    Iodine-131 concentrations in tap water higher than 100 BqL(-1) were reported by several local governments in Japan following the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. Some individuals in the emergency-response community recommended the boiling of tap water to remove iodine-131. However, the tap water boiling tests in this study showed no iodine-131 loss from the tap water with either short-term boiling (1-10 min) or prolonged boiling (up to 30 min) resulting in up to 3-fold volume reductions. In this situation, boiling was shown to be not effective in removing iodine-131 from tap water; indeed even higher concentrations may result from the liquid-volume reduction accompanying this process.Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. "Communicating risk before, during, and after a disaster"

    Disaster psychiatry: Readiness, evaluation, and treatment.

    Frederick J. Stoddard.

    Arlington, VA, US: American Psychiatric Publishing, Inc., 2011, 19-33

    This chapter introduces a topic that mental health professionals have spent years studying and training for: communication, particularly verbal communication, but here, communicating about risk. Modes of communication, including visual, are expanding with the Internet, texting, YouTube, Twitter, Facebook, Skype, etc. Yet at present there is little education about how to improve our professional communication with our patients, the public, or our leaders in the disaster context. Together with case examples, this chapter introduces guiding principles for communicating about risk and offers relevant background material. The key topics include general principles of risk communication, relations with the media, and risk communication in preparation for, during, and after disasters. Contained within "during disasters" are the important issues of resilience and vulnerability and how communication about risk may lessen the vulnerability and improve the resilience of communities impacted by disaster. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved)(chapter)

  4. The effect of anticipated service interruptions on disaster preparedness intentions

    Lise D. Martel and Charles W. Mueller.

    Journal of Applied Social Psychology, Vol. 41, No. 2, Feb 2011, pp. 298-311.

    This study examined the effects of anticipated service interruptions on natural disaster preparedness intentions. In a 3 × 2 × 2 factorial experiment, students were exposed to scenarios with varied levels of anticipated basic service interruption (no mention, low, high), and person-relative-to event (PrE) factors shown to affect preparedness (low, high), across 2 types of disaster (earthquake, flood). Results indicated no main or interaction effects related to type of natural disasters, significant main effects for levels of PrE and service interruption, and a significant PrE × Service Interruption interaction. Anticipated service interruption affected preparedness, regardless of level of PrE. Bringing service interruption into awareness increases willingness to prepare, suggesting that public-health efforts should include messages regarding potential interruption of services. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved)(journal abstract)

  5. Fukushima Daiichi: implications for carbon-free energy, nuclear nonproliferation, and community resilience

    Howard L. Hall.

    Integrated environmental assessment and management, Vol. 7, No. 3, 2011, pp. 406-408.

    Implications of the nuclear power plant accidents at Fukushima Daiichi are explored in this commentary. In addition to questions of nuclear reactor regulatory standards, broader implications on noncarbon-emitting energy production, nuclear nonproliferation objectives, and community resilience and emergency response against catastrophic events are explored.Copyright © 2011 SETAC.

  6. In Disaster in Japan: Nuclear Energy, the Economy and the US-Japan Alliance

    Daniel Kliman, Christine Parthemore, David Asher and Patrick Cronin.

    Mar 2011, pp. 7.

    The authors suggest that, due to the disaster in Japan, there may be a transformation of Japan's domestic politics, a possible reorientation of Japan's defense policy including changing attitudes toward the American military presence and new pressures on Japanese defense expenditures. Also examined is the world's reaction to the nuclear crisis and how that crisis will affect Japan's economy.

  7. Japan: The aftermath

    Justin McCurry.

    The Lancet, Vol. 377, No. 9771, Mar 2011, pp. 1061-1062.

    In the immediate aftermath, the aid and medical response to the earthquake and tsunami that struck Japan on March 11 has been complicated by the sheer scale of the devastation, widespread damage to supply routes, and concerns about radiation leaks from a stricken nuclear power plant. Just over 1 week after the magnitude 9·0 earthquake unleashed a powerful tsunami that washed away entire communities on the coasts of Iwate, Miyagi, and Fukushima prefectures, Japan is only just beginning to comprehend the scale of the humanitarian crisis in its midst. Japan's police agency says that the death toll has reached 8649, with 12877 people still missing. But with authorities in Miyagi reporting more than 15000 people missing in their jurisdiction alone, the final total is expected to be much higher. 1 million homes are still without water, and the quake and tsunami destroyed more than 14000 buildings and damaged 100000 more. The relief effort is being hampered by damage to road and sea routes, and the loss of power supplies and phone networks. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved)

  8. The Japanese tsunami and resulting nuclear emergency at the Fukushima Daiichi power facility: technical, radiologic, and response perspectives

    Lawrence T. Dauer, Pat Zanzonico, R. Michael Tuttle, Dennis M. Quinn and H. William Strauss.

    Journal of nuclear medicine : official publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine, Vol. 52, No. 9, 2011, pp. 1423-1432.

    The Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power facility, in the Futaba District of the Fukushima Prefecture in Japan, was severely damaged by the earthquake and ensuing tsunami that struck off the northern coast of the island of Honshu on March 11, 2011. The resulting structural damage to the plant disabled the reactor's cooling systems and led to significant, ongoing environmental releases of radioactivity, triggering a mandatory evacuation of a large area surrounding the plant. The status of the facility continues to change, and permanent control of its radioactive inventory has not yet been achieved. The purpose of this educational article is to summarize the short-term chronology, radiologic consequences, emergency responses, and long-term challenges associated with this event. Although there is ongoing debate on preparedness before the event and the candor of responsible entities in recognizing and disclosing its severity, it largely appears that appropriate key actions were taken by the Japanese authorities during the event that should mitigate any radiologic health impact. These actions include an organized evacuation of over 200,000 inhabitants from the vicinity of the site and areas early in the emergency; monitoring of food and water and placement of radiation limits on such foodstuffs; distribution of stable potassium iodide; and systematic scanning of evacuees. However, the risk of additional fuel damage and of further, perhaps substantial, releases persists. The situation at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear facility remains fluid, and the long-term environmental and health impact will likely take years to fully delineate.

  9. Like a fish out of water: Reconsidering disaster recovery and the role of place and social capital in community disaster resilience

    Robin S. Cox and Karen-Marie Elah Perry.

    American Journal of Community Psychology, Vol. 48, No. 3-4, Dec 2011, pp. 395-411.

    In this paper we draw on the findings of a critical, multi-sited ethnographic study of two rural communities affected by a wildfire in British Columbia, Canada to examine the salience of place, identity, and social capital to the disaster recovery process and community disaster resilience. We argue that a reconfiguration of disaster recovery is required that more meaningfully considers the role of place in the disaster recovery process and opens up the space for a more reflective and intentional consideration of the disorientation and disruption associated with disasters and our organized response to that disorientation. We describe a social-psychological process, reorientation, in which affected individuals and communities navigate the psychological, social and emotional responses to the symbolic and material changes to social and geographic place that result from the fire's destruction. The reorientation process emphasizes the critical importance of place not only as an orienting framework in recovery but also as the ground upon which social capital and community disaster resilience are built. This approach to understanding and responding to the disorientation of disasters has implications for community psychologists and other service providers engaged in supporting disaster survivors. This includes the need to consider the complex dynamic of contextual and cultural factors that influence the disaster recovery process. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved)(journal abstract)

  10. Longitudinal study of PTSD, depression, and quality of life among adolescents after the Parnitha earthquake

    Armen K. (1 Goenjian 2), Alexandra (3) Roussos, Alan M. (1) Steinberg, et al.

    Journal of affective disorders, Vol. 133, No. 3, 2011, pp. 509-515.

    Objective: To investigate the course of PTSD, depression, and current quality of life among adolescents 32-months after the 1999 Parnitha earthquake in Greece. Methods: The follow-up was conducted among 511 adolescents originally evaluated at 3-months post-earthquake using the UCLA PTSD Reaction Index (PTSD-RI), Depression Self-Rating Scale (DSRS), and Quality of Life Questionnaire (QOLQ). Results: Mean PTSD scores for the whole sample had subsided to mild levels; however, 8.8% were still experiencing moderate to severe levels of symptoms, and 13.6% met criteria for clinical depression. Frequency of experiencing reminders of the earthquake in the past month best explained the variance (15%) in PTSD severity, followed by depression at 3-months (8%). The QOLQ domain scores were negatively correlated with PTSD and depression. Depression at 3-months was the best predictor of QOLQ at 32-months, explaining 16% of the variance. Limitations: Self-report instruments were used; hence the responses may have been over- or under-estimated; also, the findings may not be generalizable to other ethnic groups. Conclusion: Ongoing screening is recommended after disaster to identify adolescents who continue to experience moderate to severe levels of PTSD and depressive symptoms. Specific interventions to reduce reactivity to earthquake-related reminders should be a component of post-disaster recovery programs. A quality of life measure can provide important information in addition to traditional scales for monitoring the course of recovery among adolescents after disasters.

  11. Nuclear Power in Japan

    Thomas Feldhoff.

    WeltTrends, No. 78, 2011, pp. 88-91.

    Globally, there are currently 443 nuclear reactors in operation, their share of electricity generation is 14 percent. In Japan, 55 nuclear reactors meet 29 percent of its electricity needs. Unlike Germany, the nuclear industry in Japan has enjoyed unified political support. Japan has relatively low abundance of indigenous energy resources, and most power is covered by imports. Adapted from the source document.

  12. Perceived community participation in tsunami recovery efforts and the mental health of tsunami-affected mothers: Findings from a study in rural Sri Lanka

    K. A. S. Wickrama and T. Wickrama.

    International Journal of Social Psychiatry, Vol. 57, No. 5, Sep 2011, pp. 518-527.

    Background: The 2004 tsunami seriously affected millions of families in several developing countries by destroying their livelihoods, houses and communities, subsequently damaging social and physical resources. Disaster studies have documented that both post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression develop during the first six months following disaster exposure for the majority of those afflicted. Aims and Methods: Using data from 325 tsunami-affected families living in southern Sri Lanka, the current study investigates whether community social resources such as residents' perceived community participation in tsunami recovery efforts reduce mental health risks (PTSD and depressive symptoms) of tsunami-affected mothers. The analysis is based on structural equation modelling. Results and Conclusions: The findings of structural equation modelling supports the main hypothesis that residents' perceived community participation directly and indirectly (through collective family functioning and mental health service use) reduces mental health risks (both PTSD and depressive symptoms) of tsunami-affected mothers after controlling for pre-tsunami family adversities. In addition, the results show that residents' perceived community participation buffers the influence of trauma exposure on PTSD symptom levels of mothers. The identification of specific social and family processes that relate to mental health can be useful for post-disaster interventions and recovery programmes. [Reprinted by permission of Sage Publications Ltd., copyright holder.]

  13. Social capital as collective narratives and post-disaster community recovery

    Emily Chamlee-Wright and Virgil Henry Storr.

    The Sociological review, Vol. 59, No. 2, May 2011, pp. 266-282.

    This paper examines how social capital aids in post-disaster community recovery and redevelopment. While previous studies on social capital and post-disaster recovery have tended to focus on social networks as a source of necessary assistance, the primary focus of this study is on how social capital in the form of collective narratives affects post-disaster recovery. We argue that collective narratives can shape the recovery strategies that individuals adopt. To illustrate this we examine the post- Katrina recovery efforts in St. Bernard Parish, an area devastated by flooding and significant environmental damage. In particular, we focus on the shared narrative that dominated qualitative interview data collected in St. Bernard, namely, its shared identity as a close-knit, family-oriented community comprised of hard workers. This narrative led community members to adopt a strategy that emphasized self-reliance. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved)(journal abstract)

  14. Disaster recovery also involves human recovery

    Anita Chandra and Joie D. Acosta.

    JAMA: Journal of the American Medical Association, Vol. 304, No. 14, Oct 2010, pp. 1608-1609.

    The United States has enough disaster experience to inform the development of a system for human recovery. A credible and coordinated system would ensure continuity of health and social services for long-term recovery. The U.S. can improve disaster recovery only by acknowledging that recovery requires attention to restoring both human needs and infrastructure needs. Although many health care professionals volunteer to help during acute response, there are no clearly defined roles or national guidance to ensure delivery of needed services over the long term. Health professionals must be engaged in the recovery process to ensure that patients obtain physical and behavioral health services to manage the stress of recovery as communities are rebuilt; link patients with related social services that will facilitate human recovery; and collaborate with other community responders in recovery monitoring by providing aggregate data on patient well-being. The American College of Emergency Physicians recently developed national standards for all-hazards disaster core competencies, but those standards largely focus on response rather than recovery. More attention is needed to ensure patient tracking through the recovery period, to engage primary care physicians, to address clinical considerations related to recovery stress, and to foster linkages with nongovernmental organizations in recovery service delivery. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved)

  15. The socio-political economy of nuclear power development in Japan and South Korea

    Scott Victor Valentine and Benjamin K. Sovacool.

    Energy Policy, Vol. 38, No. 12, Dec 2010, pp. 7971-7979.

    This paper analyzes the socio-cultural, political and economic conditions prevalent during the inception of nuclear power programs in Japan and South Korea in order to identify commonalities which support nuclear power program expansion. The study identifies six factors as having a clear influence on supporting nuclear power development: (1) strong state involvement in guiding economic development; (2) centralization of national energy policymaking and planning; (3) campaigns to link technological progress with national revitalization; (4) influence of technocratic ideology on policy decisions; (5) subordination of challenges to political authority, and (6) low levels of civic activism. The paper postulates that insights from this study can be used to assess the propensity of nations which have the emergent capacity to support nuclear power development to actually embark on such programs. [Copyright Elsevier Ltd.]

  16. Tsunami warning signs on the Enshu Coast of Japan

    H. Chanson.

    Shore & Beach, Vol. 78, No. 1, 2010, pp. 52-54.

    The Enshu coast is located on the southern side of Honshu Island (Japan) (Fig. 1) (Chanson and Aoki 2004). The western part of the coast, so-called Omotehama, spans from Irago Cape to the mouth of the Tenryu River. The shoreline has been subjected to significant erosion, at a rate close to 1 m per year for past centuries. In recent years, some coastal protection works were built to slow the erosion rate. At the same time, the natural supplies of sediment materials at the Tenryu River mouth has drastically diminished because of dam construction along the Tenryu River and their reservoir sedimentation (Shinjo and Fujita 2004). The coastline has also had a history of rapid changes in shoreline. For example, a bifurcation of the Kuroshio current off the Enshu coast caused unusually high sea levels from mid September to late November 1999 that led to a serious shoreline retreat at Terasawa and Kojima of up to 20 m (Aoki 2002).

  17. Urban disaster recovery: a measurement framework and its application to the 1995 Kobe earthquake

    Stephanie E. Chang.

    Disasters, Vol. 34, No. 2, Apr 2010, pp. 303-327.

    This paper provides a framework for assessing empirical patterns of urban disaster recovery through the use of statistical indicators. Such a framework is needed to develop systematic knowledge on how cities recover from disasters. The proposed framework addresses such issues as defining recovery, filtering out exogenous influences unrelated to the disaster, and making comparisons across disparate areas or events. It is applied to document how Kobe City, Japan, recovered from the catastrophic 1995 earthquake. Findings indicate that while aggregate population regained pre-disaster levels in ten years, population had shifted away from the older urban core. Economic recovery was characterised by a three to four year temporary boost in reconstruction activities, followed by settlement at a level some ten per cent below pre-disaster levels. Other long-term effects included substantial losses of port activity and sectoral shifts toward services and large businesses. These patterns of change and disparity generally accelerated pre-disaster trends. Reprinted by permission of Blackwell Publishers

  18. The use of psychological first aid (PFA) training among nurses to enhance population resiliency

    George S. Everly, Daniel J. Barnett, Nancy L. Sperry and Jonathan M. Links.

    International journal of emergency mental health, Vol. 12, No. 1, 2010, pp. 21-31.

    Disaster mental health research has found that psychological casualties from a given disaster can be expected to far outnumber physical casualties. Amidst a shortage of mental health professionals and against the backdrop of natural disasters, continued terrorism, and pandemic influenza, there is a striking need to expand and operationalize available human resources to enhance the psychological resiliency of those affected. Through the utilization of psychological first aid (PFA) as an early crisis intervention tool, and by virtue of their occupation and experience, nurses are particularly well-suited to assume a leadership role in expanding the disaster mental health presence beyond the existing cadre of mental health clinicians. Here, we characterize the importance of integrating PFA in the context of other nursing functions, to augment mental health surge capacity in disaster settings. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved)(journal abstract)

  19. Prospects for nuclear energy in the 21st century: The East-Asian perspective

    Koji Nagano.

    International Journal of Global Energy Issues, Vol. 30, No. 1/2/3/4, 12 Aug 2008, pp. 289-308.

    Although closely resembling each other geographically and socio-politically, Japan and Korea differ sharply in both technological and political terms with regard to the development of nuclear power. This paper aims to illustrate Japan and Korea's commonalities and differences and thereby to highlight the major short-term challenges facing them, such as the selection of radioactive waste storage sites. It also tries to indicate possible beneficial directions for the two countries for the long term, such as coordinated technological support and transfer in the Asian region.

  20. Proposal of hybrid tsunami monitoring network system consisted of offshore, coastal and on-site wave sensors

    T. Nagai, T. Kato, N. Moritani, H. Izumi, Y. Terada and M. Mitsui.

    Coastal Engineering Journal, Vol. 49, No. 1, Mar 2007, pp. 63-76.

    Development and improvement of the International Tsunami Monitoring System is getting more important after the 2004 Sumatra-Off-Earthquake Tsunami disaster. Till now, tsunami monitoring system has been developed and established based on observation network of strong ground motion only. Nevertheless, earthquake vibration data may give us incorrect tsunami forecasting, for the strength of the vibration and the tsunami energy are not exactly proportional. Therefore, offshore and coastal direct tsunami-wave profile observation system should be included in the monitoring system. This paper introduces basic design of the future tsunami monitoring system using newly developed GPS buoy system and other coastal and on-site sensors. Method of real-time tsunami data processing system is also introduced.

  21. Transparency of Nuclear Regulatory Activities: Workshop Proceedings Tokyo and Tokai-Mura, Japan 22-24 May 2007

    Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development.

    Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development/Organisation de Cooperation et de Developpement Economiques, 2007, 315p-315p

    A common understanding of transparency and main stakeholders' expectations in the field of nuclear safety were identified during this workshop in Tokyo in May 2007, together with a number of conditions and practices aimed at improving the transparency of nuclear regulatory activities. These conditions and practices are described herein, and will be of particular interest to all those working in the nuclear regulatory field. Tables, Figures.

  22. View from Japan: Bridging the Transition to a Safe & Secure Energy Future

    Shunsuke Kondo.

    IAEA Bulletin, Vol. 46, No. 1, Jul 2004, pp. 24 p.

    About 30% of Japan's energy is provided by nuclear power plants, a significant contribution to energy derived from resources other than fossil fuels. Unlike other nations, Asian nations are increasing nuclear energy. This is attributed to the relatively limited energy resources in these nations; the recognition that environmental risks are greater with the consumption of fossil fuels; and the technical and institutional maturation of nuclear industry. The Japan Atomic Energy Commission has recommended a three-tier strategy for further nuclear power development based on utilization and enhancement of existing technologies, development of economically competitive and risk-limited power plants; and ultimately the development of new technologies which reduce or eliminate human and environmental risks.

  23. Aseismic evaluation for aging degradation of nuclear power plant components

    K. Kobayashi.

    Nuclear Engineering and Design, Vol. 214, No. 1-2, May 2002, pp. 57-71.

    The commercial operation of light water reactor plants in Japan already has a history of nearly 30 years. Since the beginning of the 1990s, studies have been conducted on aging degradation of nuclear power plants in Japan and abroad and, earlier in 1999, the domestic program of plant life management (PLM) was settled on. The program is based on the results of the PLM Study, which started in 1997. The purpose of the study was to develop a preventive maintenance program with an evaluation of aging degradation for maintaining the functions of plant component equipment. Taking account of the need for proper management of aging degradation, meanwhile, the technical evaluation of the seismic-resistant capability of aged plants is also considered to be important. Based on this concept, the author evaluated the impact of assumed aging degradation on the seismic-resistant capability of the plant facilities and structures covered by the PLM Study. In the evaluation, aging degradation modes selected in the PLM Study were divided into two categories: one includes some degradation modes that impact on the seismic-resistant capability of the facilities and structures that should be taken into account and the other includes those facilities and structures for which impact might be ignored. Then, the aging degradation modes in the former category were quantitatively evaluated, primarily based on the Technical Guidelines for Aseismic Design of Nuclear Power Plants (JEAG-4601) (NUREG/CR-6241, 1987). The result of the evaluation indicated that no aging degradation mode to be reflected in the maintenance program was extracted from the viewpoint of securing the seismic-resistant capability of the plant components. However, establishment of rational evaluation methods for aging degradation, e.g., seismic-resistant capability evaluation of thin piping systems, was made a future technical subject.

  24. Evaluation methods for the extreme design earthquake caused by the designated active faults

    Yukimi Ibe, Setsuo Iizuka and Tsuyoshi Ebine.

    NEA/CSNI/R(2000)2/Volume 1; OECD/NEA Workshop on the Engineering Characterisation of Seismic Input: Workshop Proceedings, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York, U.S.A , 15-17 November 1999

    Under the sponsorship of the Japan Ministry of International Trade and Industry (MITI), the Nuclear Power Engineering Corporation (NUPEC) has carried out siting reliability studies relating to seismic design for nuclear power plants. This study, Evaluation Methods for the Extreme Design Earthquake Caused by the Designated Active Faults, is one of those studies; it was conducted from 1990-1997. The study clarified that recurring earthquake magnitudes and activities of the designated active faults can be evaluated by dividing the faults into segmented faults having the same characteristics in the mode of movement. As a result of this study, the recurring earthquake magnitudes, which can be caused by the evaluated designated active faults, are harmonious with previous geological and seismological views on the capable maximum earthquake magnitudes in the studied region in Japan.

  25. Japan's nuclear twilight zone

    Shaun Burnie and Aileen Mioko Smith.

    Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, Vol. 57, No. 3, May/June 2001, pp. 58-62.

    Discusses nuclear and energy policies, use of plutonium stockpiles in reprocessing plants, construction of the Rokkashomura reprocessing plant, citizen concerns about safety, and other issues.

  26. The study for the evaluation methods for the design basis earthquake ground motions

    Yukimi Ibe, Setsuo Iizuka and Tsuyoshi Ebine.

    NEA/CSNI/R(2000)2/Volume 1; OECD/NEA Workshop on the Engineering Characterisation of Seismic Input: Workshop Proceedings, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York, U.S.A , 15-17 November 1999

    Under the sponsorship of the Japan Ministry of International Trade and Industry (MITI), the Nuclear Power Engineering Corporation (NUPEC) has carried out siting reliability studies relating to seismic design of nuclear power plants. Two studies have been conducted. The first study, Evaluation Methods for Seismic Wave Propagation Characteristics, has been conducted since 1994. In this study, NUPEC carried out a boring survey up to GL -1705 m in 1996 in cooperation with GSI Japan and Kansai EPCo in Kobe. A vertical array system, consisting of eight seismographs, was furnished in 1997-1998. It was determined that the seismic bedrock (Vs > 3000 m /sec) appeared at a depth of around GL -1600 m. Up to 2003, this study will verify current methods for evaluating design earthquake ground motion based on this observation of seismic data. NUPEC also has a plan to install a seismic vertical array system in the northern Kanto region. The second study, Evaluation Methods for Strong Ground Motion in the Near-field Region, has been conducted since 1998. In this study, NUPEC collected and studied near-field strong-motion data in California and Japan mainly. NUPEC also carried out peer review on current seismological views relating to near-field strong-motion characteristics. Until 2002, this study will verify current methods for evaluating design earthquake ground motion, especially in the near-field region.

  27. Trial analysis of seismic hazard evaluation for the typical Japanese nuclear plant sites

    Kazuhiro Kosaka.

    NEA/CSNI/R(2000)2/Volume 1; OECD/NEA Workshop on the Engineering Characterisation of Seismic Input: Workshop Proceedings, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York, U.S.A , 15-17 November 1999

    The influence of uncertain terms in a seismic hazard model was studied by trial analysis of seismic hazard for two nuclear power plant sites in Japan. For a site near a subduction zone, further detailed analysis about the influence of distribution of seismic source in the depth was carried out. The fractile seismic hazard curve was analyzed at first with the generic logic tree derived by the generic assumption for the model of the seismic source and the attenuation model of the earthquake ground motion at the sites. Secondly, another fractile seismic hazard curve was analyzed with the revised logic tree after the elicitation of expert opinions for the uncertain terms and the integration of them. Consequently, the type of effective uncertain term and its sensitivity were strongly dependent on the site location concerning the seismic environment. The influence of the attenuation model was remarkable. The discussion among experts yielded the appropriate integration of a logic tree and decreased the deviation among the seismic hazard curves.

  28. Accident prone

    Edwin Lyman and Steven Dolley.

    Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, Vol. 56, No. 2, March/April 2000, pp. 42-46.

    Describes Sept. 1999 nuclear accident which occurred at a uranium processing plant in Tokai-Mura, Japan in which workers suffered acute radiation poisoning, with one fatality, after improper handling of enriched uranium caused a chain reaction; focuses on inadequate plant safety and need for nuclear regulatory reform. Use of mixed uranium-plutonium oxide (MOX) fuel and growing public opposition to nuclear power plants following the accident.

  29. Japanese nuclear games

    Anonymous

    Economist, Vol. 353, No. 8140, October 9 1999, pp. 101-102.

    Examines the atomic power industry, in light of accident releasing radiation from a uranium processing plant in Tokai-mura. Issues include use of mixed uranium-plutonium oxide (MOX) and imports from British Nuclear Fuels (BNFL), fast breeder nuclear reactors, and economic aspects.

  30. Japanese tsunami warning system

    Augustine S. Furumoto, Hidee Tatehata and Chiho Morioka.

    Science of Tsunami Hazards, Vol. 17, No. 2, 1999, pp. 85-106.

    As Japan is a nation small in area and surrounded by seas, a potential threat of a destructive tsunami becomes a national event. The Japan Meteorological Agency, an agency of the national government, has the mandate to issue tsunami warnings. By using an archive of pre-calculated tsunami scenarios, the agency can forecast wave heights for all the coasts of Japan, when the magnitude and epicenter of the generating earthquake are known. Tsunami warnings and forecasts start from the cabinet level of the national government and are transmitted through the various layers of the national government, to the prefecture governments and eventually, in a matter of minutes, to the local governments. Transmission of the warning and forecasts from the local governments to the general public is done through a variety of media. The response of the warning system to the Sea of Japan Tsunami of July 12, 1993, was well documented and showed successes and loopholes.

  31. Nuclear power generation in Japan

    Takima Chikyu.

    Japan 21st, Vol. 41, February 1996, pp. 29-30.

    Describes the development of Japan's major source of electricity, including construction of reactors, the nuclear fuel cycle program, and nuclear waste disposal; 1963-95.

  32. Plutonium: toxic key to Japan's energy independence

    Neil W. Davis.

    Journal of the American Chamber of Commerce in Japan, December 1992, pp. 23.

    Safety issues underlying criticism of Japan's intention to rely on a plutonium-driven nuclear fuel cycle to ensure energy self-sufficiency.