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Aftershock: The Continuing Effects of Japan's March 11, 2011 Earthquake
(Released February 2012)

  by Kathryn Mori & Carolyn Scearce  


Key Citations




Resources News Articles
Historical Newspapers

News Articles

  1. Beyond Fukushima, Inquiries Begin on Long-Term Nuclear Safety

    Porter, Charlene, State Department Documents / FIND, 03-29-2011

    Washington — The international community faces a "major challenge" in the serious failures of the Fukushima nuclear plant and these failures require "robust follow-up action," according to the director general of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA).

    IAEA Director General Yukiya Amano said Japan is "still far from the end of the accident" as damaged reactors at the site continue to spew radiation into the atmosphere and the ocean. "The crisis is not yet over, but we need to start thinking about the future," he said.

    Amano proposed a high-level international conference in the next few months to assess what happened at Fukushima, consider the lessons learned, and begin a process of improving nuclear safety and response to accidents and emergencies.

    The March 11 earthquake and tsunami in Japan swamped the seaside nuclear plant and knocked out the vital reactor cooling systems. Since then, Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO) has been working to regain control of the situation, prevent a meltdown of the reactors' nuclear fuel cores, and contain the damage. Despite those efforts and the assistance of nuclear experts from the international community, radiation is apparently seeping from the vessels that are supposed to contain it.

    An analysis by a U.S. Department of Energy team in Japan found radiation levels below 3 millirem per hour, which is described as low but not insignificant. U.S. environmental health standards call for action to protect public health if radiation levels exceed 1,000 millirems over four days. (A rem is the amount of ionizing radiation required to produce the same biological effect as one rad of high-penetration X-rays). Nearly all elevated readings were within 25 miles of Fukushima Daiichi.

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    Suvendrini Kakuchi, Global Information Network, 01-23-2012

    MINAMI-SANRIKU, Japan, Jan. 23, 2012 (IPS/GIN) - Yumi Goto, 60, lives with her husband in a temporary shelter on a windy hill that overlooks vast stretches of tsunami-devastated seacoast where her home was once located. "The huge earthquake and tsunami destroyed the life I had known till now. We are waiting to return to our former lives as soon as possible," Goto told IPS. Over the past month, Goto's family has resumed its traditional occupation, but they are nowhere near harvesting seaweed and oyster on the scale they did before the Mar. 11 catastrophe that devastated the Tohoku region covering the worst-affected prefectures of Fukushima, Iwate and Miyagi.

    A poll conducted by local officials in the region last week indicated that fewer than 20 percent of displaced residents wanted to leave Minami-Sanriku which straddles bustling fishing ports, fertile farmland and small towns in the Miyagi prefecture.

    For centuries, these pristine northern areas provided marine and agricultural resources for the capital Tokyo, with traditional livelihoods remaining undisturbed and communities content to remain isolated from the drastic global changes around them.

    "Minami-Sanriku is an example of the challenges facing the post-disaster recovery process. The population, as illustrated by the polls, is deeply rooted in its traditional ways and does not want to move to new locations," explained Prof. Akio Shimada, public policy expert at Tohoku University.

    Japan has embarked on a vast recovery program for Tohoku that the government says will take three years. For planners Tohoku with its displaced and aging population presents several dilemmas two months away from the anniversary of Japan's worst disaster in recent times.

    For full-text documents see ProQuest's eLibrary


    Hicks, Robin, Campaign, 09-16-2011

    When a tsunami swept across Eastern Japan on 1 1 March, it took all forms of advertising with it. And although the world's third-largest ad market is close to making a full recovery, it has returned as a different industry. Robin Hicks reports

    In parts of North-East Japan, there are still no-go areas where radiation levels remain dangerously high. Community workers continue to dredge waterways to find bodies six months after the most powerful earthquake in the country's history claimed 16,000 lives and caused £185 billion of damage.

    Meanwhile, 150 kilometres south at Tokyo's Shibuya Crossing – the world's busiest pedestrian intersection – thousands of shoppers and salary men race by as if oblivious to what Japan's Prime Minister described as the worst point in the country's history since the Second World War.

    Japan's advertising market has shown similar resilience. In the days after the quake, advertising of all types virtually vanished, making way for news and public announcements. Not a single ad aired on TV until 33 hours after the quake hit. Five days after, on 16 March, 86 per cent of commercial airtime was taken up by public service notices – the rest were messages from companies offering help, condolence and apologies for power cuts and stock shortages.

    For full-text documents see ProQuest's eLibrary

Historical Newspapers
  1. Japan sees security in peacetime A-power; Output estimated

    By Charlotte Saikowski , Christian Science Monitor (1908-Current file). Boston, Mass.: Jun 26, 1967.

    Abstract (Summary) Japan is vigorously surging ahead in the development of atomic energy for peaceful purposes.

    Original Newspaper Image (PDF)


    New York Times (1857-1922). New York, N.Y.: Nov 25, 1891.

    Abstract (Summary) SAN FRANCISCO, Cal., Nov. 24. — Following are additional details of the Japan earthquake of Oct. 28:

    Original Newspaper Image (PDF)

  3. Japan reassesses A-power policy

    The Christian Science Monitor (1908-Current file). Boston, Mass.: May 7, 1975.

    Abstract (Summary) Japan's ambitious nuclear-power program, once considered an answer to the oil squeeze, has suffered drastic setbacks amid economic and technological troubles and especially public fears about safety.

    Original Newspaper Image (PDF)

Taken from ProQuest's Historical Newspapers.


  1. Seismic Behavior and Modeling of Anchored Nonstructural Components Considering the Influence of Cyclic Cracks

    by Watkins, Derrick Andrew, Ph.D., University of California, San Diego, 2011 , 550 pages; AAT 3458131

    Abstract (Summary)
    During an earthquake, reinforced concrete members in a building will suffer cracking that oscillates as the building dynamically deforms. Equipment that services the building, such as mechanical and electrical items, are anchored to these components, and therefore will be subjected to this dynamic environment. Despite understanding this practical loading situation, as well as recognizing that anchor load capacity is significantly reduced when an anchor is embedded in cracked concrete, there remains a gap in knowledge regarding the effect of anchorage behavior on nonstructural component response. In particular, the effect of dynamic cyclic cracking coupled with inertia-generated tension load cycling on the anchor and component response has not been studied to date.

    A new methodology involving experimental equipment and simulation tools is developed for investigating the seismic behavior of anchored nonstructural components and systems that accounts for the effects of simultaneous anchor tension load cycling and crack cycling on anchor behavior and anchored component response. To support the experimental ingredient of this work, a Cyclic Cracked Inertial Loading Rig (CCILR), Weighted Anchor Loading Laboratory Equipment (WALLE) system, and cracked concrete slabs, are designed and fabricated. Mounting the CCILR and WALLE onto a shake table results in a system that is able to simulate a concrete beam or slab from a building supporting an anchored nonstructural component. System-level shake table tests are conducted on floor mounted model nonstructural components anchored in cyclic cracks using epoxy, expansion, drop-in and undercut anchors to study the effect of a range of anchor types.

    A nonlinear, lumped hysteresis anchor model is implemented and used to simulate anchor load-displacement response for tension load cycling dominant applications. The anchor model is calibrated against single anchor tests and subsequently extended for use in a system model of the anchored nonstructural components for predicting maximum system response.

    It was determined that the load-displacement behavior of the anchorage, in particular, the ultimate displacement capacity of the anchor, plays an important role in the seismic response of tension load cycling dominated floor mounted nonstructural components. The experimental results also support the current code design philosophy for anchors, which specifies that either the anchor or the attachment should be ductile, or the anchor should be designed for a multiple of the expected load demand.

    For full-text documents see ProQuest's Dissertations & Theses Database

  2. Social media use in March 2011 Japanese Crisis: Impact on emergency preparedness advocacy

    by Stirratt, Amanda A., M.P.H., Purdue University, 2011 , 42 pages; AAT 1501917

    Abstract (Summary)
    Content analysis was used to gather nearly 6 months of Twitter messages, which were organized using Radian6 to ascertain responses about emergency preparedness before, during, and after the March 2011 crisis in Japan. This descriptive study revealed that 49% of Twitter messages were either positive or somewhat positive in their sentiment with regard to emergency preparedness and only 7% were negative or somewhat negative. Statistical analyses revealed a (multimodal) gamma distribution, such that the findings of this study provide support for the use of social media to promote emergency preparedness advocacy in times of crisis. These findings are especially beneficial to public health professionals tasked with disaster preparedness planning, mitigation, response, and recovery.

    For full-text documents see ProQuest's Dissertations & Theses Database

  3. 21st Century Civilian Nuclear Power and the Role of Small Modular Reactors

    by Taso, Firas Eugen, M.A., Tufts University, 2011 , 152 pages; AAT 1495512

    Abstract (Summary)
    Nuclear power provides benefits, such as reduced carbon emissions, low operating costs, baseload power, and energy independence. It also raises significant concerns regarding capital cost, safety, regulation, waste, public perception and proliferation. Recently there has been renewed interest in nuclear power due to small modular reactors (SMRs), that some argue could bring a "renaissance" of the industry. This thesis first presents an analysis of large-scale nuclear power focusing on benefits and concerns, and then examines the new SMR trend. It assesses whether SMRs are a game-changer for the industry towards nuclear resurgence by analyzing promising models and perceived benefits and costs of SMRs. Based on extensive literature review, 22 expert interviews and economic modeling, the conclusion is that nuclear power as an energy source should be pursued as part of a larger energy portfolio with specific government intervention, while SMRs, although likely not game-changers per se, can play a complementary role in re-inventing the industry without significant support from policy-makers.

    For full-text documents see ProQuest's Dissertations & Theses Database