In the beginning...
As time has moved on and contemporary art has moved with it,
controversy has somehow always managed to keep up. Going back to the
beginning of art historical study we can find cases of both individual
artists and groups who have rocked the artistic status quo with their
innovative contributions to the art of the day. The 20th century was no
considered to be the year modernism was born, when the proud father,
Paris-based Spanish artist Pablo Picasso (1881-1973) delivered Les
Demoiselles d'Avignon, now in the collection of the Museum of Modern
Art in New York, to an unsuspecting public.2 The shock waves sent
out by this work are without doubt easier to appreciate than the aesthetic
challenge posed by the Impressionists some decades earlier, whose gentle
images have served the greetings card industry so well.
Picasso replaced the unthreatening female nude with what appeared to be a
group portrait of prostitutes, and he did so in a style that did not echo
his Western ancestors, but that drew upon non-European art viewed by his
contemporaries as "primitive." Through the following decades, Picasso
continued his assault on the taste of the cultured classes with further
explorations of "primitivism," and most significantly with his
development, along with the Frenchman Georges Braque (1882-1963), of
Cubism. Indeed, Picasso's long life enabled him to keep up his challenge
for the best part of the century, but he was eventually superceded by
other pretenders to the crown of king maverick.
In 1915, the anarchic members of the Dada movement began to wreak havoc
in Switzerland. Their impact spread through Europe, eventually taking root
in Germany. Two of Dada's best known German proponents are Otto Dix
(1891-1969) and George Grosz (1893-1959),
whose work developed into the genre known as Neue Sachlichkeit, and whose
challenging brand of social and political satire is exemplified by Dix's
Erinnerung an die Spiegelsale von Brussel (1920).3 Such works led the
to brand their art, along with that of many of their contemporaries, as
Dadaism made its way to New York, where a key figure was the
French-American artist Marcel Duchamp (1887-1968). In 1917 he created what
is perhaps his best known work, Fountain, a urinal signed with one
of the pseudonyms under which he worked, R. Mutt.4 With this work, which
from the first exhibition of the New York Society of Independent Artists,
Duchamp simultaneously created the first ready-made and ignited the "but
is it art?" debate that continues to rage to this day.
Surrealism was born from Dada and launched in 1924 with the publication
of Manifeste du Surréalisme by André Breton (1896-1966); activity
was initially centred on Paris in the 1920's and 1930's. Surrealism's most
famous legacy is the precisely rendered, detailed fantasies of the
Spaniard Salvador Dalí (1904-89). Paintings such as Hallucination
Partielle: Six Images de Lenine sur un Piano (1931), sought not only
to challenge the viewer's taste, but also to
The Second World War took many of the Surrealists to New York, where
later in the next decade Jackson Pollock (1912-56) completed his first
drip or action painting, and assumed his role at the head of Abstract
in 1960, the
"godfather" of Pop art, Andy Warhol (1928-87), breached the boundaries
between high and low art, placing the products of popular culture and
consumer society in the revered space of the gallery with his screen
prints of food packaging and popular music and cinema icons, such as the
Ten Lizes (1963) in the Pompidou Centre in Paris.7
There are countless other controversial figures populating the art
world of the 20th century, who have shocked the public and had censors
champing at their bits, but, in noting some of the contributions of these
key players whose work has become so familiar, we can appreciate the
soothing effects of time. Furthermore we are able to see that the
controversies of recent years continue in a well-established tradition,
where current artists hope to add their names to an illustrious list of
The international, although by no means universal, appeal of art is
mirrored by its ability to provoke controversy the world over.
Significantly, the catalysts for outrage and censorship seem by and
large to be the same; countries that take pride in their liberality
and support for freedom of expression react in ways remarkably similar
to those they perceive to be repressive.
I propose to consider here some examples of recent controversies from
different corners of the globe, before focusing on the Sensation
exhibition, which began at the Royal Academy of Arts in London
(September 18th-December 28th, 1997), before travelling via the Hamburger
Bahnhof in Berlin (September 30th-February 21st, 1999) to the Brooklyn
Museum of Art in New York (October 2nd, 1999-January 9th, 2000). The
exhibition is one of the most controversial cases of attempted censorship
in recent years and raises many interesting issues related to the role of
the media, the involvement of politicians and governments in the arts,
legal issues, and matters relating to funding. Furthermore, it indicates
the type of art capable of arousing such emotions at the close of the 20th
In 1998 the German parliament became the scene of artistic debate, as
the proposed project by Hans Haacke (b. 1936) for the re-opening of the
Reichstag in Berlin was met with criticism from all political camps. The
U.S.-based German artist proposed to install a 70-foot trough, filled
with soil brought by the parliament's members from their constituencies,
on top of which was to be inscribed, in gothic letters, Der
According to Haacke, the work explores issues relating to the constitution
and the changing conception of German citizenship, but for many the work
reawakened unsavoury memories of Adolf Hitler's pronouncements on "blood
and soil". There would have been irony indeed if wariness concerned with
mimicking the National Socialists had led to policies of censorship, but
this was narrowly avoided when the installation got the go-ahead, winning
the vote 260:258.9
No stranger to controversy, the American photographer Andres Serrano
(b. 1953) found himself at the centre of a debate over an exhibition of
his work at the National Gallery of Victoria in Melbourne in 1997. The
main focus of the outrage was his work Piss Christ (1987), a
photograph of a crucifix submerged in urine, which the Catholic church had
campaigned to prevent being included in the show. Vandalism of the piece
led to the exhibition being terminated ahead of schedule while opponents
rabble-roused, seeking to highlight the use of taxpayers' money to fund
this and other such art.10 Indeed,
the Sensation show was originally destined to travel to Canberra
after New York, but, having witnessed the controversy it provoked there,
the National Gallery of Australia decided not to stage it after all, a
controversial decision which the director of the gallery, Brian Kennedy,
concedes was mishandled, and one that he acknowledges could be construed
Cuban art has been enjoying international popularity in recent years.
One interesting twist to North American-Cuban relations is the exemption
of art from the U.S.-embargo, meaning that it is legal for Americans to
buy Cuban art and ship it back home. The Bienal de La Habana, held for the
seventh time in 2001, seems positively well-established - a veteran event
amid the rash of new international art events that have sprung up in
recent years. However, some native artists who have found fame abroad must
proceed with caution on their home turf if they do not wish to incur
censorship. One such instance was at the most recent Biennial, when Tania
Bruguera was prevented from repeating her politically challenging
performance, staged at a former military prison; the inclusion of male
nudity gave the authorities a pretext for banning further
In Britain there exists an annual, institutionalized form of
controversy in the form of the Turner Prize. This competition was
established in 1984 with the aim of acknowledging and supporting the work
of contemporary artists based in the country.11 The exhibition of
work by the
short-listed artists and the announcement of the winner have become huge
media events. It is no longer solely the subject of arts programmes and
the arts pages of the broadsheets but creates a brief spell during which
art takes an unprecedented central role in the tabloid press, as the
popular newspapers strive to whip their readership into a frenzy of
outrage. The 2001 prize was won by Martin Creed and awarded by the pop
star Madonna at a glitzy ceremony, broadcast live on national television.
Creed's work in the show was Work # 227: The Lights Going On and
Off and was exactly what the title indicates; predictable jokes and
headlines ensued. The controversy surrounding the previous year's event,
which was won by the British-based German photographer Wolfgang
Tillmans, was uncharacteristically high-brow, as accusations of plagiarism
were levelled at the shortlisted painter Glenn Brown for purportedly
copying the cover of a science fiction novel. In 1999 the tabloids had a
field day, again not over the winning entry by Steve McQueen, but over
Tracey Emin's installation My Bed.12 While some Japanese
to rail against it as reactionary, expressing their disgust by jumping on
it and staging a pillow fight before being removed by security, the
nature of their objection wasn't shared by many members of the public or
the press, who took exception to this bed with its soiled sheets, strewn
with personal items, finding it depraved and devoid of artistic merit. The
final "injustice" was a disclosure of the sum paid for the work by the
British collector Charles Saatchi.
"Artists must continue the conquest of new territory and new
- Norman Rosenthal, Director of the Royal Academy of Arts,
The words of the man behind the exhibition that has caused the biggest
Sensation of recent years. Words that suggest that he had more than
an inkling of, in fact wished for, the furor that would follow. It seems
implausible, however, that he would have anticipated the scale of the
revolt. More accurately, Rosenthal was just one of the men behind the
show; the other was the advertising mogul and art collector Charles
Saatchi. The full title of the show was Sensation: Young British
Artists from the Saatchi Collection, and, while he was clearly
essential as the lender of the works, the suggestion is that Saatchi's
role was far more "hands on". The editor of Art Monthly, Patricia Bickers,
goes as far as saying that Rosenthal was only "notionally" the curator,
adding that "no one really doubts that it is in every sense Charles
Charles Saatchi is something of a paradoxical figure. He is a
notoriously private man, but one who is nonetheless keen for his presence
to be felt, and indeed acknowledged. While on occasion his generosity may
conceivably go unnoticed, his bequest to regional British museums was
well publiciced, and indeed well documented through the book, The Saatchi
Gift. He made his money in advertising with his brother Maurice as Saatchi
& Saatchi, a background that it has been suggested is reflected clearly in
his taste in art.15
support of some artists has made their reputation overnight, while the
experience for others of his buying and commissioning has been less
positive - some have fallen from favour and he has abruptly sold all his
holdings of their work. He is neither a straight-forward dealer nor a
collector, but, as Bickers suggests, both. His power is apparent not least
through the way in which he has effectively defined "Brit art," and it is
a power that extends well beyond his effect on individual artists and the
art market. He has contrived to set himself up as a rival to Tate Modern
by owning precisely what they lack and has been granted access to
prestigious exhibition spaces, at home and abroad, in which to showcase
his art. In the words of the art historian Julian Stallabrass, "What
Cosimo de Medici was to quattrocento Florence, Charles Saatchi is to late
The old adage "any publicity is good publicity" will of course be
familiar to this advertising man. And it is a mantra that the institutions
were soon to make their own: for the Royal Academy the show proved to be
one of the most popular shows of the last 10 years, while at the Brooklyn
Museum it was second only to Monet and the Mediterranean for
attendance figures in the last decade. But Sensation not only
pushed Charles Saatchi and the museums firmly into the spotlight; it also
brought attention to some of the artists whose work is in his collection.
Some figures already enjoyed a high media profile often by having already
played a part in some other controversy. This time too the focus - from
both within and beyond the art world - was selective and essentially of a
Examining the exhibition catalogue, it is interesting that many of the
artists - there are 42 in total17 -
are far from "notorious," and their work is unlikely to bring them any
such accolade. The works include a significant number of paintings, and
while Jenny Saville's works may pose a challenge because of her eschewal
of models of conventional beauty, the clear, bold, colorful works of Gary
Hume, Britain's representative at the 48th Venice Biennale, seem
In the place of
Tracey Emin's bed was her tent, embroidered with the names of all her
sexual partners, Everyone I Have Ever Slept With 1963-1995.19 The evident skill in
the crafting of the piece does not save it from the critics of the show,
and indeed of contemporary art, whose favored argument is to question
whether such works "merit" the title of art.
The crescendo begins with the more clearly distressing Dead Dad
(1996-97) by Ron Mueck, an eerily life-like silicone model lying
prostrate on the floor, and Self (1991)20 by Marc Quinn - a
perspex sculpture of the artist's head, filled with his own blood and
displayed in a fridge, which disturbs in the tradition of the Surrealists.
And then we reach the Chapman brothers and Damien Hirst. The shock tactics
favoured by Jake and Dinos Chapman are deemed puerile and infantile by
their detractors; Great Deeds against the Dead (1994)21 presents us with
mutilation and castration, Ubermensch (1995)22, with its model of
the scientist Stephen Hawking about to plummet off the edge of a cliff in
his wheelchair, favors cruelty and insensitivity over political
correctness, while Zygotic Acceleration, Bio-genetic, De-sublimated
Libidinal Model (Enlarged x 1000) (1995)23 and
Tragic Anatomies (1995)24
feature genetic freaks made up of girl mannequins morphed together, many
with the Chapmans' trademark phallus nose and rectum mouth. Damien Hirst
found controversy and fame in Britain for his practice of cutting up dead
animals and preserving them in formaldehyde when he won the Turner Prize
in 1995. Several of these works are featured in the show, including
perhaps the most famous exemplar, the shark, entitled The
Physical Impossibility of Death in the Mind of Someone Living
Some of these works sparked controversy, but it was in fact two other
pieces, by different artists in London and New York, which caused the
In London it was a painting by Marcus Harvey, a monochrome canvas
entitled MH (1996-98).26 The image, made up
of prints from a plaster cast of a child's hand, depicted the infamous
imprisoned child murderer Myra Hindley.27 The work became the
subject of a fierce tabloid campaign, with one newspaper paying for the
mother of one of Hindley's victims to attend the show. The media was
successful in fueling a frenzy, and ink and eggs were thrown at the
painting by a member of the public. The vandalized canvas was taken away
and cleaned, after which it was reinstated, behind glass, with the Royal
Academy preaching the defense of freedom of expression.
It was Chris Ofili who found himself at the center of the storm in New
York. Ofili had already experienced controversy when he too won the
Turner Prize in 1998. His intricately patterned mixed-media works draw on
his Nigerian heritage and are characterized by their inclusion of elephant
dung. The focus of the outrage was The Holy Virgin Mary (1996): a
mixed media painting/collage depicting a black madonna, surrounded by
images of buttocks, with the addition of the ubiquitous dung. Ofili stayed
well out of the affray as his work was branded blasphemous.
The key player in the New York fracas was the then mayor Rudolph
Giuliani, who condemned the exhibition as "sick stuff" - a judgment
passed prior to the opening and without him having seen the show. Giuliani
threatened to withdraw funding from the Brooklyn Museum of Art where
Sensation was held, and to revoke the Museum's lease. On opening
day, protestors, including a large number from the Catholic League,
confronted long lines of visitors - there were a record 9200 people on the
opening day - while the day before the New York Civil Liberties Union had
led a demonstration in defense of the Museum. Giuliani's supporters saw
him as a savior of moral and social standards, while his attackers accused
him of intolerance, heard echoes of Hitler's terminology in his choice of
the term "sick," and levelled charges of political diversion tactics.
Steven C. Dubin, writing in Art in America, observes: "Art critic,
landlord, social worker and sponsorship scold: Giuliani tried on all these
hats and more, desperately hoping to find one that fit."28
It became a media circus - one inflammatory statistic states that the
New York Times gave the event more front page coverage than it had the
and William Donohue, president of the Catholic League, extracted all the
coverage they possibly could. Without doubt, Giuliani's antics unwittingly
contributed far more to raising the exhibition's profile than the Museum's
own intentionally provocative publicity campaign. But as Giuliani issued
threats the debate took on new proportions and a legal battle ensued. The
Museum brought in the famous First Amendment specialist lawyer, Floyd
Abrams. He successfully upheld the Museum's right to freedom of expression
and continued funding was assured.30 There is pessimism
in some camps as to the implications this case may hold for the future:
Glenn Lowry, director of the Museum of Modern Art in New York makes the
gloomy prediction of self-censorship on the part of museums that are keen
to avoid a comparable situation.31 Unfortunately, by
definition, this will remain imperceptible to those outside these
But with Giuliani defeated although by no means abated32, a second wave of
controversy struck. The Museum's funding of the show came under scrutiny
and the focus shifted from the mayor's tirade against the use of
taxpayers' money for the support of this kind of art, to accusations that
a public body was being used for long-term private financial gain, namely
for the benefit of Charles Saatchi and the auction house Christie's. The
presentation of the Brooklyn Museum as a black sheep, with the suggestion
that its practices were unusual, is in fact far from the truth. In
ARTnews, Patricia Failing explains that the implications of corrupt
practice hinged on donations of money by Saatchi, by dealers whose
artists' work was included in the show, and by Christie's, who also
enjoyed special access to the Museum for the purpose of entertaining their
clients. Failing goes on to demonstrate that these practices are standard,
citing as examples key North American art institutions and drawing on the
testimonies of their directors.33 It is, however, this
second wave that has already left a clear and permanent legacy, with the
American Association of Museum's decision to draft ethical guidelines on
exhibition funding in order to avoid similar mud-slinging in the future.34
...and what came after... lessons learnt?
"Reinventing the wheel is one of our favourite pastimes." - Lucy R.
An apt point in many respects when considering the aftermath of the
Sensation exhibition. The drafting of ethical guidelines for
museums and galleries aside, as yet many possible knock-on effects, either
positive or negative, remain unclear. As far as the art and the artists
are concerned, the level of attention was unsustainable, and has
inevitably subsided. For some it was a notoriety they already knew, while
for others it was perhaps the 15 minutes that Andy Warhol alloted us all.
The predictions concerning the longevity of the careers of these young
British artists remains a point of debate. Members of the camp of
conservative critics are keen to point out the lack of originality in
their work, arguing that their use of pornography, mutilation, decay, and
blasphemy merely echo that of the Surrealists and Dadaists. Others have
suggested that the topicality of their art will proclude durability36, as will its
dependency on the
Saatchi has sneaked back out of the limelight...but not too far. In an
article in the French journal Art Press it was reported that, a
year after Sensation, in a sale of 130 lots from his collection,
85% of the works sold for double their catalogue price.38 As his fortune
grows, so seemingly does his ambition, with reports appearing in the press
of plans to open a Saatchi Museum just down the river from Tate Modern.39 In the meantime, he
continues to court controversy. In March 2001 he found himself at the
centre of another tabloid-led campaign, when the show I Am a Camera
was labelled "a revolting exhibition of perversion under the guise of art"
by the News of the World.40 Photographs by
Tierney Gearon of her children were branded pornographic and the police
attempted unsuccessfully to enforce their removal from the show.41 The show inevitably
enjoyed a prolonged run - one lesson at least has apparently been
While not on the scale of the Brooklyn Museum, the show brought the
Royal Academy plenty of publicity. It is interesting to note, however, the
reception of their first contemporary show since then, Apocalypse:
Beauty and Horror in Contemporary Art, which was billed as the big
sequel.42 While it
caused a certain stir, mainly amongst Catholic groups, due to the
inclusion of the Italian artist Maurizio Cattelan's La Nona Ora,
depicting the pope struck down by a meteorite, it essentially failed to
deliver on the controversy front. In recent weeks, however, there has been
some stir over the resignation of the chairman of the Royal Academy Trust,
Sir Anthony Tennant, who stepped down amidst accusations that he fixed
commissions during his time as chairman of Christie's (1993-96), along
with the former chairman of Sotheby's, Alfred Taubman, who has been found
guilty and sentenced to one year in prison and a fine of £5 million.
Tennant has refused to go to the U.S. for trial, and would be arrested if
he entered the U.S.43
Steven Dubin in his discussion of Giuliani's role in the
Sensation scandal in New York suggests that while the media rarely
initiates the fight, it can be relied upon to "simplify, amplify and
In Britain, certain sections of the media have, on occasion, acted as
instigators, with tabloids mounting their own "witch hunts". Dubin's point
is nonetheless an interesting one as, in laying the blame at Giuliani's
door, he raises questions concerning the relationship between politics and
art. In many respects, in the case of Giuliani, art can be seen as merely
a means by which he was able to launch a moral crusade, yet elsewhere
Giuliani has acknowledged the economic worth of art. Without doubt in
Britain this is one of the key reasons for the government's increased
interest in art, where a thriving art scene is taken to represent social
and economic regeneration. The British Prime Minister Tony Blair has
sought of late to associate himself whenever and wherever possible with
the contemporary British art scene.45 Taste in art and
political persuasion will determine whether it is in the "trendy dynamism"
or the "brash vacuity" that we assume Blair finds a fitting metaphor for
the policies of his New Labour government. But significantly it is
precisely the Sensation artists that we see being absorbed into the
- Dates in the introductory section are from: Chilvers, Ian. Dictionary of 20th century art. Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press, 1998.
- Pablo Picasso: http://www.moma.org/docs/collection/paintsculpt/c40.htm Les Demoiselles d'Avignon (1907). Held in the collection of the Museum of Modern Art in New York.
- Otto Dix: Erinnerung an die Spiegelsale von Brussel (souvenir de la galerie des glaces à Bruxelles) (1920). Held in the collection of the Pompidou Centre in Paris.
- Marcel Duchamp: Fountain. There are different versions of the work held in the Pompidou Centre in Paris (click here), Museum of Modern Art in San Francisco (click here), and Tate Modern in London.
- Salvador Dalí: Hallucination Partielle: Six Images de Lenine sur un Piano (1931). Held in the Pompidou Centre, Paris.
- One example is Painting (Silver Over Black, White, Yellow and Red) (1948). Held in the Pompidou Centre in Paris.
- Andy Warhol: Ten Lizes (1963). Held in the Pompidou Centre in Paris.
- An image of the work is available on the German government website at http://www.bundestag.de/bau_kunst/kunstwerke/haacke/index.html.
- Smith, Lee. Lee Smith on Hans Haacke: aye raising. Artforum (U.S.), vol. 38, no. 9, May 2000, pp. 43.
- In the U.S., Serrano's work assumed a pole position in debates regarding the National Endowment for the Arts (NEA) funding. Articles dealing with this topic include:
Georgieff, Anthony. Robert Mapplethorpe: text and context. Katalog (Denmark), vol. 9, no. 2, Winter 1997, pp. 38-9.
Golub, Adrienne M. Political porn for the masses. Art Papers (U.S.), vol. 23, no. 3, May-June 1999, pp. 12.
Morgan, Ann Lee. Cultural commitments: rethinking arts funding policy. Afterimage (U.S.), vol. 23, no. 4, Jan.-Feb. 1996, pp. 12-15.
All three articles mention the controversy surrounding NEA funding for the work of American photographer Robert Mapplethorpe.
- The Tate Galleries' website provides a history of the Turner prize at http://www.tate.org.uk/home/faqs/turner.htm.
- Tracey Emin: My Bed (1999). This artist is represented by White Cube Gallery, London.
- Rosenthal, Norman: "The blood must continue to flow" (pp 8-11) in the companion book to the Sensation exhibition: Rosenthal, Norman et al. Sensation: Young British Artists from the Saatchi Collection. London: Thames and Hudson. 1997.
- Bickers, Patricia. Sense & Sensation. Art Monthly (U.K.), no. 211, Nov. 1997, pp. 1-6.
- Lucie-Smith, Edward. The Saatchi decade and beyond. Art Review (U.K.), vol. 52, Feb. 2000, pp. 36-9.
- Stallabrass, Julian. High art lite at the Royal Academy. Third Text (U.K.), no. 42, Spring 1998, pp. 79-84. The author is quoting Louisa Buck from Moving targets: a user's guide to British art now (London: Tate Gallery Publications, 1998). For an in-depth assessment by Stallabrass of the contemporary British art scene, see his book High Art Lite (London/New York: Verso, 1999).
- The artists whose work was presented in the Sensation exhibition are: Darren Almond, Richard Billingham, Glenn Brown, Simon Callery, Jake and Dinos Chapman, Adam Chodzko, Mat Collishaw, Keith Coventry, Peter Davies, Tracey Emin, Paul Finnegan, Mark Francis, Alex Hartley, Marcus Harvey, Mona Hatoum, Damien Hirst, Gary Hume, Michael Landy, Abigail Lane, Langlands and Bell, Sarah Lucas, Martin Maloney, Jason Martin, Alain Miller, Ron Mueck, Chris Ofili, Jonathan Parsons, Richard Patterson, Simon Patterson, Hadrian Pigott, Marc Quinn, Fiona Rae, James Rielly, Jenny Saville, Yinka Shonibare, Jane Simpson, Sam Taylor-Wood, Gavin Turk, Mark Wallinger, Gillian Wearing, Rachel Whiteread, and Cerith Wyn Evans. (Each of the two-artist duos is counted as a single contributor.)
- Gary Hume: Water Painting (1999). This artist is represented by White Cube Gallery, London.
- Tracey Emin: Everyone I Have Ever Slept With 1963-1995 (1995). This artist is represented by White Cube Gallery, London.
- Marc Quinn: Self (1991). This artist is represented by White Cube Gallery, London.
- Jake and Dinos Chapman: Great Deeds against the Dead (1994). These artists are represented by White Cube Gallery, London.
- Jake and Dinos Chapman: Ubermensch (1995). These artists are represented by White Cube Gallery, London.
- Jake and Dinos Chapman: Zygotic Acceleration, Bio-genetic, De-sublimated Libidinal Model (Enlarged x 1000) (1995). These artists are represented by White Cube Gallery, London.
- Jake and Dinos Chapman: Tragic Anatomies (1995). These artists are represented by White Cube Gallery, London.
- Damien Hirst: The Physical Impossibility of Death in the Mind of Someone Living (1991). This artist is represented by White Cube Gallery, London.
- Marcus Harvey: http://www.whitecube.com/images/artists/mah/mah_lrg_006.jpg" target="blank"> Myra Hindley and her partner Ian Brady were together known as the Moors Murderers, and were found guilty in 1966 for their killings of children and were sentenced to multiple sentences of life imprisonment.
- Dubin, Steven C. How "Sensation" became a scandal. Art in America (U.S.), vol. 88, no. 1, Jan. 2000, pp. 53-5, 57, 59. There is a detailed study of this topic in Rothfield, Lawrence (ed.). Unsettling Sensation: arts-policy lessons from the Brooklyn Museum of Art controversy. New Brunswick, New Jersey and London: Rutgers University Press, 2001.
- Kimball, Roger. The elephant in the gallery or the lessons of "Sensation". New Criterion (U.S.), vol. 18, no. 3, Nov. 1999, pp. 4-8.
- While this is the most famous case, Giuliani's opponents are keen to note that it is far from unique, stating that since his tenure began, Giuliani has been implicated in 21 cases besides this one concerned with the violation of the First Amendment. (MacRitchie, Lynn. Ofili's glittering icons. Art in America (U.S.), vol. 88, no. 1, Jan. 2000, pp. 96-101).
- Rosenbaum, Lee. The battle of Brooklyn ends, the controversy continues. Art in America (U.S.), vol. 88, no. 6, June 2000, pp. 39, 41, 43.
- Since Sensation there have been other, similar actions taken by Giuliani; one such case was his denouncement of Renée Cox's Yo Mama's Last Supper as anti-Catholic (Cembalest, Robin. Thank you, Mr. Mayor. ARTnews (U.S.), vol. 100, no. 4, April 2001, pp. 59).
- Failing, Patricia. Following the money. ARTnews (U.S.), vol. 99, no. 1, Jan. 2000, pp. 150-3.
- The controversial marriage between commercial interest and exhibition sponsorship remains an issue for debate, although condemnation tends to come primarily from those who are concerned about the possible jeopardization of artistic integrity. Failing (ibid) notes some recent cases of controversial exhibtion sponsorship and Eleanor Heartney focuses on the Giorgio Armani show at the Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum in New York (Annals of sponsorship: the Guggenheim's new clothes, Art in America (U.S.), vol. 89, no. 2, Feb. 2001, pp. 61, 63). This topic is also discussed by Michelle Falkenstein in And now a word about the sponsors, ARTnews (U.S.), vol. 99, no. 5, May 2000, pp. 218-22.
- Lippard, Lucy R. "Too political? Forget it" in Wallis, Brian et al. Art matters: how the culture wars changed America. New York; London: New York University Press, 1999.
- MacRitchie op cit
- Stallabrass op cit.
- Benhamou-Huet, Judith. Sensation-mongering. Art Press (France), no. 252, Dec. 1999, pp. 16
- Gibbons, Fiachra. "Saatchi uses sharks to attack the Tate" on the Guardian website.
- Quotation from "Controversial photos stay put" on the BBC website.
- Lydiate, Henry. I Am a Camera: an inspector calls. Art Monthly (U.K.), no. 245, April 2001, pp. 48-9. The author, a barrister who writes a regular column on art law for Art Monthly, discusses the legal issues concerned with the case.
- An exhibition catalogue is available in Rosenthal, Norman et al. Apocalypse. London: Royal Academy of Arts, distributed by Thames & Hudson, 2000.
- The figures are taken from reports in The Times (April 24, 2002, and April 25, 2002).
- Dubin op cit.
- One of many articles on this subject: Tregaskis, Kate. Creative Britain inc. Art Monthly (U.K.), no. 246, May 2001, pp. 52.