- An automatic gear-shifting strategy for manual transmissions
B. Mashadi, A. Kazemkhani and R. Baghaei Lakeh.
Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers I, Journal of Systems and Control Engineering, Vol. 221, No. 5, 2007, pp. 757-768.
Based on two different criteria, namely the engine working conditions and the driver's intention, the governing parameters in decision making for gear shifting of an automated manual transmission are discussed. The gear-shifting strategy was designed by taking into consideration the effects of these parameters, with the application of a fuzzy control method. The controller structure is formed in two layers. In the first layer, two fuzzy inference modules are used to determine the necessary outputs. In the second layer a fuzzy inference module makes the decision of shifting by upshift, downshift, or maintain commands. The behaviour of the fuzzy controller is examined by making use of ADVISOR software. It is shown that at different driving conditions the controllers make correct decisions for gear shifting accounting for the dynamic requirements of the vehicle. It is also shown that the controller based on both the engine state and the driver's intention eliminates unnecessary shiftings that are present when the intention is overlooked. A microtrip is designed in which a required speed in the form of a step function is demanded for the vehicle on level or sloping roads. Both strategies for the vehicle to reach the maximum speed starting from rest allow the gear shift to be made consecutively. Considerable differences are observed between the two strategies in the deceleration phase. The engine-state strategy is less sensitive to downshift, taking even unnecessary upshift decisions. The state intention strategy, however, interprets the driver's intention correctly for decreasing speed and utilizes engine brake torque to reduce the vehicle speed in a shorter time.
- Dynamic performance analysis of pump impeller rotational speed hydraulic torque-converter
Jun Jin, Hui Zhang and Zheng-Mao Ye.
Jie Neng Ji Shu (Energy Conservation Technology), Vol. 25, No. 3, May 2007, pp. 231-233.
A dynamic mathematic model is presented in this paper for pump impeller rotational speed hydraulic torque-converter. Computer simulation and test are conducted based on the model. What are discussed in the paper provides with general significance for the analysis and application of pump impeller rotational speed hydraulic torque-converter.
- High-pressure behavior of toroidal CVT fluid for automobile
Tribology International.Vol.40, pp. 233-238. Feb. 2007, pp.
Practical toroidal-type continuously variable transmission (t-CVT) is subjected to extremely severe operating conditions, viz., maximum contact pressure is very high at 4GPa, rolling speed exceeds over 30m/s and lubricant temperature goes up over 140 deg C. Traction measurements were recently made at wide range of contact pressures, oil temperatures and rolling speeds by USCAR Group. The objective of this research is to investigate high-pressure rheology of the traction characteristics at extremely severe EHL contact conditions. The effects of contact pressure and temperature on maximum traction coefficient were evaluated using the phase diagram and the liquid/solid transition lubrication diagram.
- Impulsive response of an automatic transmission system with multiple clearances: Formulation, simulation and experiment
Ashley R. Crowther, Rajendra Singh, Nong Zhang and Chris Chapman.
Journal of Sound and Vibration, Vol. 306, No. 3-5, 9 Oct. 2007, pp. 444-466.
Impulsive responses in geared systems with multiple clearances are studied when the mean torque excitation and system load change abruptly, with application to a vehicle driveline with an automatic transmission. First, torsional lumped-mass models of the planetary and differential gear sets are formulated using matrix elements. The model is then reduced to address tractable nonlinear problems while successfully retaining the main modes of interest. Second, numerical simulations for the nonlinear model are performed for transient conditions and a typical driving situation that induces an impulsive behaviour simulated. However, initial conditions and excitation and load profiles have to be carefully defined before the model can be numerically solved. It is shown that the impacts within the planetary or differential gears may occur under combinations of engine, braking and vehicle load transients. Our analysis shows that the shaping of the engine transient by the torque converter before reaching the clearance locations is more critical. Third, a free vibration experiment is developed for an analogous driveline with multiple clearances and three experiments that excite different response regimes have been carried out. Good correlations validate the proposed methodology.
- Integration of structure and control using an evolutionary approach: an application to the optimal concurrent design of a CVT
Edgar A. Portilla-Flores, Efren Mezura-Montes, Jaime Alvarez-Gallegos, Carlos A. Coello-Coello and Carlos A. Cruz-Villar.
International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering, Vol. 71, No. 8, 20 Aug. 2007, pp. 883-901.
In this paper, a concurrent design methodology to formulate the mechatronic design problem is presented. The methodology proposes to state the mechatronic design problem as a dynamic optimization problem. In order to explain the methodology, the concurrent design of pinion-rack continuously variable transmission (CVT) is carried out. Two optimization techniques, one based on a mathematical programming method and the other based on a novel evolutionary approach, are used to solve it. The behaviour of both approaches is compared, based on quality and the computational time required by each of them in a common platform.
- Key technique of dual clutch transmission control system
Guangqiang Wu, Weibin Yang and Datong Qin.
Jixie Gongcheng Xuebao (Chinese Journal of Mechanical Engineering), Vol. 43, No. 2, Feb. 2007, pp. 13-21.
The existing state of dual clutch transmission (DCT) starting control technique is summarized from starting kinetic model of clutch, control strategy of clutch engaging speed and tracking performance of clutch actuator respectively, moreover, a method which can further improve the starting performance is put forward. Shift scheduling is summarized to four kinds, which are based on experience, constraint condition, intelligent compensating and comprehensive intelligence respectively, then, the relative merits of every shift scheduling are analyzed, furthermore, methods which can optimize the comprehensive intelligence shift scheduling is presented. Methods which have applied to increase shift quality are summarized, besides, approaches which can further improve the shift quality are put forward. At last, progress of digital simulation which has been applied in the performance of DCT research is summarized, in addition, application method that hardware in the loop (HIL) applied to study DCT control system is analyzed.
- Latest advances in involute planetary gear transmission technology
Zhen-Rong Zhu, Li-Dong Jiang and Shan Chang.
Reneng Dongli Gongcheng/Journal of Engineering for Thermal Energy and Power, Vol. 22, No. 4, July-Aug. 2007, pp. 351-356.
The classification and specific features of planetary gears and the latest research findings concerning their transmission efficiency, uniform loading, vibration and noise abatement are described with the current research results of some scholars both at home and abroad being summarized. As to the calculation of their transmission efficiency, the method most widely used is based on transmission ratios. For some special structures, the use of certain specific methods may greatly simplify the calculation process. Regarding the research of uniform loading, outlined are several kinds of typical uniform-load mechanisms and research achievements of some Chinese and foreign academics. As for the research in vibration abatement and noise reduction of planetary gear transmission devices, mainly presented are the dynamic models and methods for solving dynamic responses. Finally, it is noted that major problems due for further research include: planetary gear transmission dynamics, low vibration and noise planetary-gear transmission units and the design of the above units in the high capacity category.
- Metal-metal friction characteristics and the transmission efficiency of a metal V-belt-type continuously variable transmission
K. Narita and M. Priest.
Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers J,
pp. 11-26. Feb. 2007, pp. Journal of Engineering Tribology.
Vol. 221, no. J1.
The influence of metal-metal friction characteristics on the efficiency of a continuously variable transmission (CVT) of a metal pushing V-belt type was experimentally investigated using a commercial CVT unit of a metal belt assembly and pulley design. The experiments for transmission efficiency were carried out, varying the clamping force on the secondary pulley from 10.5 to 34.6 kN and the speed ratio from 2.36 (reduction ratio) to 0.44 (overdrive ratio). In order to analyse the metal-metal friction characteristics of each contact pair, a ring-on-disc tribometer was developed. Fluids giving a higher transmittable CVT torque capacity of CVT were found to have the potential for decreasing the maximum required pulley clamping force, resulting in the reduction of overall power loss in the CVT unit. The transmission efficiency of the CVT decreased under an overdrive speed ratio and lower load condition. The maximum difference in the efficiency between all the commercial automatic transmission and CVT fluids tested at the same pulley clamping force condition reached 3 per cent. This number depends on the friction losses caused by slipping behaviour between the belt segments and pulley, the segments and band, and between the bands. Furthermore, mathematical modelling of the friction loss in the belt was developed. Results calculated by this model were similar to those obtained experimentally.
- Numerical analysis on stator flow field in a torque converter
Wei Li, Da-Zhi He and Yu-Xue Pan.
Ji Xie She Ji Yu Yan Jiu (Machine Design and Research), Vol. 23, No. 4, Aug. 2007, pp. 55-57.
Numerical analysis on flow field is the key to design an advanced torque converter. Based on the mixing-plane technology, the calculation model of a torque converter was built. Using the method of CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) simulated the stator flow field, and the results were validated by experimental data. The flow field characteristic, the distribution of velocity and pressure in the stator were analyzed. The external performance of the torque converter was also calculated.
- Optimization Control of Low Fuel Consumption Ensuring Driving Performance on Engine and Continuously Variable Transmission
WSEAS Transactions on Systems, Vol. 6, No. 6, June 2007, pp. 1102-1109.
Concern for the environment has recently led to very severe regulations on fuel consumption and exhaust emissions. Especially fuel consumption has become more important index which represents technology of car makers. This paper therefor proposes a scheme to minimize rate of fuel consumption by a direct fuel injection engine used by combination with a continuously variable transmission. Target values for the engine and the transmission which minimize fuel consumption ensuring driving performance is calculated based on the nonlinear optimization method. The engine and the transmission are controlled cooperatively. The simulation in the acceleration test and the 10-15 mode test showed that the proposed method is effective to achieve low fuel consumption ensuring driving performance.
- Optimization of the tribological performance of rectangular seals in automotive transmissions
M. Gronitzki and G. W. G. Poll.
Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers J, Vol. , No. , pp. 259-270. 2007, pp. Journal of Engineering Tribology. Vol. 221, no. 3.
Rectangular seals - a special type of face seals - are currently used in rotating connections of automatic automotive transmissions (double clutch transmissions, continuously variable transmissions, and 6-automated transmission) for the oil pressure supply of rotating control and actuator elements. Friction losses of several kilowatts can occur in the sealing system, causing a considerable reduction in efficiency. As a result of ongoing progress in power train design, sliding speeds and fluid pressures continue to increase. Therefore, due to friction related temperature rise in the sealing contact, extensive oil carbonization may occur. For both the reasons, developing friction optimized seals is crucial. For cost and design reasons grey cast iron rings are more and more substituted by modern, high temperature resistant thermoplastics. These materials also exhibit better friction and wear performance which can further be improved by adding polytetrafluorethylen or graphite. Because of their lower stiffness compared with metallic components, special thoughts have to be given to the design of thermoplastic rectangular seals. This paper describes how an improved geometry with optimized friction and wear performance was achieved by combining experimental investigations and numerical calculations on thermomechanical deflections.
- Research on the planetary ringy gear transmission and its application
Zhong-Fan Xiang and Jin-Ge Wang.
Ji Xie She Ji Yu Yan Jiu (Machine Design and Research), Vol. 23, No. 4, Aug. 2007, pp. 48-50, 76.
A kind of new mechanical transmission-the planetary ringy gear transmission is introdueed. This transmission mechanism is mainly composed of a planetary gear and a closed structure consisting of two racks and two semi-inner gear wheels, the planetary gear meshes respectively with the racks and inner gear wheels and drives this mechanism to reciprocate linearly. The calculating formulae for the speed and the acceleration of the tie rod and the ringy gear crosshead are induced based on the kinetic model of the transmission mechanism. The small-scale prototype of the planetary ringy gear non-beam overground unit of the pumping system in the field is carried out based on the scheme design, and the numeric analysis and the experimentation research on the kinetic character of the small-scale prototype are presented. The research proves that this transmission mechanism possesses the excellent kinetic character.
- Simulation and analysis of synchronisation and engagement on manual transmission gearbox
Yen-Chen Liu and Ching-Huan Tseng.
International Journal of Vehicle Design, Vol. 43, No. 1-2-3-4, 2007, pp. 200-220.
This paper presents a dynamic simulation and analysis model of the synchroniser, which is mainly used to avoid the abnormal impact during shifting in a Manual Transmission (MT) gearbox. Because the complicated mechanism and random engagement of the synchroniser occur in a short time, it is difficult to realise the synchronisation process by experiment. Using ADAMS(TM), not only the entire shift process but also two minor phase modules, separate from the entire shift process, can all be constructed to realise the synchronised action and random meshing between the sleeve and the clutch gear. After verifying the results from the simulation model, the paper discusses the influence of cone surface abrasion on synchronisation and the random meshing process. The results described here can help to understand the synchronisation process as well as it provides a way for improving two major demands, vehicle operational comfort and the lifespan of the synchroniser in a MT gearbox.
- dSPACE based motor control system of hybrid electrical vehicle AMT
Gui-He Qin, Jin-Dong Zhang, Wei Fan, De-Xin Luan, Yong-Jun Li and Shu-Xing Chen.
Jisuanji Gongcheng yu Yingyong (Computer Engineering and Applications), Vol. 42, No. 28, 1 Oct. 2006, pp. 198-200.
In the process of developing motor drove AMT(Automated Manual Transmission) of Hybrid Electrical Vehecle, one of the key work is to adjust and control the selecting motor, the gear shifting motor and the clutch motor. Here, with MATLAB/Simulink, the PID controlling arithmetic and the controlling system models of the moters are built. For the real-time code can begenerated with the dSPACE Real-Time Workshop DS1401/1501, and the workshop has hardware interface with the controlled systems, it can be directly connected to the actual system. With the workshop a HIL (Hardware In the Loop) simulating and testing system of the AMT is implemented. It can be used to analyze motor control method. At last, some test results are illustrated. The system has been successfully apply to the development of a HybridElectrical Vehecle.
- Lubricant Technology for Dual Clutch Transmissions
The advent of the dual clutch transmission, which combines the performance advantages and hardware systems of both manual and conventional automatic transmission designs, has led to the development of new lubricant technology. A dual clutch transmission lubricant requires a new, specialized additive technology to meet the unique, often competitive, requirements of the different elements of the hardware system: specific clutch performance requirements related to the wet clutches along with high load-carrying and thermal stability associated with the manual transmission. We report the development of specialized lubricant technology that can be tailored to the specific requirements of the next-generation, dual clutch transmissions. Features of the new lubricant technology for dual clutch transmission fluid include: excellent wet clutch friction performance, excellent anti-shudder friction durability, high thermal and oxidative stability, high load-carrying ability, excellent bearing performance, strong anti-corrosion performance, and excellent compatibility. This paper will concentrate on the frictional performance of the wet clutch. This new hardware, which acts as both the vehicle launch and gear-shifting device, is the most critical component addressed by the new fluid technology.
- Mechanical behaviour simulation for synchromesh mechanism improvements
L. Lovas, D. Play, J. Marialigeti and J. F. Rigal.
Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers D, Journal of Automobile Engineering, Vol. 220, No. D7, July 2006, pp. 919-945.
This paper deals with the synchromesh behaviour of the manual car gearbox. Firstly, the state of the art on Borg-Warner-type synchronizers is presented. Then, the gear-changing process is studied and eight main operating phases are defined. The phases are described using classical tribological, mechanics, and thermodynamics theories. Models are interconnected to describe synchronizer behaviour and they are included in a numerical simulation software. Measured data are compared with the results of simulation software. Then, stick-slip phenomenon during gear changing is studied. Stick-slip is supposed to be present in two contact zones: sleeve splines and the synchronizer cone. The effects in both zones are discussed. Finally, the double bump phenomenon is studied. Double bump is assumed to be the maximum axial operating force coming from short successive phases at the end of the gear-changing process. Due to the angular integer division of splines and to the non-definite angular position of mechanical parts, sliding sleeve displacement into the ring and gear claw clutch splines gives secondary angular rotation and large increases in the axial operating force. The model can explain large variations and random dispersion of the measured double bump force peaks.
- VW makes a transmission shift
Diana T. Kurylko.
Automotive News Europe, Vol. 11, No. 14, 10 July 2006, pp. 19.
WOLFSBURG - Volkswagen brand plans to replace all of its transverse-mounted automatic transmissions with its direct-shift gearbox over the next five years. The direct-shift gearbox, which VW calls DSG, is VW's version of a dual-clutch transmission. It offers improved fuel economy, smoother shifting and greater reliability compared with a standard automatic, says Wolfgang Bernhard, VW brand chairman. Bernhard sees dual-clutch technology as a way to help VW cars compete better against rivals. Ford of Europe plans to introduce dual-clutch transmissions in mid-2007.
- Design and implementation of clutch-by-wire system for automated manual transmissions
S. E. Moon, M. S. Kim, H. Yeo, et al.
International Journal of Vehicle Design, Vol. 36, No. 1, 2004, pp. 83-100.
With the growing traffic density and increasing comfort requirements, the automation of the drive train will gain importance in vehicles. The automatic clutch actuation relieves the drivers especially in urban driving and stop-and-go traffic conditions. This paper describes the dynamic modelling of a clutch actuator and clutch spring. The dynamic model of the clutch system is developed using MATLAB/Simulink, and evaluated by experimental data using a test rig. This performance simulator is useful to develop the clutch-by-wire (CBW) system for an automated manual transmission (AMT). The electromechanical type CBW system is also implemented as an automatic clutch for AMT. The prototype of the CBW system is designed and implemented systematically, and composed of an electric motor, worm gear and crank mechanism. The test rig is developed to perform the basic function test of the automatic clutch, and the developed prototype is validated by the experimental data employing the test rig.
- Electronic Differential on the New Ferrari F430
Auto Technology, Vol. 4, 2004, pp. 16.
Ferrari introduces an electronic differential on the new mid-engine F430. The device enables the transfer of massive torque levels to the road under extremely high cornering forces, thus eliminating wheel spin. The electronic differential, nicknamed E diff, consists of three main groups: a high-pressure hydraulic system shared with the sequential transmission, a control system including valves, sensors and an electronic control unit, and a mechanical unit housed in the gearbox. The torque is continuously distributed between the wheels via two sets of friction discs, one for each drive shaft, controlled by a hydraulic actuator. The amount of torque actually transmitted depends on the driving conditions. This is the first application of such a system, which was developed in Formula 1, on a production car. The F430 also introduces an all-new 90DG V8 engine, with a displacement of 4308 cc, to replace the former V8 3.6. The engine has a four-valve cylinder head instead of the five-valve arrangement of the previous unit. Website: www.ferrari.com.
- Multiple engagement wet clutch heat transfer model
R. A. Tatara and P. Payvar.
Numerical Heat Transfer A, Vol. 42, No. 3, Aug. 2002, pp. 215-231.
To optimize the thermal performance of transmission wet clutches during multiple engagements, a general thermal numerical model has been developed. At every cycle, temperatures are computed throughout the clutch materials until a periodic steady state is achieved. One cycle is characterized by (a) an engagement period where the separator plate is contacting the friction lining with heat being generated while some cooling is provided by the oil passing through friction material grooves; (b) a locked stage of separator plate and friction lining contact during which the heat generation is zero while oil cooling through the grooves continues; and (c) a cooling period with the separator plate completely disengaged from the friction lining while the oil cools both surfaces. Temperatures are calculated from the transient numerical solution of the heat conduction equation in two dimensions. The finite difference technique based on an implicit numerical scheme is employed. This approach is verified by comparison with a known solution as well as experimental data, and a sample run is presented for conditions representative of an actual clutch assembly.
- Durability and Friction Characteristics of a Novel High-Performance Four- Wheel-Drive Automotive Transmission Fluid
This paper presents a case study of the development of a novel high- performance transmission fluid for application with a sintered lamella friction material in a new type of automotive 4WD wet clutch system. The new limited slip wet clutch, which has been developed for automobiles with four-wheel-drive (4WD) systems, requires a durable high-performance type of lubricant. Parameters such as base oil composition, the additive composition including the relative concentration of the components, and the sintered friction material have an extensive influence on the durability and the friction characteristics of the system. Also, the effects of temperature and pressure of the wet clutch system on the friction characteristics were found to be significant. The fluid was developed to be compatible with water contamination up to a certain level.
- Fears for gears
Commercial Motor, Vol. 191, No. 4859, 27 Jan.-2 Feb. 2000, pp. 26-31.
Iveco's range is headed by 2- and 3-axled EuroStar tractive units built at Ulm in Germany. Nominally rated at 380 and 420hp from 9.6-litre and 13.8-litre straight-sixes, and at 508hp from a V8, the range followed the TurboStar tradition of providing operators with vehicles developed for long-distance transport at maximum weight. From the outset Iveco offered the EuroStar with semi-automatic transmission, specifying Eaton's SAMT on early models. The second generation EuroStars were based on Eaton's latest 16-speed synchromesh gearbox, but when the range was updated for 1996-1997, Iveco specified the ZF AS-Tronic integrated semi-automatic transmission. The AS-Tronic equipped EuroStar 470 debuted as the EuroTronic but the high-tech transmission carried a premium of pounds sterling 3,000. Where second-hand operators are concerned, many at the heavy haulage end of the market are not ready to unreservedly embrace semi-automatic gearboxes just yet - especially if it means paying extra for them, so residual values are poor compared with standard vehicles. The views of some operators, dealers and auctioneers are also included. (Abstract quotes from original text)
- Recommended Remanufacturing Procedures for Manual Transmission Clutch Assemblies
This SAE Recommended Practice is prepared as a guideline to improve and maintain the quality of remanufactured automotive products. Installation of remanufactured or rebuilt products is often an economical way to repair a vehicle even though they may not fully be equivalent to original equipment parts. Before processing any part, a remanufacturer should determine if the original design and present condition of the core are suitable for remanufacturing, so as to provide durable operation of the part as well as acceptable performance when installed in a vehicle. The remanufacturer should also carefully consider the safety aspects of the product and any recommendations of the original manufacturer related to remanufacturing or rebuilding their product.
- Integrating Engineering Design Projects and Economic Case Studies in a First-Year Course
George H. Williams and James M. Kenney.
1999 ASEE Annual Conference & Exposition: Engineering: Education to Serve the World; Charlotte, NC; USA; 20-23 June 1999. 1999; 1999 ASEE Annual Conference & Exposition: Engineering: Education to Serve the World
The paper describes the set of engineering design projects and economic case studies used in our first-year course, "The Fundamentals of Engineering and Computer Science." The organization and goals of the course, and the criteria for selection of both short- and long-term design projects, are presented. Projects/cases reviewed include a portable ramp for handicapped access, a system to monitor traffic on a pedestrian bridge, a Newcomen steam engine, a computerized weather station, repair of a sinking warehouse, mechanization of agricultural processes in Third World countries, and cost/benefit analysis of alternative fuel use. Over the course of the year student work generally exhibits significantly increased understanding of the elements of openended problem solving and increased creativity in the engineering design process. Most students find the course work to be interesting and relevant but very challenging, and there is some concern about continuity in the team-taught, modular curriculum.
- Easy rider [road test]
Commercial Motor, Vol. 188, No. 4782, 16-22 July 1998, pp. 28-33.
In 1994 ZF previewed its AS-Tronic range of 10, 12, and 16-speed, purpose-built, 2-pedal semi-automatic transmissions and the first commercial vehicle manufacturer to fit them was Iveco. It signed up an exclusive supply deal so that currently only the ZF box without a clutch pedal in EuroStar or EuroTech tractors powered by 380 or 470hp Electronic Diesel Control (EDC) Iveco engines are available. This last bit is important as AS-Tronic needs to "talk" to the engine, and EDC allows a rapid dialogue between the 2 major driveline components, ensuring the kind of performance that previous first-generation semi-automatics have struggled to achieve. This article describes a test drive around Scotland with an LD400E47 tractor fitted with the Alto high-roof twin-bunk sleeper cab and the EuroTronic semi-automatic transmission system. The summary concludes that while it may not be the most fuel-efficient tractor on the market, it provides one of the smoothest and comfortable rides and the cab's climate control works well. Also, although the semi-automatic EuroTronic gearbox is currently a pounds sterling 3,000 optional extra, the EuroStar is still competitive against other tractor list prices. (Abstract quotes from original text)
- Manual Transmission Clutch Systems
Ray Shaver and F. Ray Shaver.
400 Commonwealth Dr , Warrendale, PA, 15096, USA, [URL:http://www.sae.org/technical/books/AE-17http://www.sae.org]: Society of Automotive Engineers, 1997, 200
This book serves as a basic clutch design handbook by covering present and future clutch technologies related to passenger cars and light duty trucks. Chapters cover: History of Clutches Introduction to Modern Diaphragm Spring Clutch Basic Diaphragm Clutch Operating Principles Terminology and Definitions Clutch Operating Parameters Clutch Sizing for Manual Transmission System Engagement Quality Torsional Vibration and Tuning Capacity Testing Clutch Troubleshooting Clutch Quality Control Clutch Friction Materials Clutch Rebuilding and Remanufacturing Clutch Actuation Systems
- The Romance of Engines
400 Commonwealth Dr , Warrendale, PA, 15096, USA, [URL:http://www.sae.org/technical/books/R-188http://www.sae.org]: Society of Automotive Engineers, 1997, 488
This interesting book examines the development of the engine from an historical perspective. Originally published in Japanese, The Romance of Engines' English translation offers readers insight into lessons learned throughout the engine's history. Topics covered include: Newcomen's Steam Engine The Watt Steam Engine Internal Combustion Engine Nicolaus August Otto and His Engine Sadi Carnot and the Adiabatic Engine Radial Engines; Piston and Cylinder Problems Engine Life Problem of Cooling Engine Compartments Knocking; Energy Conservation Bugatti; Volkswagen Rolls Royce Packard Daimler-Benz DB601 Engine And more! Well-illustrated with numerous charts, drawings, and figures, The Romance of Engines is a book that belongs on the bookshelves of all engine designers, engine enthusiasts, and automotive historians. Reviews 'The Romance of Engines is a book which examines the development of the engine from an historical perspective. Topics covered in the book include: steam engines; internal combustion engine; Nicolaus August Otto and his engine; Sadi Carnot and the Adiabatic engine; radial engines; engine life, problem of cooling; knocking; Volkswagen and Rolls Royce. Illustrated with numerous charts, drawings, and figures.' - Design Product News
- All-Plastic Clutch System
Du Pont Magazine (USA), Vol. 86, No. 4, July-Aug. 1992, pp. 29.
Innovative manual transmission clutch actuation systems are being made using Du Pont Kevlar Wearforce thermoplastic composites and Zytel glass-reinforced nylon resins. The new system helps cut vehicle weight, resist high operating temperatures, increase ease of assembly and improve reliability compared with previous systems. The integrated, prefilled hydraulic clutch system is produced by Automotive Products USA Inc., Auburn Hills, Michigan. The system includes pistons reinforced with Kevlar Wearforce injection-moldable pellets for a low coefficient of friction, high strength, and stress and wear resistance. Slave and master cylinder bodies are molded of Zytel glass-reinforced nylon resin.
- Porsche Carrera 2 Tiptronic Transmission
Werner Mrllers and Josef Petersmann.
SAE Document 901760, No. , 1990
As an alternative for the manual five-speed transmission of the Porsche 911 Carrera 2, a modern automatic transmission featuring a manual shift option and a driving style dependent control system was to be developed, which matches this sportscar's particular character. Based on the targets set for this concept, the following paper explains the design and performance characteristics of the Porsche Tiptronic which is the first of a new generation of transmissions
- Development of an electro-hydraulically controlled, five-speed transmission for a hybrid electric vehicle
Gregory W. Davis.
The 1998 SAE International Congress & Exposition; Detroit,
MI, USA; 23-26 Feb. 1998. pp. 109-118
A 1996 Ford Taurus sedan has been converted into a five passenger hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) that meets the objectives of Partnership for new Generation of Vehicles (PNVG) in terms of low emissions and high fuel efficiency. An electro-hydraulic control unit provides the automatic control for this vehicle. Gear selection is controlled by a programmable logic controller (PLC). In addition, the driver can also select gears using a modified steering-column PRNDL selector.