Adjuvants: Agents added to vaccines to increase their effectiveness

Antibodies: Immunoglobulins or proteins produced by the immune system that help in fighting pathogens or foreign particles

Antigen: Any substance able to stimulate the immune response of the host. It can be virus, bacteria, pollen, dust particles etc.

Antigenic variation: Changes on an antigen surface that result in escaping immunological defense responses

Cellular immunity: The immune response that involves T-cells/lymphocytes/macrophages/natural killer cells in protecting from infection and doesn't produce antibodies as in a humoral response

Glycoprotein: A protein having carbohydrate attached to it

Hemagglutinin: An antigen glycoprotein present on the surface of influenza viruses that helps in attaching viruses to host receptors

IgA: Immunoglobulin A, one kind of antibody found in body secretions, it helps in fighting infections

Immunity: Ability to resist an infection or protection against a specified disease that can be caused by virus, bacteria, parasites etc.

Lipoprotein: A protein conjugated/attached with a lipid

Monoclonal antibodies: Produced by fusion of a B cell and cancer cell, secretes highly specific kind of antibody that bind to the same kind of antigen

mRNA : Its full name is messenger Ribonucleic acid; it is synthesized or transcribed from DNA and serves as a carrier of DNA genetic information for translation of proteins. It forms a platform for protein synthesis

Myalgia: Pain in muscles or muscular tenderness

Myoglobinuria: Presence of myoglobin in the urine, it can cause kidney failure

Myositis: Pain and inflammation of muscle/s

Neuraminidase : Glycoside hydrolase enzyme or antigenic glycoprotein, found on the surface of avian influenza viruses, takes part in virulence

Nucleocapsids: The RNA/DNA (genetic material/genome) of the virus and the protein layer (capsid) surrounding it

Nucleoprotein: RNA/DNA (genetic material/genome) of the virus complexed with proteins

Pleomorphic: Of different shapes

ssRNA : Single stranded Ribonucleic acid

Tetramer: Protein or glycoprotein consisting of 4 subunits

Trimer: Protein or Glycoprotein consisting of 3 subunits

Vaccines: Weakened or killed or attenuated pathogen, such as a virus, or of a portion of the virus's structure that stimulates antibody production upon administration but does not cause the disease