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Plastic Highway Bridges
(Released November 2000)

 
  by Jennifer R. Griffiths  

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  1. Experimental study of CFRP-prestressed high-strength concrete bridge beams

    Saliba, JE; Stoll, F; Casper, LE

    Composite Structures (UK), vol. 49, no. 2, pp. 191-200, June 2000

    Fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) tendons and reinforcing bars (rebars) have been developed for use with concrete. FRP products are non-corrosive and lightweight when compared to traditional steel members. The current tets program involves the design, fabrication, and testing to failure of two full-scale high-strength concrete bridge beams with FRP products for prestressing and shear reinforcement. (Example: carbon-epoxy composite cable and rebar made of glass fibers reinforcing a matrix of recycled PET and modified vinyl ester shell.)

  2. Composite materials in bridge repair

    Meier, U

    Applied Composite Materials (Netherlands), vol. 7, no. 2-3, pp. 75-94, May 2000

    This paper seeks to demonstrate how advanced polymer matrix composite materials developed for high-performance aircraft can offer major advantages for repairing aging infrastructures. It focuses on the development and first applications of advanced rehabilitation, retrofitting, strengthening, and field monitoring technologies for civil engineering structures based on unique combinations of corrosion-resistant fiber-reinforced polymers and integrated fiber optic structural sensing.

  3. Carbon fibre composites as stay cables for bridges

    Noisternig, J.F., -

    Applied Composite Materials (Netherlands), vol. 7, no. 2-3, pp. 139-150, May 2000

    High tensile strength and stiffness and high fatigue life, low weight and excellent chemical resistance are material properties of carbon fiber composites (CFRP) which make these materials interesting for stay cable systems. The key problem to which the application of stay cables and tendons is faced is the anchoring. This paper describes the properties of CFRP-wires, the requirements to stay cables or tendons and the development of such a system through calculations and experiments along with a successful field stress test of a CFRP based stay cable.

  4. Structural characterization of fiber-reinforced composite short and medium-span bridge systems

    Karbhari, VM; Seible, F; Burgueno, R; Davol, A; Wernli, M; Zhao, L

    Applied Composite Materials (Netherlands), vol. 7, no. 2-3, pp. 151-182, May 2000

    The paper describes the development of a new structural system for short and medium span bridges wherein use is made of both advanced composites and conventional materials such as concrete. The concept uses prefabricated composite tubes as girders which are then filled with concrete, after which a conventional precast or cast-in-place, or advanced composite, deck system is integrated to form the bridge superstructure. The paper presents experimental results of large-scale tests aimed towards the structural characterization of the girders, anchorages, and girder-deck assemblies for both serviceability and ultimate limit states.

  5. Experimental study on RC bridge columns retrofitted using fiber composite materials

    Youssef, MN; Haroun, M; Feng, M; Mosallam, A

    Society for the Advancement of Material and Process Engineering, Bridging the Centuries with SAMPE's Materials and Processes Technology, Volume 45, Book 2 of 2 (USA), pp. 1803-1812, May 2000

    This paper reports on a comprehensive test program on seismic performance and confinement of reinforced concrete bridge columns retrofitted with advanced composite materials. Several half-scale reinforced concrete columns, with and without lap splices, were built based on the old seismic design code to represent many existing old bridge columns in California. Cyclic loading tests have demonstrated that the performance of such existing columns can be improved dramatically due to the enhancement of concrete confinement provided by these advanced composite jackets. Currently, the confinement behavior of reinforced and unreinforced concrete columns wrapped with composite jackets is being tested.

  6. Feasibility of evaluating the performance of fiber reinforced plastic (FRP) wrapped reinforced concrete columns using ground penetrating radar (GPR) and infrared (IR) thermography techniques

    Jackson, D; Islam, M; Alampalli, S

    Technomic Publishing Co., Inc., Structural Materials Technology IV (USA), pp. 390-395, Mar. 2000

    The feasibility of using two non-destructive evaluation techniques ground penetrating radar (GPR) and infrared (IR) thermography was recently attempted for assessing the performance of some FRP wrapped reinforced concrete columns on a bridge structure in Owego, NY. In addition, embedded instrumentation in the FRP wrapped columns is also being utilized for periodic monitoring of the columns. This paper discusses the findings of the IR and GPR feasibility surveys. It was concluded that both methods can be powerful tools for detecting and assessing various types of deterioration in FRP wrapped concrete columns. The GPR technique can be a useful tool for tracking progressive deterioration of the concrete within the FRP wrapped columns, particularly delaminations, provided a planned monitoring scheme is followed. The IR technique is very effective in detecting disbondment, blisters, and shallow defects (delaminations) in such components. Entrapped moisture between the wrap and the concrete can also be detected. However, defects located deep within the concrete may not be reliably detected using IR technique.

  7. Evaluating FRP wrap with NDT methods

    Halstead, JR; O'Connor, JS; Alampalli, S; Minser, A

    Technomic Publishing Co., Inc., Structural Materials Technology IV (USA), pp. 275-280, Mar. 2000

    The New York State Department of Transportation (NYSDOT) initiated a unique demonstration project in March of 1998. The objective of the project is to determine whether application of Fiber-Reinforced Polymer (FRP) composite wrap provides an efficient, cost-effective method for short-term preservation of deteriorated concrete columns. This determination will be based on the results of non-destructive testing performed prior to wrap installation, during the five year monitoring period, and following completion of the monitoring period.

  8. Strengthening prestressed-concrete beams using bonded FRP laminates

    Hag-Elsafi, O; Alampalli, S

    Technomic Publishing Co., Inc., Structural Materials Technology IV (USA), pp. 287-292, Mar. 2000

    Many existing concrete bridges in New York State, constructed with prestressed box-beams superstructures, are suspected of being unable to carry current legal loads due to loss of prestressing strands as a result of corrosion. An alternative to posting for lower loads or replacement is to improve load-carrying capacity of these bridges by strengthening suspected deficient members using bonded FRP laminates. Although this technique has been effective in increasing strength of reinforced and unreinforced concrete members, it has not been widely used in strengthening deficient prestressed- concrete beams in bridges. This may be attributed to the lack of generally accepted methods for design of the strengthening system and lack of understanding its effect on beam behavior, and also due to limited knowledge of actual performance characteristics of the material. This paper discusses an ongoing study by New York State Department of Transportation (NYSDOT), conducted in cooperation with the FHWA, to explore some of these issues through full-scale testing and analytical investigation. The main objective of the study is to develop guidelines for strengthening deficient prestressed-concrete box-beam bridge members using bonded FRP laminates.

  9. Evaluating effectiveness of FRP composites for bridge rehabilitation through load testing

    Hag-Elsafi, O; Kunin, J; Alampalli, S

    Technomic Publishing Co., Inc., Structural Materials Technology IV (USA), pp. 434-439, Mar. 2000

    A seventy-year old reinforced-concrete T-beam bridge carrying State Route 378 over Wynanskill Creek in Rensselaer County, New York, was recently rehabilitated using Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP) composite laminates. Integrity of the steel reinforcing and overall safety of the bridge was suspected due to severe leakage of water contaminated with de-icing salts. Load tests were conducted before and after installation of the FRP laminates, to evaluate effectiveness of the rehabilitation system in strengthening the bridge structure. This paper briefly discusses these tests and presents some of their results.

  10. Proof load testing and monitoring of an FRP composite bridge

    Yannotti, AR; Alampalli, S; O'Connor, J; Schongar, G; Greenberg, H; Norfolk, M

    Technomic Publishing Co., Inc., Structural Materials Technology IV (USA), pp. 281-286, Mar. 2000

    New York State opened its first fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) composite bridge to the traveling public in October 1998. A prefabricated E- glass FRP system replaced a badly deteriorated concrete slab superstructure on rural State Route 248 in Steuben County. Prior to opening the bridge to vehicular traffic, the bridge was tested for proof load. Strains and deflections were monitored and compared to those obtained from a design model. This paper briefly describes the bridge design and field test results.

  11. Advanced composite materials for 21st century bridges: the federal highway administration's perspective

    Hooks, JM

    Technomic Publishing Co., Inc., Innovative Systems for Seismic Repair & Rehabilitation of Structures; Design & Applications (USA), pp. 1-10, Mar. 2000

    More than 30 percent of the nation's 587,815 bridges are classified as deficient, i.e., deteriorated, under strength and/or geometrically obsolete for the demands of today's traffic volumes and loads. These deficient bridges and the repair work necessary to improve them represent a significant impediment to the nation's mobility and have a negative impact on productivity. The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) is committed to the strategic goals of improving mobility and increasing productivity on the nation's highways. The bridge engineering community is experimenting with a material new to the highway infrastructure - fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) composites. FRP materials have been used extensively in the aerospace industry but only recently are they being applied on highway bridges. Among other properties, FRP materials have a high strength to weight ratio and excellent resistance to attack from chemicals including road salts. In addition, easy prefabrication of FRP bridge elements and comparatively short installation times, make FRP materials excellent candidates for bridge applications.

  12. Applications of polymer composites in California Highway Bridges

    Roberts, J

    Technomic Publishing Co., Inc., Innovative Systems for Seismic Repair & Rehabilitation of Structures; Design & Applications (USA), pp. 11-25, Mar. 2000

    The California Department of Transportation has been engaged in cooperative research with the University of California at San Diego for the past six years to develop field applications of advanced composite materials for both repair of older structures and construction of new bridges. The most highly developed application to date is the use of advanced composites in repair of bridge columns and other supporting elements to improve their ductility for seismic resistance. Both epoxy impregnated fiberglass and carbon fiber materials have been tested in the laboratory on half-scale models of bridge columns to determine the ductility that can be achieved in an older, non-ductile concrete column. The more exciting application of advanced composites is for new bridges and bridge deck replacement units. The research conducted so far has resulted in the design of a highway bridge composed of three foot diameter carbon fiber tubular bridge girders and a fully advanced composite bridge deck. Development of these elements has been underway for three years and laboratory testing is currently underway. The bridge design will be utilized on two stale highway bridges in Southern California, to be advertised for construction in November, 1996. Further development of bridge deck replacement elements composed of advanced composite materials is continuing, with emphasis now on the connection details.

  13. Strengthening of full-scale reinforced concrete beams using FRP laminates and monitoring with fiber optic strain gauges

    McCurry, DD; Kachlakev, D

    Technomic Publishing Co., Inc., Innovative Systems for Seismic Repair & Rehabilitation of Structures; Design & Applications (USA), pp. 131-140, Mar. 2000

    Four full scale reinforced concrete beams were replicated from an existing bridge. The original beams in Horsetail Creek Bridge were substantially deficient in shear strength, particularly for projected increase of traffic loads. Of the four replicate beams, one served as a control and the remaining three were implemented with varying configurations of carbon FRP (CFRP) and glass FRP (GFRP) composites to simulate the retrofit of the existing structure. CFRP unidirectional sheets were placed to increase flexural capacity and GFRP unidirectional sheets were utilized to mitigate shear failure. Four-point bending tests were conducted. Load, deflection and strain data were collected. Fiber optic gauges were utilized in high flexural and shear regions and conventional resistive gauges were placed in 18 locations to provide behavioral understanding of the composite material strengthening. Fiber optic readings were compared to conventional gauges.

  14. Fibre Reinforced Polymer (FRP) reinforcement for concrete bridges and fibre optic monitoring techniques

    Gowripalan, N

    University of New South Wales, Proceedings of the ACUN-2: International Composites Conference on Composites in the Transportation Industry, Volume 1 (Australia), pp. 173-184, Feb. 2000

    The use of Fibre Reinforced Polymers (FRPs) as reinforcement for new concrete bridges and as repair materials for bridge elements has been growing recently. This paper summarizes the use of FRPs as prestressing tendons for pre- tensioned beams for bridges. In this paper, in addition to the material properties, findings of a research project carried out on pre-tensioned beams at the University of New South Wales and fibre optic monitoring techniques used are presented and compared with results from overseas. The areas investigated include bond, transmission length, flexural behavior and ductility.

  15. Interfacial stresses in the polymer wear surface/FRP deck bond due to thermal loading

    Senne, JL; Lesko, JJ

    Adhesion Society, Proceedings of the 23rd Annual Meeting of the Adhesion Society (USA), pp. 308-310, Feb. 2000

    In order to use composites in the civil infrastructure, it is necessary to understand the impact of mechanical and environmental loading on the structure. The use of FRP materials for bridge deck applications requires a polymer concrete wear surface to be adhered to the deck. The coefficients of thermal expansion (CTE) between the FRP and the polymer based wear surface differ by nearly a factor of five. This CTE mismatch results in considerable interfacial shear and peel stresses at the free edge within the working temperature range of such a system. In order to design a structure with the proper bond strength, the stresses need to be understood from an analytical method and be compared to a bond strength value obtained from a small scale bond strength test.

  16. Service-life extension of RC infrastructure with externally-bonded FRP composites

    Bonacci, JF

    University of New South Wales, Proceedings of the ACUN-2: International Composites Conference on Composites in the Transportation Industry, Volume 1 (Australia), pp. 102-109, Feb. 2000

    This paper focuses on the use of externally-bonded fiber reinforced polymer (EB-FRP) composites for service-life extension of reinforced concrete (RC) beams and columns. Research work on modeling of corrosion damage in RC structures and the use of EB-FRP for repair is reviewed. Results of tests on corrosion-damaged RC beams and columns repaired with EB-FRP are presented along with related design recommendations. The experiments show that EB-FRP is an effective means for restoring the structural performance of corrosion-damaged columns and beams.

  17. Application of composites in California bridges

    Roberts, JE

    University of New South Wales, Proceedings of the ACUN-2: International Composites Conference on Composites in the Transportation Industry, Volume 1 (Australia), pp. 1-15, Feb. 2000

    The California Department of Transportation has been engaged in cooperative research with the University of California at San Diego for the past six years to develop field applications of advanced composite materials for both repair of older structures and construction of new bridges. The most highly developed application to date is the use of advanced composites in repair of bridge columns and other supporting elements to improve their ductility for seismic resistance. Both epoxy impregnated fiberglass and carbon fiber materials have been tested in the laboratory on half-scale models of bridge columns to determine the ductility that can be achieved in an older, non-ductile concrete column. The tests have confirmed the viability of these materials for strengthening existing structures and field application quality specifications have been developed. Since March, 1996 these specifications have been published and included as alternatives in over 50% of the seismic retrofit strengthening contracts advertised for construction. The more exciting application of advanced composites is for new bridges and bridge deck replacement units. The research conducted so far has resulted in the design of a highway bridge composed of three foot diameter carbon fiber tubular bridge girders and a fully advanced composite bridge deck. Although these advanced composite materials are expensive, the long life expected and their resistance to corrosion makes them competitive if the life cycle cost of a bridge in a highly corrosive environment is considered.

  18. State-of-the-practice of advanced composite materials in structural engineering in Europe with emphasis on transportation

    Meier, U

    University of New South Wales, Proceedings of the ACUN-2: International Composites Conference on Composites in the Transportation Industry, Volume 1 (Australia), pp. 44-50, Feb. 2000

    Since 1986, FRP laminates have been used in Europe to post-strengthen bridges. The method now represents the state-of-the-art. Although cable made from advanced composite materials has so far failed to achieve a breakthrough, several cable-stayed and suspension bridges in Europe have made use of FRP cables, some even incorporating optical fiber sensors.

  19. Schuyler Heim lift bridge to get composite demonstration deck panels by year end

    Advanced Materials & Composites News (USA), vol. 22, no. 18, pp. 5-6, 18 Sept. 2000

    The California Dept of Transportation (Caltrans) in Sacramento, California, USA, has been working for several years to conclude contract negotiations and product demonstrations for a project on the Schuyler Heim Lift Bridge in Long Beach. The current steel deck panels are running out of useful life and must be replaced. Composites were selected to demonstrate their feasibility for displacing steel in this type of bridge, to eliminate the corrosion common around a salt-water seaport. Martin Marietta Composites in Raleigh, North Carolina, recently received a contract and has produced demonstration FRP panels for final design confirmation testing at California State University in Fullerton. Contact: Dr Dan Richards, Martin Marietta Composites, tel +1 919/783-4679, fax +1 919/783-4552, email: danr@martinmarietta.com.

  20. UCSD Gilman Bridge looms closer

    Advanced Materials & Composites News (USA), vol. 22, no. 15, pp. 3-4, 7 Aug. 2000

    The University of California at San Diego in the USA is in the negotiation process with two finalists for fabrication of the components for the 137 m (450 ft) carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) "Gilman Bridge." The longitudinal girder shells are to be filled with a concrete grout. The deck is fiber reinforced concrete cast over hybrid FRP panels as stay-in-place forms and are snapped to the transverse girders.

  21. Four FRP bridges to be constructed in Missouri

    Advanced Materials & Composites News (USA), vol. 22, no. 14, pp. 6-7, 17 July 2000

    In the USA, the University of Missouri-Rolla, in conjunction with the Dept of Economic Development, the City of St James, Missouri, and its industry partners, has seized an opportunity to conduct research on and demonstrate the effectiveness of fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) composites in bridge construction by building four bridges in the City. Each bridge will be of different design to maximize the technology to be demonstrated. The University of Missouri-Rolla will also conduct testing and evaluation of the bridges and laboratory specimens. Contact: Danielle Stone, PhD Candidate in Civil Engineering, University of Missouri-Rolla, 219 ERL, Rolla, MO 65409, USA; tel +1 573/341-6699, fax +1 573 /341-6215, email: stone@umr.edu.

  22. First composite bridge of Project 100 dedicated

    Plastics in Building Construction (USA), vol. 24, no. 9, pp. 2-3, June 2000

    On 1 June 2000, a special ribbon cutting ceremony held by the Montgomery County Engineer's Office and the National Composite Center (website: www.compositecenter.org) marked a new era for Ohio, USA, bridges. A small, two-lane bridge on Westbrook Road in Montgomery County had exchanged its old concrete and steel bridge deck for a new one made of structural polymer composites. The Westbrook Road bridge is the first under Phase I of Project 100 to receive a new deck made of advanced composites. The composite deck is made of high-strength glass fibers surrounded by tough vinyl resin. It is about five times lighter than conventional concrete and could last up to 100 years. The bridge deck was designed and manufactured by Hardcore Composite Operations LLC, a New Castle, Delaware, maker of large composite structures.

  23. Steel bridge repaired with carbon fibre laminates

    Advanced Composites Bulletin (UK), pp. 5, May 2000

    Carbon fibre reinforced plastic (CFRP) has been used to strengthen a steel road-bridge in the UK so that it can carry vehicles weighing 40 t. The repair of the Slattocks Canal Bridge, which is on the A664 road between Middleton and Rochdale, was carried out by specialist contractor Balvac and consultants Mouchel for Rochdale Metropolitan Borough Council. Mouchel devised the strengthening that was employed, which required that pieces of CFRP, measuring 8 mm in thickness and 100 mm in width, were bonded to the bottom flanges of the 12 innermost rolled-steel joists beneath the carriageway. Mouchel described this approach as a first. Contact: Dr Sam Luke, Head of Advanced Composites Engineering, Mouchel Group, West Hall, Parvis Road, West Byfleet, Surrey, KT14 6EZ, UK; tel +44-1932-337000, fax +44-1932-356122, email: sam_luke@mouchel.com, website: http://www.mouchel.com.

  24. Composites seismic retrofit of the Arroyo Seco bridge completed successfully

    Advanced Materials & Composites News (USA), vol. 22, no. 9, pp. 1-3, 1 May 2000

    In April 2000, Fibrwrap Construction Inc completed a seismic retrofit of the historic Arroyo Seco Bridge employing Fyfe Company's Tyfo Composite Strengthening System. The bridge, located in Pasadena, California, USA, is a multiple arch structure that spans over 1300 feet of the Arroyo Seco Canyon. The California Dept of Transportation (Caltrans) had determined that the connection between the concrete arch and the spandrel columns that support the deck needed to be reinforced. Composites provided a lightweight, cost-effective solution with minimal impact to the appearance of the bridge. The low-profile Tyfo Fibrwrap jackets, comprised of glass and aramid fiber reinforced epoxy, had a final thickness of less than 3/4 of an in. and yet provided strength comparable to that of full-scale steel jacketing. Contact: Edward J Donelly III, operations manager, Fibrwrap Constructon Inc, 146 West 132 Street, Suite B, Los Angeles, CA 90061, USA; tel +1 310 /719-1943, fax +1 310/719-1415, email: ed.donnelly@fibrwrapconstruction.com, website: http:/ /www.fibrwrapconstruction.com.

  25. Composites keep bridge open during strengthening

    Reinforced Plastics (UK), vol. 44, no. 5, pp. 12, May 2000

    UK engineering consultant Mouchel's award winning prestressed carbon fibre reinforced plastic (CFRP) plate technology has been successfully used to raise a steel road bridge's vehicle limit to 40 tonnes. The Slattocks Canal bridge, built in 1936, carries the busy A664 road over the canal in Rochdale, UK. Mouchel's method involved bonding 8 x 100 mm CFRP plates, using Exchem Resifix adhesive, to the bottom flanges of the bridge's 12 inner most RSJ flanges beneath the carriageway. Contact: Mouchel, tel +44 1932 337000, fax +44 1932 336253.

  26. National Composite Center announces locations for 25 Ohio bridges

    Plastics in Building Construction (USA), vol. 24, no. 7, pp. 2-3, Apr. 2000

    On 11 April 2000, the National Composite Center (NCC; tel 937 /297-9450, fax 937/297-9440, website: www.compositecenter.org) in the USA kicked off Phase I of project 100 by announcing the locations of 25 bridges in 16 Ohio counties scheduled to receive composite material upgrades. The new technology could extend the lifespan of bridge decks anywhere from several decades up to 100 years or more. The first composite material bridge decks will be delivered to Montgomery and Knox counties in April. Project 100 is a statewide initiative by NCC to repair and replace 100 conventional bridge decks across the state of Ohio with composite materials over the next six years.

  27. ARC bridge deck looking good

    Advanced Materials & Composites News (USA), vol. 22, no. 6, pp. 6-7, 20 Mar. 2000

    Atlantic Research Corp (ARC), Gainesville, Virginia, USA reports that their FRP composite bridge deck installed for the Virginia Dept of Transportation at the Troutville highway truck scales on I-81 near Roanoke is performing beautifully after nearly a full winter in service. The monitoring data so far indicate that there has been no change in deck response to heavy truck traffic. Through-the-Thickness Braid was used as the preform fabric for triangular truss elements. Contact: Richard Brown, ARC, tel +1 703 /754-5777, fax +1 703/754-5605, email: dbrown@arc-ag.com, website: http://www.atlanticresearchcorp.com.

  28. Hardcore Composites wins Ohio 100 bridge program

    High-Performance Composites (USA), vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 12-13, Mar.-Apr. 2000

    The National Composite Center (NCC, Kettering, Ohio, USA) initiated Project 100 to design, manufacture and install 88 composite bridge decks within Ohio, one in each county, plus an additional 12 within state transportation districts. The long-range objective of Project 100 is to promote cost reduction of composite decks so that FRP can compete successfully with traditional steel reinforced concrete decks. On 16 December 1999, Hardcore Composites (New Castle, Delaware) was selected to design and manufacture 100 000 ft exp 2 of bridge deck during the initial two-year phase of the program. The contract is worth $7 million. Hardcore plans to construct a new facility in the Dayton, Ohio, area by the end of 2000 in which to design and build the deck parts using its SCRIMP methods.

  29. FRP bars replace steel in bridge

    Reinforced Plastics (UK), vol. 44, no. 3, pp. 6, Mar. 2000

    Spring 2000 will see the construction of a pedestrian bridge across Caseadilla Creek in Ithaca, New York, USA, made using concrete reinforced with a new design of carbon fiber reinforced plastic (FRP) bars. According to Petru Petrina, a lecturer at Cornell's School of Civil and Environmental Engineering (tel +1 607/255-3651), lightweight FRP bars, which are normally made by pultrusion, can be brittle and do not bond well to reinforced concrete. Petrina, who began developing FRP bars to replace steel in infrastructure six years ago, has come up with a new design. The bars are made up of rectangular sheets of FRP, built up from thin sheets of glass or carbon fiber. The sheets are then baked in an industrial oven at 121 deg C for 2 h before being cut into bars.

  30. A survey of composite bridges

    Black, S

    Composites Technology (USA), vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 14-18, Mar.-Apr. 2000

    Exhibiting corrosion resistance, light weight, high strength and ease of installation, FRP composite vehicular bridge decks are gaining acceptance as construction alternatives to reduce dead load and extend bridge life. Composite decks can be customized to mimic the dimensions of traditional decks. They allow the economic reuse of existing support structures, reducing costly capital construction. The article surveys the variety of deck designs offered by several manufacturers and research groups. Not just for pedestrian bridges anymore, composites are used to build vehicular bridges and, in one case, are even subjected to interstate truck traffic.

  31. Strengthening a timber bridge with GRP bars

    Reinforced Plastics (UK), vol. 44, no. 2, pp. 4, Feb. 2000

    The Tourand Creek timber bridge south of Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada, has been chosen for a strengthening program using glass fiber reinforced plastic (GRP) bars. The technique was developed by ISIS Canada, part of the Networks of Centres of Excellence (NCE) program and headquartered at the University of Manitoba. The technique involves embedding GRP bars into stringers and bonding them to the wood beams with an epoxy resin. Contact: ISIS Canada (University of Manitoba), tel +1 204/474-9156, fax +1 204 /474-7519, email: jredston@cc.umanitoba.ca.

  32. Wrapping it up: [fiber reinforced polymers]

    Watson, RJ

    ASTM Standardization News (USA), vol. 28, no. 2, pp. 22-25, Feb. 2000

    Fiber reinforced polymers (FRP) wrapped like wallpaper around bridge columns and beams can shore up highway infrastructures that are deteriorating or threatened by seismic events. The light weight, high strenth and non-corrosive nature of the materials make FRP presently attractive to contemporary engineers on a life cycle cost basis especially in bridge retrofit applications. The article describes these materials and the ASTM activities that standardize them.

  33. NCC taps Hardcore Composites for Ohio bridge-deck project

    Renstrom, R

    Plastics News (Detroit) (USA), vol. 11, no. 46, pp. 4, 3 Jan. 2000

    In the US, composites' push into infrastructure applications got a big boost in December 1999 with an Ohio project to make 100 composite bridge decks. The National Composite Center chose Hardcore Composites for a contract that draws $4 million from the state and $3 million from Ohio counties. As projected, Ohio's bridge-deck-initiative Project 100 aims within six years to install a composite bridge at suitable sites in each of 88 counties and one in each of 12 state transportation districts. Hardcore will design and build the initial decks at its existing 108 000 ft exp 2 facility in New Castle, Delaware. Hardcore plans to use E-glass and vinyl ester with the licensed Scrimp technology.

  34. NCC's Project 100 FRP bridge deck award goes to Hardcore Composites

    Advanced Materials & Composites News (USA), vol. 22, no. 2, pp. 2-3, 17 Jan. 2000

    In December 1999, the National Composite Center (NCC) in Kettering, Ohio, USA, in an effort to promote "affordability," chose Hardcore Composites in New Castle, Delaware, to receive a $7 million contract for production of composite bridge deck panels. Ohio's bridge deck program aims within six years to have installed composite bridge decks at 100 short-span bridge sites. The goal is to introduce the fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) technology as a supplement to conventional steel rebar reinforced concrete deck materials, moving beyond just demonstration projects. Contact: National Composite Center, 2000 Composite Drive, Kettering, Ohio 45420, USA; tel +1 937/297-9528, fax +1 937/297-9440, email: mmurton@compositecenter.org, website: http:/ /www.compositecenter.org.