- Evaluating three trace metal contaminated sites: a field and laboratory investigation
Murray, P; Ge, Y; Hendershot, WH*
Environmental Pollution [Environ. Pollut.], vol. 107, no. 1, pp. 127-135, 2000
Selecting guidelines to evaluate elevated metals in urban brownfields is hindered by the lack of information for these sites on ecosystem structure and function. A study was performed to compare three trace metal-contaminated sites in the metropolitan Montreal area. The goal was to obtain an idea of the organisms that may be present on urban brownfields and to measure if elevated metals alter the presence and activity of the indigenous biota. Field and laboratory studies were conducted using simple methodologies to determine the extent to which microbial activity affected by trace metal content, to assess diversity of plant and soil invertebrate communities and to measure phytoaccumulation of trace metals. It was found that microbial activity, as measured by substrate-induced respiration (SIR) and nitrification, was not affected by the levels of soil Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn recorded on the sites. Seven of the 12 invertebrate groups collected were sampled on soils with similar Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn concentrations. Diversity of plant species increased as a function of the length of time the sites had been inactive. Levels of metals in plant tissue were influenced by soil characteristics and not by total soil Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn.
- Conquering the brownfields frontier through the enhanced deployment of environmental assessment technologies
Munro, JF; Tzoumis, KA
Public Works Management & Policy [Public Works Manage. Policy], vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 213-223, Jan 2000
Communities desperately needing economic revitalization are often not benefiting from the nation's general prosperity and sustained growth. A culprit in this imbalance is perceived environmental contamination that deters public and private investments in redevelopment. Despite the Clinton administration's commitment to the economic and environmental revitalization of brownfields (properties whose future use is limited because of real or perceived environmental contamination, and which number over 450,000 in the United States), the rate at which brownfields are returning to productive use is disappointing. Delays stem from uncertainties with regard to the extent and nature of contamination. Accelerated deployment of innovative technology could dramatically increase the quantity of brownfields cleaned up over the next 5 years by providing communities with critical scientific information. This strategy would require the national laboratories working in concert with land grant universities, nonprofits, and the private sector to deploy innovative technologies at the community level.
- Cost effective identification of properties underutilized or abandoned due to potential releases of hazardous materials
Tease, B; Long, SC
Environmental Engineering and Policy [Environ. Eng. Policy], vol. 1, no. 4, pp. 0195-0200, 2 Dec 1999
The U.S. General Accounting Office estimates that there may be as many as 650000 underutilized or abandoned properties across the country owing to perceived or actual releases of hazardous materials. Liabilities presented by these properties, referred to as Brownfields sites, create substantial limitations to property acquisition and employment opportunities, particularly in economically distressed areas. Several federal and state programs have been developed to evaluate and cleanup such sites, but the number of projects funded are far outnumbered by the sites remaining to be investigated. An innovative approach to Brownfields site assessment has been developed that relies on a unique partnership between academia, state and federal environmental regulators, and municipalities. Students in environmental programs are provided the necessary skills to conduct Phase I environmental site assessments pursuant to ASTM guidelines. The reports produced provide a comprehensive evaluation of the environmental value of potential Brownfields sites and form a basis for making future informed decisions regarding site usage and/or necessary remedial actions. A model for the effective development of Brownfields partnerships is introduced. Several case histories are presented where this program has been implemented.
- Standardising the standards
Environmental Protection [Environ. Prot.], vol. 10, no. 12, pp. 38-41, Dec 1999
Much has been written about the use of risk-based cleanups at sites in state-run voluntary cleanup programs. Many states have established, uniform, risk-based cleanup standards for soil and groundwater to remediate brownfields - real estate stigmatized by real or perceived contamination - and other sites to levels that are consistent with the intended property use. Additionally, the American Society of Testing and Materials (ASTM) has developed guidance on the development and use of risk-based cleanup criteria at underground storage tank (UST) sites, and is working on guidance for chemical release sites. The advantage of these guidelines is that they are user-friendly, incorporating numeric reference tables where one can compare the site data with published cleanup levels to see if a site is "clean."
- A comparison of spatial interpolation methods and a fuzzy areal evaluation scheme in environmental site characterization
Oezdamar, L; Demirhan, M; Oezpinar, A
Computers, Environment and Urban Systems [Comput., Environ. Urban Syst.], vol. 23, no. 5, pp. 399-422, Sep 1999
This study aims to evaluate various well-known spatial interpolation methods used in identifying hot-spots during site investigations on brownfields. Before any reclamation is carried out zones within a site with contaminant levels above the threshold limits should be identified correctly with minimum reclamation costs. The latter implies that all contaminated areas are to be determined while minimizing the space claimed for reclamation. In other words, clean areas should not be declared as contaminated. This issue is crucial both with respect to minimizing health hazards in human use after reclamation and also with respect to minimizing reclamation costs. Here, we conduct a numerical survey on the performance of spatial interpolation techniques on 360 hypothetical sites which are generated according to a given experimental design. The effects of the number of non-overlapping hot-spots in a site, the percentage of the area contaminated, and the effects of the sampling pattern are observed during the experimentation. Furthermore, as an alternative site evaluation scheme, we propose a new fuzzy areal site assessment scheme (FASA) which is independent of the assumptions implied by spatial statistics and compare its performance with those of spatial interpolation methods.
- Avoiding a civil action
Airst, R; Stann, S
Environmental Protection [Environ. Prot.], vol. 10, no. 8, [vp], Aug 1999
Billions of dollars in unclaimed insurance coverage are available to brownfield owners. In many cases, insureds do not even know about the existence of old policies. Once uncovered, however, these policies can contribute significant funds toward the revitalization of brownfield properties.
- Dredging up profits for brownfield revitalization
Airst, R; Stann, S
Environmental Protection [Environ. Prot.], vol. 10, no. 6, p. 56, Jun 1999
A significant number of brownfields are at, or near, ports and waterways. Dredging sediment is an important part of keeping these waterways operational. In many cases, navigable waterways cannot remain viable without additional dredging to deepen shipping channels. Modern ships need navigable channels with 45-foot depths. Many major shipping channels are only 40 feet deep, and in some cases more shallow. Waterways across the country, such as the Delaware River, are being considered for dredging. This produces a significant amount of sludge that needs disposal. A substantial percentage of dredged material is contaminated. Landfills charge handsomely for accepting this substance. Additional funds go toward transportation, which can also be expensive. Therefore, brownfields near dredging operations are cost-effective destinations for this resource.
- Potential technologies for remediation of brownfields
Reddy, KR; Adams, JA; Richardson, C
Practice Periodical of Hazardous, Toxic, and Radioactive Waste Management [Pract. Periodical Hazard., Toxic, Radioact. Waste Manage.], vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 61-68, Apr 1999
It is estimated that over 500,000 brownfield sites exist throughout the United States. Many of these sites offer attractive financial opportunities, but a major obstacle to their redevelopment is fear of contamination and associated liability. Fortunately, numerous initiatives and regulations have been developed by federal, state, and local agencies to assist and encourage redevelopment of these sites. As a result, over 100 pilot studies have been successfully completed and have demonstrated the economic and social advantages of brownfield redevelopment. A systematic approach to the redevelopment of brownfield sites is crucial in order to control the costs associated with remediation and to accelerate the redevelopment process. This approach includes a phased site characterization, an impact assessment, and a site-specific remedial strategy. Unlike many Superfund and Resource Conservation and Recovery Act corrective action studies, brownfield sites pose unique problems because many are located in heavily populated urban areas. Therefore, additional attention must be paid to using site characterization and remedial methods that will accommodate the often inflexible nature of urban sites. This paper first presents the current state of brownfields, followed by brownfield initiatives and regulations of various regulatory agencies. Next, a rational remedial strategy useful for the guidance of brownfield redevelopment is presented. Because the remedial strategy often requires the application of a remedial method to address site contamination, different remedial technologies are discussed, as well as their applicability to various field conditions. It is anticipated that this assessment of innovative remedial technologies will benefit environmental and geotechnical professionals who may be involved in the rehabilitation of brownfield sites.
- Brass factory to regional mall: A model brownfield
Kay, WF Jr; Barton, EC
Practice Periodical of Hazardous, Toxic, and Radioactive Waste Management [Pract. Periodical Hazard., Toxic, Radioact. Waste Manage.], vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 83-87, Apr 1999
This paper details a portion of the story of how a 173-year-old former urban brass mill site was transformed into a thriving new regional shopping mall and answers the following questions. Why was this site selected? What obstacles had to be overcome? Who were the stakeholders in the process and what held them together? Who paid for building demolition, remediation, and site improvements? What were the environmental issues and how were they defined and then dealt with? How were these issues coordinated with the traditional development issues and resolved? What did we learn and where are we going with this thing called brownfields?
- Brownfield redevelopment of Koppers Seaboard Site in Kearny, New Jersey
Hornsby, ML; Sawchuck, PW
Practice Periodical of Hazardous, Toxic, and Radioactive Waste Management [Pract. Periodical Hazard., Toxic, Radioact. Waste Manage.], vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 88-93, Apr 1999
This paper describes the ongoing remediation and brownfield redevelopment project at the former Koppers Seaboard Site in Kearny, New Jersey. The remediation/redevelopment of the 687,990 square meter site, utilizing processed dredged materials (PDM) and pending redevelopment, will help allow vital regional shipping to continue, and renders the site suitable for industrial use. The site was the location of the Koppers Seaboard Coke and By-Products plant, which was razed in 1979. Significant contamination remains from past operations, which included coke production, gas conditioning, and coal-tar refining. A Remedial Action Work Plan (RAWP) was approved by the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection in 1998. The RAWP proposed to contain contaminants on-site, using a barrier system along the Hackensack River, and capping of the site using PDM. PDM placement was initiated in late 1997 under an interim state approval, and will require approximately three years to complete placement operations. The PDM is manufactured, offsite, by stabilizing dredged materials with Portland Cement and other admixtures. The final thickness of the PDM cap will be about ten m, providing a total storage capacity of about 3,440,000 m super(3) of PDM. The PDM cap eliminates direct-contact exposure to contaminated materials and contaminated storm-water runoff. A steel sheet pile wall and a slurry wall have been installed, which reduces migration of contaminants to acceptable levels in ground water prior to discharging to the Hackensack River. The property owner intends to redevelop the property for industrial or commercial usage following site remediation. A proposed Conceptual Master Plan provides a layout that could accommodate one 1,160-m super(2) and five 890-m super(2) pads for industrial facilities. Vehicular, rail, and water access are all available to the site.
- Assessing the risks
Clifton, A; Boyd, M; Rhodes, S
Land Contamination & Reclamation [Land Contam. Reclam.], vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 27-32, Jan 1999
Brownfield sites are often seen as a development liability due to the perceived high remedial cost and residual pollution risks giving them a nominal, or even negative land value. Much of the problem lies in the current UK guidance on contaminated land which provides intrinsic values for selected compounds, below which a site does not need to be 'remediated'. As a result, expensive remediation measures, which are not necessary, may be undertaken at sites which only just exceed recommended levels. However, by adopting the risk assessment approach, as advocated by current government policy, risks at a site can be identified and the remediation targeted accordingly. This allows the risks to be minimised without undertaking unnecessary, and frequently expensive, remediation, by reducing abnormal development costs and optimising land values. This article outlines the methods, using risk assessment techniques and illustrates these advantages via a case study.
- Waste management licensing regulations applied to remediation of contaminated land: Regulatory drift or appropriate regulation?
Land Contamination & Reclamation [Land Contam. Reclam.], vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 33-40, Jan 1999
Recent changes to Environment Agency practice in the use of the Waste Management Licensing Regulations 1994 for regulation of contaminated land remediation are described. The licensing requirements likely to be enforced for a variety of conventional engineering-based and innovative treatment-based remediation activities, and the consequences for brownfield redevelopment, are considered. It is concluded that the Waste Management Licensing Regulations are an unsatisfactory mechanism for regulating the remediation of contaminated soil, and an alternative form of regulation similar to the Construction (Design and Management) Regulations 1994 is suggested. It is recognised that this may require legislation, and is therefore unlikely to happen in the short term. In the meantime, it is suggested that where existing regulations are to be applied, existing exemptions should be widened, where this is necessary to avoid impeding government policy favouring brownfield development.
- Institutional Controls for Future Land Use at Active Installation Restoration Program (IRP) Sites
Hourcle, LR; Guenther, NH
Remediation, vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 73-86, 1999
One of the strategies now in vogue in hazardous waste cleanup is basing remedial strategies on future land use. The initial thrust of CERCLA for permanent and complete remedies has given way, pushed by concepts like "brownfields" and base closure and reuse, to strategies often based on "institutional controls" that attempt to stabilize future land uses at a site based on residual risk. The heart of this concept is that instead of removing all wastes from a site, some wastes can safely remain so long as in the future the site is not used in such a way that the residual contamination poses an unacceptable risk to human health and the environment. "Institutional controls" is a term for land use management strategies that do not rely on engineering approaches to reduce risk, but rather seek to ensure that the site is not used in an inappropriate way in the future. This article cautions that such a strategy has inherent residual risks that must be understood by those involved in implementing hazardous waste cleanups and those responsible for future uses of contaminated property. Simply put, institutional controls are only as good as the processes that are in place to ensure they are respected in the future. This presents particular problems for active duty installations because most of the protections commonly available to private sector sites are not useful at active installations. This article discusses an initiative by the Air Combat Command to develop a handbook on instituting and maintaining land restrictions. It will also discuss that effort in light of the April 21 EPA Region IV guidance on assuring Land Use Controls at Federal Facilities. This article is based on a paper and presentations given at the 1998 ACC Environmental Training Symposium.
- Contaminated Land Registers: an Analysis of the UK and USA Approaches to Public Management of Contaminated Sites
Syms, PM; Simons, RA
Land Contamination & Reclamation [Land Contam. Reclam.], vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 121-132, 1999
This paper addresses the issue of creation and maintenance of contaminated property registers in the UK and USA. It would appear that a policy measure proposing the creation of a contaminated land registry would be supported because it would enable the scope of the problem to be determined and allow public funds to be allocated in an efficient manner. Tracking of progress on reducing the number of contaminated sites (brownfields in the USA) would be explicit and straightforward. In theory, such a measure should be supported as it would oblige polluters to take responsibility for their actions and decontaminate or reclaim their land. Registers would also have the benefit of identifying land which is a risk to the public and the environment. Actual experience with a register initiative in the UK produced such an adverse reaction that the proposal was abandoned. Several contaminated site lists, containing over 380 000 properties, are available in the USA, but are not intended as a registry, but rather as a way to rank sites which endanger the public health. There is no comprehensive registry system in the USA. This lack is partly due to resistance from the real estate interests, fearing the stigma that could be attached to property if it were listed. This paper covers the history, similarities and differences of the register initiatives in the two countries, and closes with policy recommendations for contaminated property registers. In the USA, the registers would be best kept at local or state level. In the UK, revised proposals for tackling the contaminated land problem, section 57 Environment Act 1995 (Part IIA, Environmental Protection Act 1990), should result in the compilation of registers containing details of the most seriously contaminated land.
- Potential application of influence diagram as a risk assessment tool in Brownfields sites
Attoh-Okine, Nii O
ASTM Special Technical Publication [ASTM SPEC Tech Publ], no. 1338, pp. 148-159, 1999
Brownfields are vacant, abandoned, or underutilized commercial and industrial sites and facilities where real or perceived environmental contamination is an obstacle to redevelopment. These sites are vacant because they often do not meet the strict remediation requirements of the Superfund Law. The sites are accessible locations with much of the infrastructure, albeit deteriorated, in place. Thus they also represent an opportunity to slow down suburban and rural sprawl. As a liability, the concern stems from the environment liability of both known and unknown site contamination. Influence diagrams are tools used to represent complex decision problems based on incomplete and uncertain information from a variety of sources. The influence diagrams can be used to divide all uncertainties (Brownfields site infrastructure impact assessment) into subfactors until the level has been reached at which intuitive functions are most effective. Given the importance of uncertainties and the utilities of the Brownfields infrastructure, the use of influence diagrams seem more appropriate for representing and solving risks involved in Brownfields infrastructure assessment.
- Brownfields and Greenfields: An Ethical Perspective on Land Use
Environmental Ethics [Environ. Ethics], vol. 21, no. 3, pp. 277-292, 1999
America's industries and families continue to forsake cities for suburban and rural environs, in the process leaving nonproductive lands (brownfields) and simultaneously removing greenfield land from agriculturally or biologically productive use. In spite of noteworthy exceptions, urban regions which once functioned as vital communities continue in economic and social decline. There is no consensus on what government should do about the problem, or whether government should be involved at all. I present elements of a land-use ethic which can accommodate the foregoing. I argue that government is already involved in the brownfields problem because urban flight is facilitated by public policies which de facto subsidize the process. I further argue that the debate invokes key--but unexamined--assumptions regarding limits. Where there are few substitutes for resources and the social cost of exploitation is high, government intervention in the market is necessary; "value-free" economic approaches need to be supplemented by values concerning what ought to be, i.e., what is desirable for society.
- Brownfields redevelopment and financing: The Windham Mills
Vose, Jeff; Brogie, Martin
Hazardous and Industrial Wastes - Proceedings of the Mid-Atlantic Industrial Waste Conference [Hazard Ind Wastes Proc Mid Atl Ind Waste Conf], pp. 27-35, 1999
Windham Mills was the largest cotton mill in the world during the late 1800s and early 1900s. As the focus of textile manufacturing moved away from New England during the mid-20th century, American Thread ended production in 1985, leaving many area residents unemployed. Several futile attempts were made to revitalize the mills. Windham Mills, through its expanding relationship with UCONN and other institutions of higher education, is becoming a catalyst for the commercialization of critical technologies. The following activities that have been completed since 1996 and those that are budgeted over the next year are described.
- Innovative approach to Brownfields site assessments
Long, Sharon C; Tease, Bruce
Hazardous and Industrial Wastes - Proceedings of the Mid-Atlantic Industrial Waste Conference [Hazard Ind Wastes Proc Mid Atl Ind Waste Conf], pp. 36-43, 1999
The U.S. General Accounting Office estimates that there may be 650,000 underutilized or abandoned properties across the country due to perceived or actual releases of hazardous materials. Liabilities presented by these properties, referred to as Brownfields sites, create substantial limitations to property acquisition and employment opportunities, particularly in economically distressed areas. Several federal and state programs have been developed to evaluate and clean-up such sites, but the number of projects funded are far outnumbered by the sites remaining to be investigated. An innovative approach to Brownfields site assessment has been developed. This approach relies on a unique partnership between academia, state and federal environmental regulators, and municipalities. Students of environmental programs are provided the necessary skills to conduct Phase I site assessments pursuant to ASTM guidelines. The reports produced provide a comprehensive evaluation of the environmental value of potential Brownfields sites and form a basis for making future informed decisions regarding site usage and/or necessary remedial actions. A model for the effective development of Brownfields partnerships is introduced. Several case histories are presented where this program has been implemented.
- Phytoremediation of lead-contaminated soil at a New Jersey brownfield site
Blaylock, MJ; Elless, MP; Huang, Jianwei W; Dushenkov, SM
Remediation, vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 93-101, 1999
Phytoremediation is a new technology that uses specially selected metal- accumulating plants as an attractive and economical method to clean up soils contaminated with heavy metals and radionuclides. The integration of specially selected metal-accumulating crop plants (Brassica juncea (L) Czern.) with innovative soil amendments allows plants to achieve high biomass and metal accumulation rates. In a recent study conducted at a lead-contaminated site in Trenton, New Jersey, the soil was treated with phytoremediation using successive crops of B. juncea combined with soil amendments. Through phytoremediation, the average surface soil lead concentration was reduced by 13 percent. In addition, the target soil concentration of 400 mg/kg was achieved in approximately 72 percent of the treated area in one cropping season.
- Waste Management Licensing Regulations Applied to the Remediation of Contaminated Land: an Update
Land Contamination & Reclamation [Land Contam. Reclam.], vol. 7, no. 4, pp. 245-254, 1999
This paper provides an update to the previous paper (Westcott 1999) on the application of the Waste Management Licensing Regulations to the remediation of contaminated land. Since the previous paper was prepared, the Environment Agency has gone some way to clarify its position on this issue. It is apparent that the current approach is to use the vehicle of 'Mobile Plant Licences' (MPLs) to regulate the majority of remedial processes. The regulatory framework applicable to engineering-based and treatment-based remediation activities is outlined, based on the guidance issued by the Environment Agency in early 1999. The process for obtaining and using MPLs is described and analysed. Particular processes or activities are identified for which the licensing regime may cause difficulties for remedial projects. The possible impact on the remediation and brownfield development industries is discussed. Likely future developments are considered in the context of the currently widely held view that contaminated land remediation should have its purpose-designed licensing system. It is suggested that land development and remediation entrepreneurs and practitioners should engage with environmental regulators to influence the development of this system so that the environmental protection aims of the regulations can be achieved in a commercially appropriate manner.
- Brownfields remediation and redevelopment policies, incentives, and pilot projects
Tansel, B; Hidalgo, R; Curiel, J
Journal of Environmental Systems [J. Environ. Syst.], vol. 27, no. 1, pp. 15-31, 1999
Federal legislation and proposals for economic incentives and funding have played an important role in the legislative development of brownfield remediation programs. Through these proposals and laws, such as the Asset Conservation, Lender Liability, and Deposit Insurance Protection Act, many brownfield sites have been redeveloped. The Brownfields Tax Incentive program provides one and one-half billion dollars for the redevelopment of brownfields in destitute urban and rural areas throughout the nation. This incentive is expected to generate six billion dollars in private investments and revitalize fourteen thousand brownfield sites. In terms of federal funding, Congress has reserved eighty-six million dollars for brownfield cleanup and reuse for fiscal year 1998. Additional funding could also be provided by the Brownfields and Environmental Cleanup Act, Community Revitalization and Brownfield Cleanup Act, and the Department of Housing and Urban Development. This study summarizes the evolution of brownfields' legislative development and provides information about nine specific brownfield sites, which have received funding ranging from 100,000 to 2.1 million dollars. These deteriorated industrial or commercial districts have now become showcase areas for the communities.
- Brownfields by the book
McGahren, John; Hatfield, William S
Civil Engineering (New York) [CIV ENG (NEW YORK)], vol. 68, no. 11, pp. 42-45, Nov 1998
State legislators have passed laws to attract industry and development back to brownfield properties. Aside from having readily available utility hookups and access to transportation, brownfield properties also feature the added advantage of proximity to a large workforce and the presence of other infrastructure generally associated with urban and suburban areas. Brownfield legislation varies from state to state but usually includes incentives to industry and developers to remediate contaminated properties. These incentives include liability relief or agreements not to sue, greater flexibility in cleanup standards, and relaxed remediation requirements.
- The Relationship between Historic Industrial Site Use and Environmental Contamination
Stiber, NA; Small, MJ; Fischbeck, PS
Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association [J. Air Waste Manage. Assoc.], vol. 48, no. 9, pp. 809-818, Sep 1998
A methodology is presented for estimating the probability that particular classes of environmental contaminants will be of concern at brownfield redevelopment sites. These probabilities are predicted by a logistics model that is based on qualitative information about site history and status. This qualitative information comprises data that would be collected through a Phase I Environmental Site Assessment (ESA), including historic site use, current use and ownership status, and the nature of adjacent properties. The model is fit and demonstrated using a set of 59 former industrial sites in southwestern Pennsylvania that were collected from the files of the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection (PADEP). Predictive models are developed for exceedances of contaminants as grouped into the following classes: metals, chlorinated hydrocarbons, fuel hydrocarbons, and PCBs. A procedure for estimating the parametric uncertainty of the model predictions is also illustrated. This method can serve as a starting point for more effective usage of existing Phase I ESA information and for evaluation of the benefit of obtaining additional site information. By increasing the decision-making value of existing (or inexpensive) data, this method can help to reduce the information asymmetry that may be an obstacle to redevelopment.
- Turning Brownfields into Green
World Wastes [World Wastes], vol. 41, no. 5, pp. 28-35, May 1998
If you're a private contractor looking for new business opportunities or a local government trying to encourage the redevelopment of contaminated property, then think "Brownfields." The Brownfields Initiative (A.K.A. the Brownfields Economic Redevelopment Program) aims to revitalize cities through the environmental cleanup and economic redevelopment of contaminated sites. Since the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency conceived the initiative in 1995, more than 40 states and hundreds of counties and cities have complemented it with more regulatory flexibility and economic incentives. Brownfields sites are typically commercial or industrial properties with actual or perceived contamination and a realistic potential for redevelopment. Classic brownfields sites are abandoned or unused former factory lots and buildings in urban areas. The astute management of solid and hazardous wastes is critical to the successful brownfields restoration and reuse in three areas: building decontamination and demolition, industrial ecology processes and on-site reuse.
- Remediation options
Water Environment & Technology [Water Environ. Technol.], vol. 10, no. 5, pp. 51-53, May 1998
Faced with 7 million dry Mg/yr of biosolids, the 16 000 U.S. municipal wastewater treatment plants continue to search for innovative management options. Recent innovations include using biosolids to help stabilize lead in old mines, to reclaim areas ravaged by forest fires, and as a lime substitute. While they are promising, these alternatives would only make a small dent in a large problem. In U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Region 5, officials are exploring ways to beneficially use biosolids and remediate hazardous and nonhazardous waste sites, including brownfields (abandoned industrial land parcels), Superfund sites, Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) corrective action sites, and abandoned mines. Besides creating a new outlet for large volumes of biosolids, this would give the world another low-cost remediation option.
- Quality data show the way to brownfields redevelopment
Easter, Michael; Lakin, Michael; Berman, DWayne
Pollution Engineering [POLLUT ENG], vol. 30, no. 4, pp. 58-60, Apr 1998
Brownfield projects are remediation projects coupled with redevelopment projects. As with other redevelopment efforts, completion costs and schedule are driven by market demands. However unlike with other redevelopment, a myriad of regulatory agencies has the ability to significantly increase the overall costs and delay completion. A brownfield project's success depends on the early identification of regulatory decision criteria to support approval. Proper implementation of data quality objective process ensures the data needs are identified and the data are collected.
- Brownfields redevelopment: Programs and strategies for contaminated real estate
GOVERNMENT INSTITUTES, ROCKVILLE, MD 20850 (USA), Feb 1998, 448 pp.
Cleaning up and redeveloping environmentally contaminated real estate, also known as "brownfields," can be extremely lucrative. Local governments and private developers are taking advantage of incentives offered by the federal government and revitalizing these properties, which can be purchased at a fraction of their post-cleanup value. Brownfields Redevelopment: Programs and Strategies for Contaminated Real Estate is a comprehensive guide to the issues surrounding such brownfields initiatives, providing developers with advice for their own successful brownfields rehabilitation.
- Science plus management equals successful remediation: A case study
Buehlman, Mark D; Rogers, Daniel T; Payne, Frederick C
Environmental Progress [ENVIRON PROG], vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 111-119, 1998
In the past, owners of contaminated sites attempted to remediate as quickly as possible, usually by excavating contaminated soil or pumping and treating contaminated groundwater. Often, they started remediation before identifying all potential types and sources of contaminants, and before conducting a thorough hydrogeologic study. Such premature action usually resulted in the selected remedy not working, the contamination spreading, or unnecessary remedial activities. Today, successful site remediation is recognized as a complex and time-consuming undertaking - requiring a combination of careful scientific study, effective negotiation with the regulatory agencies and skillful management of multidisciplinary efforts. A case study involving a brownfields site in southeastern Michigan clearly illustrates the elements of successful remediation. The site's soil was contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and its groundwater with a variety of chlorinated solvents. The original estimate for remediation had exceeded $30 million. Several phases of investigation were conducted to evaluate the nature and sources of contaminants, the site's hydrogeology, potential risks to human health and the environment, and feasible remedial technologies. Multiple cleanup criteria were established for different affected areas based on the results of the investigations, changes that were taking place with the state cleanup regulations and standards and subsequent negotiations with state and federal regulators. Innovative remedial technologies were selected. The result was a remediation that met or exceeded all soil and groundwater cleanup objectives, was performed on schedule, and was highly cost-effective. The final cost was limited to $3 million - one-tenth of the original estimate. The success of this project involved meticulous scientific study and comprehensive understanding of applicable regulatory requirements and available remediation technologies. It also required effective project management to coordinate the multidisciplinary efforts involved and to maintain the constant vertical and horizontal communications necessary to ensure sound decisions at every step in the process.
- "Through a Lens Darkly" Superfund spectacles on public participation at brownfield sites
Wernstedt, K; Hersh, R
Risk - Health Safety & Environment [Risk - Health, Saf. Environ.], vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 153-174, 1998
The authors discuss the recent trend in brownfield site development against a backdrop of Superfund experience and explore current barriers to public participation.
- The use of risk assessment and risk management in the revitalization of brownfields in North America: a controlled opening
Thomas Telford Publishing, 1998, pp. 51-59
The concern for contaminated soil emerged at the beginning of the 80's. Since then, it never faded out, even if the interventions' focus changed many times. In North America, it is now on the redevelopment of 'Brownfields', abandoned industrial and commercial facilities where expansion or redevelopment is complicated by environmental contamination. In the last years, new regulations, were adopted by governmental authorities to foster their reuse. Among them, some transcontinental trends can be perceived. The controlled use of risk assessment and risk management is one of them.
- Brownfields versus greenfield sites under economic and long term environmental considerations
Grimski, D; Doetsch, P; Rupke, A
Thomas Telford Publishing, 1998, pp. 651-660
The consumption of virgin land (greenfield) in Germany is registered to an extent of 120 ha a day. Approximately this size of land is sealed every day for building purposes and thereby not anymore available for ecological functions of the soil. At the same time, enough brownfield sites are available for development. This indicates that there is a kind of competition between greenfields and brownfields with respect to attract investors for the development of land. In other words, old industrial sites have to compete with greenfields and the benefits they offer for potential investors. Thus, the Federal Environmental Agency in Germany has contracted an expertise on land management and on land development procedures comparing and evaluating both, the development of brownfield sites and the development of greenfield sites. The results of this project will be presented.
- Brownfields redevelopment of the sovereign oil site under Pennsylvania's Act 2
Environmental Regulation and Permitting [Environ. Regul. Permitting], vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 71-74, 1998
Pennsylvania's Act 2 provides for remediation of former industrial sites qualifying as Special Industrial Areas to a level which addresses immediate, direct, or imminent threats to the environment. The Sovereign Oil Site was a heavily contaminated site that qualified as a Special Industrial Area and was eligible for a grant from the State to remediate the site. The steps in the process included a Baseline Remedial Investigation, Remedial Action Plan, and a Consent Order and Agreement. The approved plan outlined an impervious cover including asphalt paving and a building floor slab with a vapor barrier and venting system. The Consent Order & Agreement was signed between the state, city and developer providing a release of liability upon completion of the remediation.
- Brownfields redevelopment issues revisited
Gibbons, Juel S; Attoh-Okine, Nii O; Laha, Shonali
International Journal of Environment and Pollution [INT J ENVIRON POLLUT], vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 151-162, 1998
The value of revitalizing contaminated or brownfield sites has gained widespread acceptance. The efforts at remediation and eventual redevelopment of these sites involve several stakeholders, because the exercise directly impacts a number of different interests. The key issues to be resolved for the successful rejuvenation of brownfields are technical, legal, financial, future land use and community issues. Satisfactory resolution of these issues results in a happy confluence of interests working together to ensure the full exploitation of these underused assets. This paper fully discusses the issues and the attendant obstacles to redevelopment of brownfield sites, and examines some of the more successful approaches that have been employed.
- Brownfields law and practice: The cleanup and redevelopment of contaminated land
MATTHEW BENDER & COMPANY, INC., 1998
The complete guide for developers, investors, lenders, property owners, and others who want to seize the opportunity of profitable investment, voluntary cleanup or redevelopment of contaminated land and for their attorneys. It is replete with practice notes and analysis of rapidly evolving federal and state initiatives, programs and policies so that lawyers can most effectively counsel their clients, and negotiate agreements with other parties to enable brownfields projects to successfully proceed. Every aspect of the brownfields endeavor, such as legal liability pitfalls, assessments of contamination, valuation of contaminated property, financial issues and incentives, tax considerations, specialized insurance policies, etc. is considered in-depth. As a result, each party and its counsel can: Identify and understand the applicable laws and issues; assess the environmental, financial, and legal risks and liabilities; minimize and allocate those potential risks and liabilities; make optimal use of beneficial opportunities for brownfields development. Features include detailed chapter summaries; extensive headings and subheadings; practice pointers; sample forms; individual state chapters; lists of laws, governmental contacts, and websites; glossary of terms, and bibliography.
- Identifying Synergy Between Remedial Strategies and Land Reuse
Nyer, EK; Graves, LS
Ground Water Monitoring and Remediation [Ground Water Monit. Remediat.], vol. 18, no. 4, pp. 61-65, 1998
Since promulgation of CER-CLA and RCRA regulations in the mid '70s, environmental professionals have witnessed an evolution in the objectives of soil and ground water remediation. In the late '70s and early '80s, remediation goals were performance-based (we tried to reach maximum contaminant levels); in the '90s, they became risk-based; and now as we enter the 21st century, the standards seem to be evolving into being controlled by land use. Part of the reason that land-use orientation of soil and ground water remediation goals have become more common are the federal and state Brownfields initiatives. However, while these programs are visible, the private sector is also providing economic pressure to escalate this process.