Discovery Guides Areas


An Overview and Brief History of Southern Hemisphere Tropical Cyclones
(Released June 2012)

  by Adam Arnold  


Key Citations




Resources eLibrary Resources
eLibrary Resources

  1. This handout from the US Joint Typhoon Warning Center taken 02 January, 2007 and received 03 January, 2007 shows Tropical Cyclone Isobel developing off the coast of Western Australia (R) and south of the Indonesian archipelago (top). Australian oil and mining companies shut down operations 03 January 2007 as communities battened down the hatches ahead of the "perfect storm" experts feared would bring destructive winds and flooding to the country's west. Isobel, the first of the state's annual cyclone season — which can last until March — was expected to have gusts of up to 100 kilometres (60 miles) per hour as far away as Broome, 500 kilometres to the northeast, but Australia's Bureau of Meteorology said the category one tropical cyclone would weaken as it moved inland.
    AFP/Getty Images

  2. This aerial view shows buildings damaged after Cyclone Yasi hit the Queensland town of Tully on February 3, 2011. Australia's biggest cyclone in a century shattered entire towns after striking the coast and churning across the vast country, but officials expressed relief that no one was killed. Terrified residents emerged to check the damage after Severe Tropical Cyclone Yasi hit land at around midnight, packing winds of up to 290 kilometres (180 miles) per hour, in a region still reeling from record floods.
    PAUL CROCK/AFP/Getty Images

  3. Chart showing maximum wind strength of classes of tropical and subtropical cyclones; diferences between tropical and substropical storms.
    Yingling/Knight-Ridder/Tribune News Service
Resources taken from Proquest's eLibrary

Charts and Tables
  1. Composite patterns of (a) 850-hPa wind and (b) total precipitation associated with the simulated TCs. The composites have been computed by averaging the fields of the 100 most intense (in terms of precipitation) model TCs in the Northern Hemisphere. The fields have been averaged over the period of occurrence of the TCs and over the 100 events. The mean fields have been computed over a spatial domain centered in the core of the cyclone and extending 10° each side. In (a) the direction of 850-hPa wind (arrows) is plotted along with the intensity of the wind (contour). The contour interval is 2 m s-1. Contours larger than 10 m s-1 are shaded. In (b) the 850-hPa wind (arrows) along with the total precipitation rate is shown. The contour interval is 5 mm day-1.

    Changes in Tropical Cyclone Activity due to Global Warming: Results from a High-Resolution Coupled General Circulation Model
    Gualdi, S; Scoccimarro, E; Navarra, A. Journal of Climate 21. 20 (Oct 2008): 5204-5228.
  2. Seasonal modulation of the TC occurrence for the observations (dashed lines) and model simulation (solid lines) and for different region of the tropics. (top) Tropical region of the (left) Southern and (right) Northern Hemisphere. (middle and bottom) Northern Indian Ocean, western tropical Pacific, eastern tropical Pacific, and tropical Atlantic.

    Changes in Tropical Cyclone Activity due to Global Warming: Results from a High-Resolution Coupled General Circulation Model
    Journal of Climate 21 (Oct 2008): 5204-5228.
  3. Sensitivity of detection of tropical cyclones in climate model simulations to changes in the parameters listed in Table 1 and to horizontal resolution. Detection is for January formation between 145° and 175°E in the Southern Hemisphere. Simulations analyzed are those of Walsh et al. (2004).

    Objectively Determined Resolution-Dependent Threshold Criteria for the Detection of Tropical Cyclones in Climate Models and Reanalyses
    Journal of Climate 20 (May 2007): 2307-2314.
  4. Distribution of tropical cyclone cases by basin for the intensity estimation datasets. Shown is the dataset for MSW, with n = 2637 cases. For MSLP, with n = 2624 cases, only the Atlantic and east Pacific distributions are different, with 31.9% and 25.2%, respectively.

    Improvement of Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit Tropical Cyclone Intensity and Size Estimation Algorithms
    Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology 45 (Nov 2006): 1573-1581.
Tables taken from ProQuest's Illustrata
  1. Michael T. Montgomery
    Professor, Department of Meteorology, United States Department of Defense
    Research focuses on the fundamental dynamics of terrestrial geophysical vortices including the circumpolar vortex, extratropical cyclones, hurricanes, polar lows, and tornadoes. Though these motion systems draw from different energy sources and span vastly different scales their dynamics is governed by the same principles of Newtonian mechanics generalized to a fluid continuum. A sketch of some of my research areas is provided below.

    An important yet unsolved problem in meteorology and weather forecast is the problem of tropical cyclogenesis. Previous work (Montgomery and Farrell 1993, JAS) examined genesis from a midlatitude perspective and pointed to environmental asymmetries associated with upper-level potential vorticity anomalies as initiators of the hurricane engine. Current work is examining the genesis problem from a geophysical turbulence perspective. Our aim is two-fold: To understand and quantify the upscale energy cascade associated with moist convection in a weakly rotating vortex. The theoretical basis for this line of inquiry lies in the recent work by Montgomery and Kallenbach (1997, QJRMS) and Montgomery and Enagonio (1998, JAS).

    Two other important and challenging problems are those of hurricane motion and hurricane intensity change. Here the emphasis is to understand the physical mechanisms that move and strengthen/weaken an already fully-developed vortex. The motion problem is being examined using a simplified balance model (Shapiro and Montgomery 1993, Montgomery and Shapiro 1995, JAS) designed to filter fast-acting gravity-inertia waves but retain pertinent advective motions that move the vortex (Montgomery et al., 1999, JAS). The intensity change problem is being studied using a variety of models spanning the complete spectrum from a barotropic nondivergent spectral model to full physics finite difference models such as MM5 and RAMS.

  2. John E. Molinari
    Professor, Department of Atmospheric and Environmental Sciences, State University of New York at Albany
    •Tropical cyclone formation, both in terms of mesoscale evolution and large-scale influences
    •Tropical cyclone intensity change
    •Role of vertical wind shear at all stages of tropical cyclones
    •Lightning in tropical disturbances
    •Equatorial wave modes in the tropics

  3. Da-lin Zhang
    Professor, Department of Atmospheric & Oceanic Science, University of Maryland
    •Mesoscale Convective Systems
    •Tropical and Extratropical Cyclones
    •Mesoscale Modelling
    •Regional Climate
    •Air Pollution Meteorology
    His research involves simulating a variety of different severe convective systems and cyclones; examining the meso-beta-scale structures and evolution as well as the mechanism(s) whereby they develop; testing theories, hypotheses and various model physical representations; and finally interpreting, to the extent possible, the observed behaviors of these weather systems. His research interests also include the development and improvement of the planetary boundary layer and cumulus parameterization techniques, cloud representations in mesoscale numerical models, and the improvement of warm-season quantitative precipitation forecasts and severe weather warnings.

Scholars taken from ProQuest's Community of Scholars