- Devonian ostracods from western Canada
- palaeozoogeographic implications
G. Becker and WK Braun.
Senckenbergiana Lethaea, Vol. 88, No. 1, Jun 2008, pp. 23-35.
The stratigraphical significance, evolutionary pathways and
distribution patterns of Devonian (with emphasis on Middle
Devonian) ostracods occurring in western Canada are reviewed.
The overall faunal appearance is Devonian in aspect. Typical
Eifelian-Givetian markers are ascertainable at the generic
level, and occasionally resemble known species. Recognised
genera mostly comprise cosmopolitan forms indicating (close
or loose) faunal connections to both north and south, but
also representing either Old World or true New World forms.
A "core group", however, shows a particular bauplan giving
a unique aspect, mainly discrete palaeocopine genera, provided
with particular extradomiciliar dimorphic features and considered
to be endemic for the Middle Devonian of western Canada. In
terms of palaeozoogeography, faunal relationships inside Canada
and to Devonian occurrences overseas are demonstrated. Connections
between sedimentary transgressive-regressive and evolutionary
cycles are demonstrated in terms of event-stratigraphy. Against
the background of plate tectonic analyses, assumed migration
paths are considered, probably northward via the Uralian Sea
to Siberia, but certainly and on a larger scale southward
across the Rheic Ocean to North Africa (southwestern Morocco,
central Sahara) and Europe (Eifel region, eastern Thuringia,
Holy Cross Mountains). As a result, the faunal relationship
to the adjacent Great Lakes region appears to be much closer
than originally predicted, while only loose contacts are traceable
to the North American Midcontinent region. The North African
and central European relationships are revealed by few, but
conspicuous genera and, to some extent, this may be true of
the Russian Platform and Bashkiria.
- Did Esmark's (1824) glacial theory
impel the discovery of the "greenhouse" effect (Tyndall, 1861),
lithospheric isostasy (Jamieson, 1882) and continental drift
(Wegener, 1912)?; 33rd international geological congress; abstracts
Paul F. Hoffman.
International Geological Congress, Abstracts = Congres Geologique
International, Resumes, Vol. 33, No. , 2008, pp. @Abstract
The glacial theory for Pleistocene tills and associated landforms
in northern Europe and North America was proposed by Esmark
(1824) in Norway, Venetz (1830) in Switzerland and Bernhardi
(1832) in Germany, but was not widely accepted until after
the Scottish glacial revival led by Jamieson (1862) and Geikie
(1863). Resolution of the glacial controversy was good for
geology-How could older strata be understood if those closest
to the Recent remain mysterious (James Smith, 1836)-but was
more deeply felt in climate physics. Experimental demonstration
of the selective absorbtion of infra-red but not visible radiation
by certain gases (Tyndall, 1861, 1863) was carried out expressly
to account "for all the perturbations of climate that the
researches of geology have revealed". Tyndall recognized that
although absorbtion by water vapor is "more essential to the
vegetable life of England than clothing is to man", it is
the atmosphere's variable minor constituents, notably carbon
dioxide, that must be responsible for bidirectional climate
change of geological magnitude. "Revolutions in the Sea" (Adhemar,
1842) may seem an odd title for an orbital theory of ice ages,
but the book is directed at a problem more central to the
ice age controversy than most historians admit, the problem
of submergence of the land and its slow reemergence after
the ice had disappeared. The titles of papers from "On indications
of changes in the relative levels of Sea and Land in the West
of Scotland" (Smith, 1836) onward refer to the occurrence
of marine faunas in the tills and overlying stratified drift,
now raised high above the sea. Adhemar (1842) envisioned gigantic
polar ice caps, alternating between the hemispheres, which
displace the planet's center of mass, causing sea levels to
rise toward the glaciated pole and fall toward its opposite.
Although Croll (1864) revised Adhemar's theory of climate
change, he accepted his ideas on submergence (Croll, 1866,
1875). Croll's writings on submergence were intended to refute
the suggestion of Jamieson (1865) that the submergence was
due to "the enormous weight of ice laid down upon the land".
The latter emerged triumphant, however, based on geological
observations insightfully marshalled (Jamieson, 1882), including
the development of peripheral bulges and their collapse, causing
drowned forests, upon deglaciation. Jamieson, the most creative
and original of the Scottish glacial revivalists, deserves
to be better known. The identification in 1859 of late Paleozoic
tillites in coastal India, in 1870 in southern Africa and
later throughout Gondwanaland (ice always flowing onshore)
aroused a young German meteorologist. "The Permian ice age
poses an unsolvable riddle for all models that do not dare
to assume horizontal displacements of the continents" (Wegener,
1912). Closing the Atlantic and Indian oceans "takes everything
mysterious away from the problem".
- How the evolution of world maps led
to ideas of continental drift and plate tectonics; Michigan
Academy of Science, Arts and Letters; abstracts of papers presented
Michigan Academician, Vol. 38, No. 4, 2008, pp. 58-59.
- Long-term true polar wander of the
Earth including the effects of convective processes in the mantle
and continental drift
Geophysical Journal International, Vol. 175, No. 3, Dec 2008,
Long-term true polar wander (TPW) of the Earth was examined
by taking into account the effects of simplified convective
processes in the Earth's mantle and continental drift. The
TPW, for a given viscoelastic earth model, is wholly determined
by both the magnitude of non-forcing elements of moment of
inertia (I sub(11), I sub(22) and I sub(33)) and I sub(12)
element of product of inertia, and the rates for forcing elements,
dI sub(13)-dt and dI sub(23)-dt. The forcing rates are largely
related to time-dependent convective processes in the mantle
and also continental drift. In this study, I examined the
TPW on a convecting mantle with oscillating moments of inertia,
inferred from a convective process of alternating degree-one
and degree-two structure changes of mantle convection by Zhong
et al. (2007). In the phase for a relatively hydrostatic Earth,
corresponding to largely degree-one planform, the predicted
TPW is sensitive to the viscosity structure of the mantle,
particularly to the lithospheric viscosity structure, and
its magnitude may be larger than similar to 30 degree even
for the forcing rates with similar to 10 super(30)kgm super(2)Myr
super( -1) related to continental drift (Dickman 1979). In
the phase for a non-hydrostatic Earth characterized by largely
degree-two planform such as for the present-day, however,
the TPW is less sensitive to the viscosity structure, and
its magnitude may be similar to 10 degree at most. These results
may provide quantitative constraints on examining relationship
between rheological structure and convective processes in
the mantle, continental drift and TPW.
- Revolutions in the earth sciences;
continental drift, impact and other catastrophes
Wolf Uwe Reimold.
South African Journal of Geology, Vol. 110, No. 1, Mar 2007,
This is the story of changing paradigms, regarding the understanding
of our planet and its position in space--of geocentric and
heliocentric views, but mainly in the earth sciences, over
the last several centuries. This is also the story of the
revolutionaries--Copernicus, Lyell, Hutton, Van Hoff, Wegener
and Du Toit, Dietz and Hess, and finally Shoemaker. It is
the story that begins with the Babylonian geocentric but flat
worldview, moves on to the heliocentric perspective of the
Greek philosopher Aristarch, via the geocentric dogma of the
pre-Copernican Middle Ages and Copernicus' revision, to the
Cataclysm Theory, and then the beginning of Modern Geology
in the form of gradualism and actualism, to continental drift
that spawned plate tectonics, and finally to Planetary Science.
This new view of the universe includes what I would like to
call the New Catastrophism, incorporating the catastrophic
forces of the important natural catastrophic processes affecting
this planet. The nature of impact cratering as a fundamental
universal process and the tools for the recognition of impact
structures will be examined, and the role of this process
since beginning of accretion and planet formation, and leading
to the question whether past impact catastrophes have, at
times, spurned major mass extinctions in Earth's biological
record. This paper addresses Africa's impact crater record
and the stratigraphic record of impact cratering, and examines
both the challenge that humanity is experiencing from huge
extraterrestrial bolides and the benefits that impact has
brought. In the end, the conclusion is derived that an integrated
geoscientific and planetological science approach has resulted
in new tools to address the ultimate questions of Earth's--and
our--past and future.
- True polar wander associated with continental
drift on a hypothetical Earth
Earth, Planets, and Space, Vol. 59, No. 6, 2007, pp. 513-522.
Long-term true polar wander of the Earth (TPW) has generally
been discussed by taking into account convective processes
in the mantle such as downgoing slabs and upwelling plumes.
Here I examined a relationship between continental drift and
TPW on a hypothetical Earth with no such convective processes
in the mantle. I evaluated temporal changes in moments of
inertia owing to continental drift during a period of ~250
Ma based on a paleogeographic reconstruction, in which I estimated
the lateral density heterogeneities by factoring in the observed
mean land elevation of continents and average age of the oceanic
lithosphere. The predictions for a viscoelastic Earth model
with plausible viscosity models indicate that the long-term
TPW might have been affected by continental drift throughout
Cenozoic and Mesozoic times, which has wholly proceeded by
maintaining isostasy at a certain depth, as well as convective
processes in the mantle.
- Alfred Wegener's hypothesis on continental
drift and its discussion in Petermanns Geographische Mitteilungen
I. J. Demhardt.
Polarforschung, Vol. 75, No. 1, 2005, pp. 29-35.
Certainly not the first to notice the obvious key-and-lock
shape of Brazil and Africa, in 1911 the meteorologist Alfred
Wegener was nevertheless among the first scientists to link
hitherto isolated scientific arguments to these empirical
observation and develop a hypothesis conclusively explaining
the architecture of the Earth's surface which over the years
evolved into an intense debate with his adversaries. Although
cautioned by his colleague and father-in-law Wladimir Ko?ppen
not to interfere with the discussion of geological matters
as a meteorologist - and therefore as an outsider - he presented
his thoughts to the "Geologische Vereinigung" in Frankfurt
am Main on 6 January 1912 and first published them in 'Petermanns
Geographische Mitteilungen', one of the leading geographical
monthlies of international reputation, in April 1912 in a
paper entitled "Die Entstehung der Kontinente" (The Origin
of the Continents). In the, at times, highly controversial
debate sparked by Wegener's paper in 'Petermanns Geographische
Mitteilungen', which for obvious reasons soon after shifted
to geological platforms of discussion, it is a lesser known
fact that 'Petermanns Geographische Mitteilungen' too mirrored
this heated debate over a period of thirty years in eleven
major articles of which four (ANDRE?E 1917, NO?LKE 1922, KOBER
1926, SCHUMANN 1936) opposed Wegener's hypothesis and seven
defended his benchmark paper. Interestingly Alfred Wegener
himself never defended his concept in this journal, but, except
for one supportive paper (RUUD 1930), the others defending
his interpretation were some sort of 'family backlash' vigorously
conducted by Wladimir KO?PPEN (1921a, 1921b, 1925) and Kurt
WEGENER (brother, 1925, 1941, 1942).
- Distribution and species diversity
of the devonian conodonts. Relationship to hypothesis of continental
V. A. Aristov and N. V. Lubnina.
Trudy Geologicheskogo Instituta Rossiiskaya Akademiya Nauk
Vol. 516, 2005, pp. 91-113.
- Heterogeneity and time dependence in
3D spherical mantle convection models with continental drift
Benjamin R. Phillips and H. P. Bunge.
Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Vol. 233, No. 1-2, 30
Apr 2005, pp. 121-135.
Feedback between continents and large-scale mantle flow through
thermal blanketing has long been surmised as a mechanism for
continental drift and Wilson cycles. Paleomagnetism provides
evidence for extensive continental displacements ( approximately
10,000 km) on time scales of 100-200 million years, comparable
to an intrinsic overturn in whole mantle convection. Here
we model continental motions in vigorous 3D spherical convection
models, focusing on the effects of continent size, mantle
heating mode, and a strong increase in lower mantle viscosity.
Continents covering 30%, 10%, and 3% of Earth's surface (representative
of the former supercontinent Pangea, present-day Asia, and
Antarctica, respectively) are introduced into simple end member
mantle convection models characterized by pure core or internal
heating, and uniform or layered mantle viscosity. Supercontinents
promote temperature anomalies on the largest scales (spherical
harmonic degrees 1 and 2), primarily through the organization
of the long-wavelength convective planform inherent in models
with a high-viscosity lower mantle. Bottom heating can promote
long-wavelength heterogeneity by clustering plumes beneath
the continent. However, in isoviscous models small-scale structure
persists away from the continent regardless of the heating
mode. Supercontinents respond to long-wavelength heterogeneity
by following great circle paths with variations in velocity
on time scales of 1 billion years. Smaller continents are
unable to promote long-wavelength structure, and the resulting
motions are governed by bursts in velocity on time scales
of the order of 100 million years. Continental velocities
are roughly a factor of approximately 3 smaller than those
in oceanic regions, an observation that may help explain the
observed difference in the speed of predominantly continental
or oceanic plates.
- Kontinental-Verschiebungen; Original
Notizen und Literaturauszuege; Alfred Wegener. Continental drift;
original notes and quotations; Alfred Wegener
Berichte zur Polar- und Meeresforschung = Reports on Polar
and Marine Research, Vol. 516, 2005, pp. 421.
- Wegener and his theory of continental
Resonance, Vol. 10, No. 12, 2005, pp. 58-75.
After Wegener, an astronomer by training and meteorologist
by profession, visualized that there was once a single very
large landmass on the surface of the earth. Gradually it broke
up into smaller fragments, which drifted away to form the
present continents. In a few cases, the drifting fragments
subsequently collided, coalesced and formed larger landmasses
again. Wegener could thus explain in a simple way (1) similarities
in shapes of continental coast lines separated by wide oceans,
(2) similarities in the rocks and fossils occurring on such
coasts and in the fauna and flora inhabiting them, (3) the
formation of several major mountain ranges of the world and
(4) the evidence in rocks on past climates of the earth.
- A continental drift flipbook; Paleoecology,
paleogeography, and paleoclimatology; recent contributions honoring
A. M. Ziegler
Christopher R. Scotese and Judith Totman (prefacer) Parrish.
Journal of Geology, Vol. 112, No. 6, Nov 2004, pp. 729-741.
Forty-six miniature plate tectonic reconstructions are presented
that can be assembled into a "flipbook" that illustrates the
movement of the continents since the Late Precambrian, 750
m.yr. ago. Six principal lines of evidence have been used
to reconstruct the past positions of the continents: (1) linear
magnetic anomalies produced by sea floor spreading, (2) paleomagnetism,
(3) hotspot tracks and large igneous provinces, (4) the tectonic
fabric of the ocean floor mapped by satellite altimetry, (5)
lithologic indicators of climate (e.g., coals, salt deposits,
tillites), and (6) the geologic record of plate tectonic history.
I discuss the probable uncertainties associated with the plate
tectonic reconstructions and give an estimate of the uncertainty
in the positions of the continents back through time.
- From rift to drift; mantle melting
during continental breakup
Thomas K. Nielsen and John R. Hopper.
Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems - G (super 3), Vol.
5, No. 7, 30 Jul 2004, pp. 24.
Volcanic rifted margins show a temporal evolution in igneous
crustal thickness and thus provide additional insights into
mantle dynamics compared to the steady state situation at
mid-ocean ridges. Although details between different provinces
vary, volcanic rifted margins generally show a short-lived
pulse of extreme magmatism that quickly abates to a steady
state mid-ocean ridge. The generation of thick igneous crust
at volcanic rifted margins requires either melting of hot
mantle material to higher degrees than observed at mid-ocean
ridges or melting of larger amounts of mantle material than
would be the case for plate-driven upwelling. To assess under
what conditions buoyantly driven upwelling or small-scale
convection at rifting plate boundaries is important, a fluid
dynamical model with non-Newtonian viscosity that includes
the feedback from melting on the physical properties of the
mantle is developed. To generate a pulse of high magmatic
production requires a viscosity and density structure that
also leads to excessive fluctuations in magmatic productivity
or a sustained high productivity that continues long after
breakup. A viscosity increase due to dehydration caused by
melting effectively suppresses buoyant upwelling above the
depth to the dry solidus, thereby restricting shallow flow
to plate-driven upwelling. While this stabilizes the time
dependence and forces the productivity to values consistent
with mid-ocean ridge accretion, it does so at the expense
of eliminating the breakup instability. Models that assume
an abrupt change in prerift lithospheric thickness suffer
from the same deficits. However, including a sublithospheric
hot layer leads to a model that can predict the temporal evolution
of igneous crustal thickness observed in refraction seismic
data from the southeast Greenland volcanic rifted margin.
- Geochronology of a late Archaean flood
basalt province in the Pilbara Craton, Australia; constraints
on basin evolution, volcanic and sedimentary accumulation, and
continental drift rates
T. S. Blake, R. Buick, S. J. A. Brown and M. E. Barley.
Precambrian Research, Vol. 133, No. 3-4, 20 Aug 2004, pp.
Eleven high precision (+ or -2-5 million years) SHRIMP zircon
U-Pb ages have been obtained from felsic rocks within a single
stratigraphic section of late Archaean volcanic and sedimentary
rocks in the east Pilbara of Western Australia. The stratigraphic
succession (Nullagine and Mount Jope Supersequences in sequence-stratigraphic
terminology, Fortescue Group in lithostratigraphic terminology)
is interpreted to be the rock record of three major geotectonic
cycles that formed in an extensional, rift-related environment
between about 2772 and 2715 Ma. The geochronology is constrained
by a detailed stratigraphic framework based on unconformities
and supported by a preliminary magnetostratigraphy. Field
mapping, geochemical and petrographic studies have shown that
previously unrecognised thin felsic tuff bands are interbedded
in subaerial flood basalt piles and mafic tuffs. While flood
basalts and proximal felsic volcanic rocks comprise by volume
most of the volcanogenic components of the succession, felsic
volcanism is now known to have been active periodically through
each geotectonic cycle. The succession covers a time period
of about 57 million years. The lower approximately 1400 m
of a thick ( approximately 1700 m) clastic sedimentary succession
from the oldest geotectonic cycle was deposited at a rate
of about 100 m per million years over a mean time period of
14 million years. In contrast, a younger approximately 150
m thick cogenetic tuff-basalt unit accumulated in less than
3 million years, and others probably accumulated at similar
rates, comparable to those of Phanerozoic flood basalts. Unconformities
in the succession are shown to be of variable duration and
one unconformity marking the boundary between the first and
second geotectonic cycles may represent a time-gap of more
than 10 million years. The unconformity-based stratigraphic
framework, the new geochronology and palaeomagnetic studies
[J. Geophys. Res. 108 (2003) B12, 2551, EMP 2-1 to 2-21] have
been combined to determine a possible late Archaean continental
drift rate for one part of the succession, implying a period
of motion as fast as or up to five times faster than any known
from the Phanerozoic.
- Continental drift under the Third Reich
Endeavour, Vol. 27, No. 4, Dec 2003, pp. 171-174.
Contrary to what happened in many other countries in the
1930s and 1940s, Alfred Wegener's theory of continental drift
was not generally rejected in Nazi Germany, although several
leading German geologists of the time did not accept it. It
was actually presented as the modern view of Earth history
in books and magazine articles aimed at the general public.
Although outlandish geological theories such as Hörbiger's
Welteislehre were favoured by some Nazi dignitaries, they
were not widely accepted in scientific circles. On the other
hand, continental drift received official support under the
Third Reich, at a time when it was ignored or ridiculed by
most earth scientists outside Germany.
- Contrasting Deep-water Records from
the Upper Permian and Lower Triassic of South Tibet and British
Columbia: Evidence for a Diachronous Mass Extinction
PB Wignall and R. Newton.
Palaios, Vol. 18, No. 2, Apr 2003, pp. 153-167.
Remarkably different Late Permian-Early Triassic marine records
are seen in sections from the western deep-water margin of
Pangea (Ursula Creek, British Columbia) and the high paleolatitude,
southern margin of the Neotethyan Ocean (Selong, South Tibet).
The Ursula Creek section reveals the progressive decline of
seafloor oxygen values in the Changxingian Stage (loss of
bioturbation, authigenic U enrichment, appearance of pyrite
framboid populations), followed by the persistent development
of euxinic conditions in the latest Changxingian and throughout
the Early Triassic; an event that coincides with the disappearance
of a siliceous sponge fauna and the loss of diverse radiolarian
populations. The Selong section, which was located on a distal
passive margin, records regression and erosion in the mid-Changxingian,
followed by a phase of deepening that began in the late Changxingian.
The boundary interval is associated with a marked diversity
increase due to the appearance of equatorial taxa (foraminifera,
brachiopods, and sponges), suggesting warming without extinction
in marine waters at high southern paleolatitudes. Only in
the late Griesbachian Stage are the diverse Permian holdovers
eliminated, again at a level showing evidence for dysoxia
(thinly-bedded, authigenic U-enriched, pyrite-rich limestone).
Thus, the end-Permian mass extinction is seen to be diachronous
by half a million years or more, with late Changxingian extinction
in Panathalassa coinciding with diversity increase associated
the migration of warm-water taxa into the high southerly paleolatitudes
regions of Neotethys.
- Palaeomagnetism of flood basalts in
the Pilbara Craton, Western Australia: Late Archaean continental
drift and the oldest known reversal of the geomagnetic field
G. Strik, TS Blake, TE Zegers, SH White and CG Langereis.
Journal of Geophysical Research.B.Solid Earth, Vol. 108,
No. B12, Dec 2003, pp. .
A late Archaean (circa 2775-2715 Ma) succession of terrestrial
continental flood basalts, mafic tuffs, felsic volcanic rocks,
and clastic sedimentary rocks in the Nullagine Synclinorium
(and Meentheena Centrocline) of the East Pilbara Basin, Western
Australia, has been sampled for a palaeomagnetic study. Over
500 oriented, mostly basalt, drill cores were collected from
the supracrustal succession and associated dykes. Thermal
and alternating field demagnetization revealed two distinct
components. Positive fold, conglomerate, and reversal tests
confirm that the primary natural remanent magnetization (NRM)
is still preserved. The secondary component is interpreted
as the record of remagnetization during a major thermal event,
possibly in the Early Proterozoic. Analysis of the primary
NRM directions results in a magnetostratigraphy and an apparent
polar wander path (APWP) for the 60 Myr interval covered by
the sampled succession. Assuming a geocentric axial dipole
during this time interval, the APWP shows that the Pilbara
Craton was drifting during the late Archaean and that drift
rates probably varied significantly. In particular, a mean
27.2 degree shift in palaeolatitude is recorded across an
unconformity that represents a relatively short time period
and that marks a significant change in basalt geochemistry.
This study suggests that continents moved horizontally during
the late Archaean and that the rates of movement were significantly
faster than in the Phanerozoic. In addition, a reversed polarity
interval, with a positive reversal test, is recorded. We argue
that it documents the oldest known geomagnetic reversals of
the geomagnetic field.
- "The Machinery of Continental Drift; the
Search for a Mechanism"
Plate Tectonics and Geomagnetic Reversals
W. H. Freeman Co.; Reprint,
- Seismology and the new global tectonics
Bryan Isacks, Jack Oliver and Lynn R. Sykes.
Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 73, No. 18, 1968, pp.
A comprehensive study of the observations of seismology provides
widely based strong support for the new global tectonics which
is founded on the hypotheses of continental drift, sea-floor
spreading, transform faults, and underthrusting of the lithosphere
at the island arcs. Study of world seismicity shows that most
earthquakes are confined to narrow continuous belts that bound
large stable areas. In the zones of divergence and strike-slip
motion, the activity ismoderate and shallow and consistent
with the transform fault hypothesis; in the zones of convergence,
activity is normally at shallow depths and includes intermediate
and deep shocks that grossly define the present configuration
of the down-going slabs of lithosphere.
- Palaeomagnetism as a means of dating
geological events; Geochronology in Canada
L. W. Morley and A. Larochelle.
Special Publications - Royal Society of Canada, Vol. 8, 1964,
Paleomagnetic evidence for polar wandering allows geologic
dating on a coarse time-scale, numerous polarity reversals
observed in rocks suggest it may be possible to date their
magnetization with an accuracy of the order of one million
years, and scatter in magnetization directions observed in
penecontemporaneous rocks resulting from secular field variations
might permit dating of geological events to about the nearest
thousand years. In practice many difficulties, such as incompleteness
and inaccuracy of data, are encountered in using any of these
approaches. A method for estimating the time span between
successive reversals is suggested. Use of scatter in magnetization
direction of penecontemporaneous rocks, is not hopeful for
rocks older than several thousand years.
- Magnetic anomalies over oceanic ridges
F. J. Vine and D. H. Matthews.
Nature (London), Vol. 199, No. 4897, 1963, pp. 947-949.
The pattern of magnetic anomalies observed over oceanic ridges,
characteristically consisting of long-period anomalies over
the foothills, shorter-period anomalies on the flanks, and
a pronounced central anomaly over median valleys, is discussed
in the light of current concepts of spreading of ocean floors
and periodic reversals in the earth's magnetic field.
- History of ocean basins; Buddington
Vol. (Geol. Soc. Am.)
Harry Hammond Hess.
Buddington Vol. (Geol. Soc. Am.), 1962
Starting from the premise of an initially waterless, atmosphereless
mass and a catastrophic event involving a single-cell convective
overturn within the earth shortly after its solidification,
which was responsible for segregation of a nickel-iron core,
extrusion of the primordial continental sialic material, and
development of bilateral asymmetry, formulates a theory of
the evolution of ocean basins based on continued multicell
convection in the mantle.
- The Onset of Plate Tectonics on Earth
and the Importance of Plate Tectonics to the Origin of Life
2010 Gordon Reseach Conference on Origin of Life, Hotel Galvez,
Galveston, TX, 10-15 Jan 2010