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Ocean Policy: Striking a Balance
(Released October 2000)



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  1. Fisheries management improving

    Safina, C

    Issues in Science and Technology [ISSUES SCI. TECHNOL.], vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 19-20, 1997

    Overfishing and poor management had devastated the U.S. commercial fishing industry, and there is need for a major overhaul of the 1976 Magnuson Act, the federal legislation that guides fisheries management. In the fall of 1996, Congress passed and the President Clinton signed a bill that addresses many of the most serious problems. If properly implemented, the new legislation, now called the Magnuson-Stevens Fisheries Conservation and Management Act, should substantially aid the recovery and sustainable management of the nation's fisheries. The basic flaws of the Magnuson Act were its failures to define and prohibit overfishing, to direct fishery managers to rebuild depleted populations, to protect habitat for fishery resources, to reduce wasteful and harmful "bycatch" of nontarget organisms, and to consider predator-prey or other important ecological relationships.

  2. Introduction. The Ocean Challenge

    Kullenberg, GEB

    Natural resources forum. Dordrecht [Nat. Resour. Forum], vol. 23, no. 2, pp. 99-103, May 1999

    This article provides an overview of the state of the oceans and ocean governance and the efforts being made at the international, regional and national levels to confront emerging problems. It highlights some of the major areas of concern such as living resources and the threat of overfishing; coastal zone degradation; marine pollution from land-based sources; the role of the ocean in climate change; exploitation of non-living ocean resources below the seabed; and exploration and exploitation of the recently discovered deepsea ecosystems. The article then goes on to describe some of the actions being taken to remedy these problems and the institutions responsible such as UNCLOS, UNCED, UNESCO, GESAMP, IMO and FAO. It also offers suggestions for future courses of action.

  3. Implications of the Essential Fish Habitat Provisions of the Magnuson-Stevens Act

    Kurland, JM

    Effects of Fishing Gear on the Sea Floor of New England, Conservation Law Foundation, 62 Summer Street Boston, MA 02110 USA, 1998, pp. 104-107

    The 1996 amendments to the Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act included substantial new provisions to protect "essential fish habitat" (EFH). I will explain what these changes were, what they mean, and how they are being implemented in New England, to provide some context for the discussion about the effects of fishing gear on habitat. The Magnuson Act requirements for habitat information before the 1996 amendments were fairly general. The Act required that each fishery management plan (FMP) must "include readily available information regarding the significance of habitat to the fishery and assessment as to the effects which changes to that habitat may have upon the fishery." Fishery management plans needed to include information about habitat and potential threats, but the law called no attention to important habitat areas and did not require any specific measures to protect habitat.

  4. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency: Maintaining Healthy Ocean Ecosystems

    Fox, JC

    Sea Technology [Sea Technol.], vol. 40, no. 2, pp. 53-56, Feb 1999

    As many of you know, 1998 was designated the Year of the Ocean (YOTO) worldwide. This designation was made to recognize the crucial role oceans play in our lives and the importance of maintaining healthy ocean ecosystems. Despite our need for healthy ocean and coastal resources, much that we do has negative impacts on these resources. For example, it has been estimated that approximately one-third of our valuable estuarine and coastal waters are not safe for fishing or swimming, primarily due to nutrients and bacteria resulting from urban and agricultural runoff and from municipal wastewater discharges. Other factors contributing to the degradation of ocean and coastal waters include overfishing, introduction of invasive species, population growth pressures, alteration of freshwater inflow, loss of habitat, and contamination from waterborne and airborne toxic chemicals.

  5. The Oceanic Circle: Governing the Seas as a Global Resource

    UN-sales-no-99-III-A-3; UNUP-1013, , 1999, 266 pp

    This book discusses the importance of the oceans within the global life support system, the cultural dimension of ocean space, the oceans and warfare, the wealth of the ocean and its market value, and the ethical and spiritual dimension of the emerging economics of sustainable development in the oceans. It also analyzes the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea and tries to capture the emerging shapes of ocean governance, examining the regimes established by the various post-United Nations Conference on Environment and Development agreements and action programmes.

  6. Ocean governance at the millennium: where we have been -- where we should go

    Friedheim, RL

    Ocean & Coastal Management [Ocean Coast. Manage.], vol. 42, no. 9, pp. 747-765, 1999

    During the last third of the twentieth century, there has been a world-wide effort to develop an effective ocean governance system. This has been done through major international treaties and conventions, through the operation of global and regional organisations, and through national ocean management efforts. How good have been the results? Are we moving in the right direction? What can we learn from the failures as well as successes? Will the twentieth-century efforts survive into the twenty-first century or must we change directions? Policy analysts should always ask questions concerning how well we have done before proposing policies for the future. But a change in century is a particularly good time for a stock-taking. That is the purpose of this paper. It attempts to ask the question -- are we headed in the right direction? This is important to help correct errors and also may force us to recognise that the context of future ocean policy in the next century may be sufficiently different to cause us to rethink our priorities.

  7. Marine mammal-fisheries interactions

    Marine Mammal Commission, 31 Jan 1999, pp. 105-123, Annual Report. Marine Mammal Commission , vol. 1998

    In 1994 the Marine Mammal Protection Act was amended to establish a new regime to govern the taking of marine mammals incidental to commercial fishing operations. As in the past, however, the incidental take of dolphins in the eastern tropical Pacific tuna fishery continues to be regulated under separate provisions of the Act. Implementation of the 1994 fisheries regime is discussed in this chapter. Also discussed are amendments to the Marine Mammal Protection Act enacted in 1997 pertaining to the eastern tropical Pacific tuna fishery and actions being taken to implement those amendments. In addition, this chapter provides information on efforts to address interactions between various species of pinnipeds and certain fish stocks. Fishery interactions affecting specific species, including Hawaiian monk seals, Steller sea lions, sea otters, harbor porpoises, and right whales, are discussed in Chapter II.

  8. Integrated Coastal Management and Ocean Management: Concepts and Practices

    Cicin-Sain, B; Knecht, RW

    Island Press, Washington, DC (USA), 1998, 518 pp

    The primary goal of this book is to provide coastal and ocean managers with essential information about integrated coastal management (ICM) so that they can put functional and effective programs in place. A secondary goal is to provide a clear description of the benefits of ICM to help policy makers in coastal nations decide whether and how to develop ICM programs. The volume has four parts covering: (1) the need for integrated coastal management and fundamental concepts; (2) evolution of international prescriptions on ICM; (3) a practical guide to integrated coastal management; and (4) country case comparisons combined with lessons learned. Two major appendices provide case studies on ICM practices in 22 selected nations and information about a cross-national survey of 29 nations. The first two parts of the book review the social, environmental, and resource conflicts that led to the need for governmental intervention in ICM. They also define key terms and emerging vocabulary of ICM program development. Included as well is an excellent summary of the international legal and policy prescriptions that have led to the globalization of ICM and its diffusion to many other policy arenas. The third part, a practical guide, and the fourth part, country case comparisons and lessons learned, provide a useful framework for systematic presentation of the concepts and practices used in the stages of ICM program development and implementation.

  9. Coastal Seas: The Conservation Challenge

    Clark, JR

    Blackwell Science, London (UK), 1998, 134 pp

    This book, which is a companion volume to Coastal Zone Management Handbook provides an excellent synopsis of coastal management theory and applied technique. It begins with preliminary definitions, descriptions and perspectives with regard to coastal management. It then goes on to address such issues as coastal zone management design and development; program methods and tools; and participation of stakeholders. The book also includes a collection of case studies and information on professional opportunities in the field of coastal zone management.

  10. Marine protected areas, ecosystem management, and ocean governance: Making pieces of different puzzles fit together (without a hammer)

    Barr, BW; Thornton, SR

    Taking a Look at California's Ocean Resources: An Agenda for the Future, ASCE, Reston, VA (USA), 1998, vol. 1, pp. 62-73

    Considerable effort has been directed over the past few years at trying to find a new paradigm for the management of ocean resources and uses both in the US EEZ and elsewhere, one that moves us well away from largely unsuccessful past practices of single species management in a compartmentalized ecosystem. The management community, academic researchers, and others, spurred on by a growing body of concerned ocean resource users, have begun to grapple with the notion of ocean governance based on the principles of ecosystem management. Marine protected areas (MPAs) are one key element in this growing era of bigger thinking and in the context of national ocean governance discussions. The inclusion of marine protected areas initiatives in the ocean governance discussions is a positive step toward integrating ecosystem principles within this governance structure, and a number of valuable lessons can be gleaned from taking a look at some of these efforts. This paper focuses on one such program, NOAA's National Marine Sanctuary Program (NMSP), and provides some insights into its evolution and innovative efforts to foster ecosystem management in and around these coastal and ocean areas. This discussion will profile new ideas being formulated by the NMSP which address how MPAs such as these sanctuaries can provide opportunities for catalyzing broader ecosystem management initiatives and how they can serve as laboratories for developing innovative and alternative ocean governance mechanisms. Finally, the paper will examine the critical role of forging effective partnerships to make this essential coordination and collaboration a reality for successful ocean governance.

  11. The Ocean Our Future

    , 1998

    The oceans provide food, energy and water and they sustain the livelihoods of hundreds of millions of people. They are the main highway for international trade as well as the main stabilizer of the world's climate. However, in the space of only a few decades the oceans have become the setting for an expanding list of problems. Territorial disputes that threaten peace and security, global climate change, overfishing, indiscriminate trawling, habitat destruction, species extinction, pollution, illegal trafficking, congested shipping lanes, clandestine movement of persons, piracy, terrorism, and the disruption of coastal communities are among the problems that today form an integral part of the unfolding drama of the oceans. At the same time, the oceans are revealing great potential and opportunity. The Independent World Commission on the Oceans was launched in December 1995 to review the existing situation with regard to the oceans and to identify future directions. Its recommendations are presented in this report. The Commission has chosen to highlight several issues where major adjustments and innovations will be required if obstacles to change are to be addressed effectively. These issues are grouped under six main headings on which the structure of the report is based: promoting peace and security in the oceans; the quest for equity in the oceans; ocean science and technology; valuing the oceans; public awareness and participation in the oceans; effective ocean governance.

  12. Sustainable Development in the Oceans

    Mann-Borgese, E

    Environmental Policy and Law [Environ. Policy Law], vol. 27, no. 3, pp. 203-208, Jun 1997 This article reviews progress achieved on the implementation of the Rio Agreement of 1992 on environment and development and subsequent United Nations conferences with regard to sustainable development of the oceans. While overall results are mixed, the achievements of the International Ocean Institute in relation to Agenda 21 of UNCED and the Law of the Sea, which are examined in this article, are a success. The article addresses the issues of economics and sustainable development in the oceans as well as national, regional and global level institutional frameworks.

  13. Striking a balance. Improving stewardship of marine areas


    The Marine Board of the National Research Council (NRC) has conducted major assessments of the scientific and technical prerequisites for exploring and understanding the nation's coastal and marine regions in a series of reports. These and other assessments have concluded that the nation's interest in the conservation and wise management of its ocean territory requires a sustained public investment in information gathering and management in this region. The findings from the Marine Board studies have indicated strong interest in the nation's coastal and marine areas by present and potential offshore industries, by coastal states responsible for resource development and environmental preservation of their offshore regions, and by the ocean research community. Few steps have been taken, however, to devise a comprehensive regulatory or management framework for current or future activities in federal and state waters or on or under the seabed in the nation's Exclusive Economic Zone. The need for a regulatory and management framework is likely to increase in the future as advances in offshore technology or changes in market conditions lead to the expansion of coastal populations and of marine recreation and tourism, activities that utilize or impinge on coastal and marine resources, such as marine aquaculture, offshore oil and gas and minerals exploration, and waste disposal in deeper waters. These activities may, in turn, conflict with plans for setting aside areas as marine sanctuaries and concerns about ocean pollution. In April 1993, the Marine Board sponsored a forum on ocean issues. Representatives from private industry, public agencies, public interest groups, and the academic ocean policy community were invited to air their views on the need for a national strategy to manage the nation's coastal and ocean resources and space. Based on the proceedings of the forum, the Marine Board identified emerging issues in marine area governance and management.

  14. Beyond the Law of the Sea: New Directions for U.S. Oceans Policy

    Galdorisi, GV; Vienna, KR

    Praeger Publishers, Westport, CT (USA), 1997, 241 pp

    This book focuses on the way in which U.S. oceans policy has been affected by the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) and how future policy will be defined within the context of UNCLOS. It falls naturally into three sections - before, during and after. The first section, "before", examines the evolution of the concept of the law of the sea from Roman times through the conclusion of UNCLOS. The second section, "during", describes the requirements of the Convention in seven areas that are particularly important to the development of U.S. policy. And the third section, "after", considers the oceans policy issues facing the United States in the post-UNCLOS era and the means of addressing these.

  15. Ocean governance: Sustainable development of the seas


    The ocean is, like other ecosystems, vulnerable to exploitation. This publication, which represents a collection of papers presented at the Pacem in Maribus Conference, examines the institutional implications of sustainable development of the oceans. It explores the national, regional and global dimensions of ocean governance and draws attention to the basic issues concerned with achieving the difficult task of institutional integration for the long-term sustainability of the seas.

  16. The role of environmental nongovernmental organizations in ocean governance

    Hewison, GJ

    Ocean Yearbook [OCEAN YEARB.], vol. 12, pp. 32-51, 1996

    This paper documents the growing role of environmental Nongovernmental Organizations, NGOs, in international environmental governance, and in particular international ocean governance. It begins by describing environmental NGOs and characterizes them into five types. The paper proceeds to examine the approaches environmental NGOs have taken in shaping an environmental ocean policy. Of note here are the limitations of the state system in dealing with environmental problems and the role NGOs play in filling the gaps that exist in that system. The paper also surveys some of the major ocean "treaties" negotiated and signed by environmental NGOs at the Rio Global Forum in 1992 and postulates that the predominant themes arising from these "treaties" will form the basic direction of policy pursued by NGOs in the near future.

  17. A democratic approach to ocean governance

    Levy, JP; Levy, JP

    A democratic approach to ocean governance. [Nat. Resour. Forum], vol. 23, no. 2, pp. 115-121, May 1999

    The Independent World Commission on the Oceans, chaired by Mario Soares, former President of Portugal, issued recently its final report, "The Oceans...Our Future", which represents the first attempt to deal holistically, in a single volume, with the full range of problems confronting our oceans on the eve of the third millennium. Nearly 40 distinguished international personalities from all regions of the world and a variety of disciplines and backgrounds have come together in order to advance innovative ideas for improving governance of the oceans and coastal zones so as to make a more sustainable use of the ocean commons. The major themes of their work, which identify directions for future action and debate, center on security and equity; science, technology and resources; and a democratic approach to ocean governance.

  18. Moving toward sustainable fisheries

    McGinn, AP

    Natural resources forum. Dordrecht [Nat. Resour. Forum], vol. 23, no. 2, pp. 135-145, May 1999

    Globally fisheries, and the economic and social benefits they offer society, are in danger. Wielding more than enough gear and equipment to extract available resources, fishers have wiped out many individual fisheries and according to some estimates prompted a fall in some valuable fish stocks - and their own profits. The sector barely stays afloat, even as billions of dollars in global subsidies are poured into the industry. About one third of all revenues from fisheries come not from wild catches, but from government coffers in the form of subsidized loans, preferential tax rates, and other means of economic support. With nearly half of all fish caught today traded internationally, distant markets and foreign economic pressures also play a role in the depletion of global fisheries. As fishers increasingly head to waters in the Southern Hemisphere, small-scale fishers must now compete with large vessels from both North and South. Yet the smaller-scale fishers provide a majority of fish for the more than 1 billion people predominantly in Asia and coastal developing countries, who rely on fish as their primary source of animal protein. As human demand for fish rises and marine catches stagnate and tensions over fisheries increase, the stakes are higher today then ever before. Millions of fishers and hundreds of coastal communities worldwide are suffering from economic losses, political tensions, and social instability. Overcoming current practices will not be easy. A number of steps will help reform fisheries management and end the harmful practices that increasingly characterize humanity's relationship with fisheries. The most important elements are reducing fishing capacity and protecting habitat areas. Fortunately, efforts to promote needed changes are already under way in a number of places. But fishers and fishery officials alone cannot make the necessary hard choices. Politicians and the public need to act together to reshape incentives and behaviour in favour of fishing practices that are economically viable, socially diverse, and ecologically sustainable.

  19. Habitat essential for sustainable fisheries

    Brown, DW

    Journal of Shellfish Research, vol. 17, no. 5, pp. 1481-1482, Dec 1998

    With the passage of the Magnuson-Stevens Fisheries Conservation and Management Act in the fall of 1996, significant new tools exist in the United States to protect and conserve the habitat of marine, estuarine, and anadromous finfish as well as key populations of mollusks and crustaceans. Over the following 24 months, all Fisheries Management Councils are required to amend their fishery management plans (FMPs, covering over 300 species) to identify for each species the essential fish habitat that are those waters and substrate necessary for fish spawning, feeding, and growth to maturity. Threats to habitat and steps necessary to ameliorate those threats must also be identified.

  20. International environmental instruments and their impact on the fishing industry

    Tsamenyi, M; Mcilgorm, A

    Developing and sustaining world fisheries resources. The state of science and management., CSIRO, Collingwood (Australia), 1997, pp. 661-666

    International environmental instruments have been a feature of international relations in the past two decades. They address the exploitation of natural resources and seek to protect the environment from degradation or destruction. In the marine fisheries and environment sector, a host of binding and non-binding instruments directly and indirectly address fisheries management, conservation and marine environmental management. These instruments have the potential to impact on fisheries management and fishing practices. Fisheries managers, fishers, and fisheries policy-makers cannot ignore these international environmental instruments. In the long term, the fishing industry has much to gain by complying with the requirements under international environmental instruments that regulate fisheries.

  21. Exclusive rights to fish: Towards a rational fisheries policy

    Hannesson, R

    GeoJournal, vol. 39, no. 2, pp. 179-184, Jun 1996

    Discusses "the tragedy of the commons" with regard to fish resources in the North Atlantic, and points to the fact that the Atlantic cod has now been so heavily exploited that a strong regulation of fisheries is needed to preserve an exploitable stock. The author argues for exclusive economic zones dividing up the remaining "loopholes" among coastal nations and individually transferable quotas.

  22. Marine Aquaculture in the United States: A Review of Current and Future Policy and Management Challenges

    DeVoe, MR

    Marine Technology Society Journal [Mar. Technol. Soc. J.], vol. 34, no. 1, pp. 5-17, 2000

    Aquaculture in the United States has the potential to become a major growth industry in the 21st Century. However, a number of issues continue to constrain the development of marine aquaculture in the United States. The complex and diverse nature of the industry, conflicts with other, more traditional uses of the nation's coastal and ocean waters, environmental concerns, and the existing legal and regulatory climate all contribute to this situation. If the domestic marine aquaculture industry is to succeed and grow in the future, these issues must be resolved. First, the United States must reevaluate and reaffirm the nation's aquaculture policy. Second, the country must support sustainable marine aquaculture. Marine aquaculture in coastal and offshore waters of the United States must be developed with an eye toward sustainability - with a goal of producing products while conserving natural resources. Third, assuming the United States is truly committed to the development of the marine aquaculture industry, mechanisms must be put into place to refine existing measures and establish new implementation measures to guide its growth. The key to the future of marine aquaculture in the United State is the creation of technological and policy systems that provide for sustainable marine aquaculture. Systems that will move the industry forward will require an unequivocal commitment by the nation's political leadership to create them, by the federal bureaucracy to implement them, by the academic community to generate and extend information to improve them, and by the industry to put them into practice.

  23. NOAA Fisheries and aquaculture

    Rhodes, E

    National Shellfisheries Association, Jun 1999, p. 275, Journal of Shellfish Research , vol. 18, no. 1

    Aquaculture has played a significant role in NOAA Fisheries and its predecessor agencies since their origins in the 19th century. The continuing efforts by the agency in its 127 year history contributed some of the key science in the field of aquaculture, including research that contributed to the commercial development of salmon, shrimp and shellfish culture. Since the 1980's, agency priorities in the area of fisheries management, coupled with budget limitations, have restricted the participation of NOAA Fisheries in aquaculture. Recently, aquaculture has reemerged as an important consideration as NOAA Fisheries plans for the new century. This planning and policy development stage is critical because it is through this process that agency priorities are set and budgets are driven. The NOAA Fisheries strategic plan has as one of its objectives to "promote the development of robust and environmentally sound aquaculture" and outlines specific goals in the areas of technology development, siting, permitting and financial assistance. Partly based on this plan, the Northeast and Northwest Centers of NOAA Fisheries have reorganized to include aquaculture divisions, and new aquaculture industry financing programs are being developed. At the NOAA level, NOAA Fisheries, the National Ocean Service and the Office of Oceanic and Atmospheric Research have collaborated to put a new aquaculture policy in place that recognizes the significant role that environmentally sound aquaculture will play in meeting future demand for seafood, as well as the potential to contribute to wild stocks through enhancement. The NOAA policy also foresees a major aquaculture effort for the production of non-food products such as bait, aquaria species, chemicals and pharmaceuticals. Finally, an active task force is developing a Commerce-wide policy for aquaculture, and its formulating plans to facilitate aquaculture permitting in the U.S. exclusive economic zone. This policy and planning activity has helped to generate a new interest in aquaculture in the Department and the recognition of the potential for aquaculture speaks to an optimistic future.

  24. Marine mammals: New objectives in U.S. fishery management

    Gerber, LR; Wooster, WS; DeMaster, DP; VanBlaricom, GR

    Reviews in Fisheries Science [Rev. Fish. Sci.], vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 23-38, Jan 1999

    Traditionally, fishery management has been directed to the objectives of sustainable yield and resource conservation. Since the early 1970s, as a consequence of implementation of the Marine Mammal Protection Act and the Endangered Species Act and their interaction with the Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act, the objective of protecting marine mammal populations has been added. The active pursuit of this protection has been hastened by public pressure. Among the ways that marine mammals interact with fisheries are through accidental catch in fishery operations and through direct and indirect competition for prey. The interactions are illustrated in case studies of Steller sea lions and the eastern North Pacific fisheries, dolphins in the tuna fishery of the eastern tropical Pacific, and sea otters and the shellfish fisheries of the California coast. These studies demonstrate both the conflicting legal frameworks and the relative roles of science and societal values in the broadening of fishery management objectives to include an ecological (i.e., multispecies) perspective. The approach now needed (1) recognizes the inherent conflicts in managing marine ecosystems, (2) incorporates uncertainty in a risk averse manner, (3) treats all members of the ecosystem as potentially important, and (4) requires information that is obtainable at an acceptable cost.

  25. Generating information for aquaculture development: The art and science of economic policy modelling

    Sylvia, G

    Aquaculture Economics & Management [AQUACULT. ECON. MANAGE.], vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 87-98, Mar 1997

    The rapid growth of aquaculture and concerns about economic and ecological 'sustainability' have focused attention on industry externalities. Developing institutions which 'sustain' aquaculture will require skills in the 'art and science' of public policy modelling. Analysis of existing approaches demonstrates that no single modelling paradigm is 'best' for all aquaculture policy situations. Modelling approaches other than cost-benefit including multiobjective analysis may be more appropriate if the objective of the modeller is to improve the effectiveness of the policy process itself. A review of the relatively small but growing literature on aquaculture policy models reveals a wide range of issues and approaches. In general, economic models have focused on the single objective of maximizing efficiency; in contrast, models used in actual aquacultural policy and planning focus on controlling environmental pollution. The findings suggest that economic models have not yet played a significant role in aquacultural policy development. This raises concerns that myopic views of 'sustainability' will result in institutions which do not promote socially efficient aquacultural industry growth.

  26. Defining the federal role in offshore aquaculture: Should it feature delegation to the states?

    Rieser, A

    Ocean and Coastal Law Journal, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 209-234, 1997

    Improvements in the science and technology of marine aquaculture, the growth in multiple use conflicts in nearshore coastal waters, and the overfished condition of many commercially exploited fish stocks suggest it may be time to consider using open ocean waters for raising marine species for food and other uses. As on previous occasions when similar signs pointed toward aquaculture, policy makers recognize that the legal framework for government involvement is not well-equipped to respond to many of the issues that surround sea farming in the offshore environment. The purpose of this Article is to describe some of the important attributes of an effective legal framework for open ocean aquaculture and to discuss the ability of federal agencies to provide these attributes under current law.

  27. Blueprint for whale conservation: Implementing the marine mammal protection act

    Young, NM; Iudicello, S

    Ocean and Coastal Law Journal [Ocean Coast. Law J.], vol. 3, no. 1-2, pp. 149-216, 1997

    Over its twenty-four year history, the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972 (MMPA) has had both its successes and its failures, yet it remains one of the cornerstones of marine conservation and one of the most effective mechanisms to protect marine mammals. Marine mammals now face threats, however, that are global in scope and involve humans and our shared use of the marine environment. Diminishing marine resources and diminishing federal funds force fishers and conservationists to develop creative initiatives to conserve marine mammals, marine habitats, and species diversity, while still promoting economically viable fisheries.

  28. Conservation of marine mammals

    Bensam, P; Menon, NG

    Marine biodiversity conservation and management, Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute, Cochin (India), 1996, pp. 133-142

    Where economic considerations of the common man mask and over-rule his environmental thinking and rationale as at present, any attempt at protection of these vulnerable resources is possible only through a cooperative spirit and voluntary involvement at protection and conservation, rather than by enforcing legislation.

  29. Can we manage our multispecies fisheries?

    Murawski, SA


    Fishery resources (fish, invertebrates, marine mammals, and reptiles) of the United States exclusive economic zone (EEZ, 3-200 nautical miles from the coast) are currently regulated under several pieces of key legislation enacted during the early 1970s. At that time, fishery science was only beginning to appreciate the interactions among species and fisheries as being potential impediments to simultaneous realization of competitive management goals. Many of the important management problems currently faced in the EEZ are exacerbated by the incompatibility of regulations promulgated separately under these statutes for ecologically or technologically related species. Reconciling the management of interacting species will require an institutional framework for evaluating the multispecies/multifishery consequences of management decisions and for articulating a clear set of compatible management goals for the various constituents. Traditional single-species biological reference points for fishery management must be re-evaluated to consider the effects of harvesting on ecosystem attributes such as stability, diversity, resistance, and resilience and on economic attributes, including optimization. Currently, dynamic mechanisms underlying species and fishery interactions are poorly understood. The scientific basis of decision making will increasingly have to come from research emphasizing the dynamic relationships of interacting species as well as the biological, economic, and technological factors contributing to fishery interactions. Such studies cannot replace traditional single-species, single-fishery analyses, but must complement and build on them.

  30. Property rights and ecosystem management in U.S. fisheries: Contracting for the commons?

    Rieser, A

    Ecology Law Quarterly [Ecol. Law Q.], vol. 24, no. 4, pp. 813-832, 1997

    The New England groundfish stocks collapsed despite government efforts to avoid such a catastrophe by creating a decentralized management system intended to reflect regional variations in fisheries and ecosystems. Given this spectacular failure of the government-centered regulatory program, regional strategies and institutions must be reconsidered if groundfish and other stocks are to see any improvement. This Article examines the positions of critics of the current system and reviews the advantages and drawbacks of the two traditionally touted property rights regimes: private and communal ownership. As an alternative to these two systems of ownership, this Article proposes adopting a system of contractual co-management. At the same time, it notes that any property regime ultimately chosen will need to exist within the confines of the Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act (Magnuson-Stevens Act). This Article describes the North Pacific Fishery Management Council's use of a community development quota program as an example of a potential system of co-management consistent with the Magnuson-Stevens Act. Finally, this Article advocates a greater community role in designing and operating our marine resources management institutions.