- National park management and values.
Environmental Ethics [ENVIRON. ETHICS.], vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 117-134, 1985
Throughout the history of the U.S. national park system, park advocates and managers have changed both acquisition priorities and internal management policies. The park movement began with the establishment of large, spectacular natural areas, primarily in the West. As the movement developed there was more emphasis on the biological, on recreation, and on parks near population centers. Gradually, scenic wonders and uniqueness have become less necessary to designation and the types of sites eligible have diversified. Early managers treated the parks as relatively unchanging, threatened by little other than human vandalism. Initially managers removed "bad" animals, such as wolves, and suppressed disturbances, such as fire. Modern management values processes as well as objects and recognizes change and disturbance as integral to park maintanence.
- Natural ecosystem management in park and wilderness areas: Looking at the law.
ECOSYSTEM MANAGEMENT FOR PARKS AND WILDERNESS., 1988, pp. 15-40, UNIV. WASH. INST. FOR. RESOUR., no. 65
Natural ecosystem management means maintaining the natural integrity and pristine character of "preserved" park and wilderness lands. But most large national parks and wilderness areas are bordered by other public lands, which may be open to consumptive development activities, or by virtually unregulated private lands. This can present serious legal problems for the Park Service, because it has no clear jurisdictional authority beyond its borders, though it has a legal duty to protect park resources from damage. On the other hand, the Forest Service does not lack jurisdictional authority over its lands bordering designated wilderness areas; its primary problem is in reconciling its multiple-use and wilderness management responsibilities. Since federal law reflects a significant national commitment to environmental protection, it affords park and wilderness managers an opportunity to promote natural ecosystem management beyond their borders.
- Managing forested landscapes: Industry approaches, experiences, and perspectives in the Pacific Northwest
Loehle, Craig; Hicks, Lorin; Kernohan, Brian J; MacCracken, James G; Runde, Douglas
Ncasi Tech Bull, no. 840, pp. 1-32, Dec 2001
Increasing requirements for maintenance and enhancement of ecological values have recently led forest products companies to approach forest management in a more comprehensive way. Many companies have developed landscape-level management plans and programs for the conservation of wildlife, fish, and other values. This report documents approaches taken by four companies in the Pacific Northwest of the United States. Companies acted out of a desire to demonstrate good land stewardship and a need to reduce the costs associated with meeting regulatory standards. Each company used a unique approach to land unit definition, wildlife species or groups managed, silvicultural options used, and extent to which supporting research was conducted. The companies all focused on managing habitats rather than populations of species. A major factor influencing management approach was the size and continuity of company management units: when parcels are small and scattered, companies are unable to influence key ecological processes at the landscape scale, and are influenced to a greater extent by activities on neighboring holdings. Company experiences raise a number of research issues. Habitat suitability indices and their relationship to wildlife abundance, as well as models of wildlife responses to management, need improvement. Research is needed on silvicultural options for achieving environmental goals, including cost reduction and efficacy assessment. Few studies have determined thresholds in the amounts of habitat types or elements needed by a species to ensure persistence. Several regulatory issues were also raised. Regulations assume that a company can influence wildlife resources on their lands, but this assumption may not hold. Regulatory standards for wildlife and water quality were generally found to be qualitative rather than quantitative. Regulations designed to increase populations of wildlife raise the question of how much responsibility a private company has to produce a public good, and whether or not success or failure can be monitored adequately. In addition, management for one species often affects other species, and these trade-offs need to be explicitly acknowledged and accepted. Adaptive management should be utilized in landscape-level conservation plans, and a framework is presented for doing so. Overall, the companies have realized some success with large-scale forest management planning, but their efforts are often hampered by inadequate data on species-habitat relationships and responses to management, as well as by inconsistent and shifting regulations and policies.
- Adaptive Management on Public Lands in the United States: Commitment or Rhetoric?
Moir, WH; Block, WM
Environmental Management [Environ. Manage.], vol. 28, no. 2, pp. 141-148, Aug 2001
Adaptive management (AM) is the process of implementing land management activities in incremental steps and evaluating whether desired outcomes are being achieved at each step. If conditions deviate substantially from predictions, management activities are adjusted to achieve the desired outcomes. Thus, AM is a kind of monitoring, an activity that land management agencies have done poorly for the most part, at least with respect to ground-based monitoring. Will they do better in the future? We doubt it unless costs, personnel, and future commitment are seriously addressed. Because ecosystem responses to management impacts can ripple into the distant future, monitoring programs that address only the near future (e.g., 10-20 years), are probably unreliable for making statements about resource conditions in the distant future. We give examples of this. Feedback loops between ecosystem response and adjustment of management actions are often broken, and therefore AM again fails. Successful ground-based monitoring must address these and other points that agencies commonly ignore. As part of the solution, publics distrustful of agency activities should be included in any monitoring program.
- Prospects for sustainability of biodiversity based on conservation biology and US Forest Service approaches to ecosystem management
Landscape and Urban Planning [Landscape Urban Plann.], vol. 40, no. 1-3, pp. 47-71, 31 Mar 1998
Ecosystem management involves long-term management of whole ecosystems, across political boundaries as necessary, to sustain ecosystem integrity. The conservation biology view of ecosystem management tends to be biocentric, placing primary emphasis on sustaining the integrity of natural ecosystem processes and native species. The US Forest Service favors an anthropocentric approach in which an array of public preferences will determine the extent to which utilitarian (commodities, recreation, etc.) and natural (biodiversity) values will be emphasized in defining and sustaining ecosystem integrity. Conservation biologists have suggested creation of a national network of regional reserve systems, with core areas, buffer zones, and landscape linkages, to help maintain biodiversity, while the US Forest Service is promoting the use of timber management and other forest practices to mimic historic biodiversity patterns across the landscape. These ideas are not mutually exclusive, could potentially be complementary, and would be long-term, very challenging efforts. Political support for implementation of these ideas is uncertain. Legislative proposals to transfer large amounts of multiple-use, public lands to state and/or private ownership, if enacted, are likely to render these approaches ineffective. Compelling scientific evidence from conservation biology argues that failure to apply some sort of ecosystem management to the remaining natural and seminatural parts of the US landscape will result in continued loss of natural biodiversity, eventually leading to a 'tragedy of the biodiversity commons'. Failure to support the present federal land management goal of providing publicly desired resources while sustaining ecosystem integrity can be expected to have negative effects on ecosystem services, regardless of the emphasis placed on naturalness. Broad legislative guidelines favoring maintenance of natural biodiversity, but allowing a much greater contribution of local communities to land management planning, offers the potential for sustaining both ecosystem integrity and local/regional economies. This approach is risky with respect to sustaining natural ecosystem integrity but can, perhaps, be guided by knowledge obtained from adaptive management. Prospects for success would be strengthened by financial incentives to nongovernmental entities for protection of natural biodiversity, concern for private property rights, and by different kinds of stakeholders who share a common ethical and/or cultural concern for the natural environment of their communities.
- Science, expertise and the public: the politics of ecosystem management in the Greater Yellowstone ecosystem
Freemuth, J; McGreggor Cawley, R
Landscape and Urban Planning [Landscape Urban Plann.], vol. 40, no. 1-3, pp. 211-219, 31 Mar 1998
Federal land bureaus are developing a new approach to the management of large areas of public lands called ecosystem management. That approach remains fraught with many conceptual and implementation difficulties. One of the most important of the those difficulties concerns the relationship of scientific/professional modes of decision making with democratic decision processes. The purpose of this paper is to examine the first large scale attempt to implement ecosystem management in the Greater Yellowstone area and the difficulties that effort had in reconciling these modes of decision making. The paper concludes with suggestions as to how these two methods of resource decision making might be brought closer together.
- Ecosystem management on public lands: An application of optimal externality to timber production
Ficklin, RL; Dunn, EG*; Dwyer, JP
Journal of Environmental Management [J. Environ. Manage.], vol. 46, no. 4, pp. 395-402, Apr 1996
While there are increasing numbers of non-consumptive forest uses on public lands, some silvicultural management systems provide little flexibility for the realization of non-commodity values. Traditional economic decision-making tools, such as net present value, are often applied in a manner which inadequately accounts for the full value of the resource. As a result, suboptimal management practices are often implemented. By applying a marginal analysis of the optimal externality of different silvicultural systems, it is possible to identify the optimal timber management strategy in terms of the total costs of the timber harvest under alternative uses. Although difficulties arise in valuing non-consumptive uses, contingent valuation with averting costs estimates can establish a lower bound on society's willingness to pay for foregone timber harvesting. Low impact harvest operations and "new forestry" techniques, such as selection harvest cuts, are helpful in reducing the external costs of timber cutting. Therefore, the implementation of such systems may actually increase the socially optimal area of public lands to be harvested under a multiple-use designation.
- Forest roads and landscape structure in the southern Rocky Mountains
Miller, JR; Joyce, LA; Knight, RL; King, RM
Landscape Ecology [LANDSCAPE ECOL.], vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 115-127, 1996
Roadless areas on public lands may serve as environmental baselines against which human-caused impacts on landscape structure can be measured. We examined landscape structure across a gradient of road densities, from no roads to heavily roaded, and across several spatial scales. Our study area was comprised of 46,000 ha on the Roosevelt National Forest in north-central Colorado. When forest stands were delineated on the basis of seral stage and covertype, no relationship was evident between average stand size and road density. Topography appeared to exert a greater influence on average stand size than did road density. There was a significant positive correlation between the fractal dimension of forest stands and road density across all scales. Early-seral stands existed in greater proportions adjacent to roads, suggesting that the effects of roads on landscape structure are somewhat localized. We also looked at changes in landscape structure when stand boundaries were delineated by roads in addition to covertype and seral stage. Overall, there was a large increase in small stands with simple shapes, concurrent with a decline in the number of stands > 100 ha. We conclude that attempts to quantify the departure from naturalness in roaded areas requires an understanding of the factors controlling the structure of unroaded landscapes, particularly where the influence of topography is great. Because roads in forested landscapes influence a variety of biotic and abiotic processes, we suggest that roads should be considered as an inherent component of landscape structure. Furthermore, plans involving both the routing of new roads and the closure of existing ones should be designed so as to optimize the structure of landscape mosaics, given a set of conservation goals.
- Roles, responsibilities, and opportunities for the Bureau of Land Management in aquatic conservation
Dombeck, MP; Williams, JE
EVOLUTION AND THE AQUATIC ECOSYSTEM: DEFINING UNIQUE UNITS IN POPULATION CONSERVATION., 1995, pp. 430-431, American Fisheries Society Symposium [AM. FISH. SOC. SYMP.], vol. 17
The Department of the Interior's Bureau of Land Management (BLM) administers more land-nearly 109 million hectares-than any other federal agency. Objectives for managing these public lands are rooted in the legal mandates of multiple use and sustained yield. During the past decade, it has become increasingly clear that our traditional approach to managing the land has been inadequate. One only has to witness the loss of biodiversity, the spread of exotic species, or the reduction in land productivity to see that the health of the land is diminishing and that long-term sustainability of our landscape is in jeopardy. Today, we see BLM's role in ecosystem management as one of finding this middle ground between preservation and exploitation. As a multiple-use agency, BLM must allow use of the land, but land use cannot proceed at a pace that diminishes biodiversity or causes the need to list additional species or populations pursuant to the U.S. Endangered species Act. We must strive for sustainability of ecological and economic systems. In this regard, agencies like the BLM and Forest Service should exemplify stewardship responsibilities.
- Conflicting values about Federal forests: A comparison of national and Oregon publics
Steel, BS; List, P; Shindler, B
Society and Natural Resources [SOC. NAT. RESOUR.], vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 137-153, 1994
Federal forest land in the Pacific Northwest has become the focus of a regional and national debate concerning the protection of natural environmental systems and the economic and cultural vitality of local communities. At the heart of this debate are different values about forest and human relationships to forests. This study examines the degree to which the public embraces differing values about federal forests nationally and regionally. Findings suggest strong biocentric value orientations toward forests among the public in both cases. It is further suggested that the value orientations of citizens are strongly related to policy preferences for federal forest lands.
- Perspectives of the forest products industry on management strategies
PROCEEDINGS OF THE SYMPOSIUM ON GIANT SEQUIOAS: THEIR PLACE IN THE ECOSYSTEM AND SOCIETY., 1994, pp. 137-138, GEN. TECH. REP., PAC. SOUTHWEST RES. STN., vol. 151
Past history indicates a wide range of management strategies in the giant sequoia groves of Tulare and Fresno counties. The variation in management is a result of grove ownership, Federal and state regulations and policies, and public sentiment. When the West was developing in the late 1800's, lumber from the giant sequoia was a highly desired product. Private groves were harvested. These lands now are stocked with second-growth sequoia, pine, fir, and cedar. Management activities since the 1930's on Forest Service, state, Native American, and private properties have been confined to the removal of the white wood species. Management of sequoia groves on Federal park lands has been limited to control burning for fire protection. Regardless of the management strategy applied during the past 120 years, the giant sequoia specimen tree is a most hearty "soul," maintaining a defiant stance against old age, fire, wind, drought, and man's activities. Current management strategies on Federal lands are mandated by law, regulation, or management plans, and basically provide only for fire protection for the sequoia groves. Selective harvesting of white wood species in sequoia groves on state land has resulted in healthy, esthetically pleasing, timber stands, which the forest products industry strongly supports. Management strategies for all ownerships should provide for the reproduction of the giant sequoia species. As a fast growing tree adaptable to the local climate, the establishment of giant sequoia reproduction for future national lumber requirements on state, private, and Forest Service lands is a worthy goal.
- Tree farms, mother earth, and other dilemmas: The politics of ecosystem management in Greater Yellowstone.
Cawley, RM; Freemuth, J
Society and Natural Resources [SOC. NAT. RESOUR.], vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 41-53, 1993
The administration of the public lands in the Greater Yellowstone area always has been contentious. Today, the administrative and public policy issue of central concern is how, and whether, to administer the region under the principles of "ecosystem management." Although gaining in popularity as a new natural resource management and administrative paradigm, ecosystem management is fraught with unanswered questions pertinent to public administration, political theory, and public policy. These questions, discussed here, include the use of concepts of nature to defend various political orders; the role of science in this particular public policy debate when contrasted with more democratic methods of public decision making; and the administrative assumptions of national park and national forest managers.
- Rural development, conservation, and public policy in the greater Yellowstone ecosystem.
Society and Natural Resources [SOC. NAT. RESOUR.], vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 109-126, 1993
In the greater Yellowstone area, there is a perceived controversy between conservation efforts and economic well-being. This controversy is fueled by misconceptions about the economy and the role played by public lands in the region. In this article, three commonly held myths are addressed by describing changes that have taken place in the economy, and, in view of these, a more appropriate role of public lands management is identified.
- New perspectives for sustainable natural resources management.
Kessler, WB; Salwasser, H; Cartwright, CW Jr; Caplan, JA
Ecological Applications [ECOL. APPL.], vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 221-225, 1992
The USDA Forest Service is taking a new direction in its research and management programs in response to changing views of land and natural resources. The changes reflect the complexity of society's concerns and expectations for national forest management, including biological diversity, ecological function and balance, product yields, social values, and the beauty and integrity of natural environments. The new direction involved a shift in management focus from sustaining yields of competing resource outputs to sustaining ecosystems. More than ever, management of public lands and resources requires knowledge about ecosystems, including relationships to human values, activities, and patterns of resource use. Also required are new roles for scientists, including closed partnerships with managers to achieve large-scale studies and adaptive management of public lands and resources.
- The Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem policy arena.
Clark, TW; Harvey, AH
Society and Natural Resources [SOC. NAT. RESOUR.], vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 281-284, 1990
The six-million hectare mountainous region surrounding Yellowstone National Park has become the focus of a vigorous policy debate. At issue is the appropriate mix of preservation and development of the public lands that make up the "Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem." Administration of the region is fragmented among twenty-eight different governmental agencies, making management of wide-ranging wildlife and other shared resources difficult. To confront the problems resulting from lack of unifying goals, lack of interagency coordination, and poor use of scientific data, many authors and organized interest groups are urging that the agencies adopt "ecosystem management" as a comprehensive policy for the region. The article discusses the meaning of ecosystem management and the hindrances to its implementation in the Yellowstone region.
- Land acquisition for restoration and protection.
Brumback, BC; Brumback, RA
ENVIRONMENTAL RESTORATION. SCIENCE AND STRATEGIES FOR RESTORING THE EARTH., 1990, pp. 306-311
Way in which public agencies can acquire lands for restoration are discussed as is the use of land acquisition to assure that the natural functions and values which have been restored are permanently protected. A range of potential acquisition techniques and funding sources are explored.
- The public's last chance--protests and appeals to federal land management plans.
Loose, AA; Williams, DC; Schweitzer, DL
Society and Natural Resources [SOC. NAT. RESOUR.], vol. 1, no. 4, pp. 377-386, 1988
Nearly one-quarter of all lands in the United States are managed by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) and the Forest Service. As a results of laws passed in 1976, the agencies are now developing management plans for this land. The public has many opportunities to provide information and comment as the plans are being developed. Nevertheless, each agency provides an administrative "last chance" to influence informally the way the lands will be managed. One can "protest" a BLM plan between issuance of the proposed plan/Final EIS and the Record of Decision or "appeal" a Forest Service Plan Record of Decision. A key difference between the two processes is that the BLM protest is made prior to the final decision while the Forest Service appeal is of a decision already made.
- Law of public rangeland management I: the extent and distribution of federal power.
Coggins, GC; Evans, PB; Lindberg-Johnson, M
Environmental Law (Washington, DC) [ENVIRON. LAW.], vol. 12, no. 3, pp. 535-621, 1982
Rangelands are nonarable or marginally arable lands used primarily for livestock grazing. Although the United States owns several hundred million acres of rangelands, this series of five articles will focus only on the 170 million acres of arid or semiarid lands managed by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) in the eleven Western states. These intermountain and desert lands, formerly known as the "public domain," went unclaimed while available for homesteading, and the government did not reserve them for any other purpose. Public rangelands are this country's forgotten lands, long ignored by both Congress and the general public. This Article outlines the general legal framework in which range managers operate. Section I summarizes the entire series. After a brief description of the lands and their uses, the section introduces the contending parties and the decisionmakers and traces the evolution of the governing law. Section II examines the powers of the United States as a landowner, delineates the respective roles of Congress, courts, and management agencies, and describes some of the ownership problems peculiar to a sovereign.
- Evaluating the contribution of small National Park areas to regional biodiversity
Falkner, MB; Stohlgren, TJ
Natural Areas Journal [Nat. Areas J.], vol. 17, no. 4, pp. 324-330, Oct 1997
Conservationists have questioned whether setting aside small national parks and reserves for conservation is an effective approach to maintaining regional diversity. We summarized the available information on the species richness of vascular plants, mammals, and birds for 44 U.S. National Park System units in the Rocky Mountain Region. Species richness increased as park area increased (Species number = 246 + (102*log Area); r super(2) = 0.48; P < 0.005). However, species density (species km super(-2)) showed a negative relationship with are (log Species number/km super(2) = 5.5 - (0.8*log Area); r super(2) = 0.94; P < 0.001). Due to species composition differences among park units, small units add a considerable number of species to regional species lsts. Differences in species composition (measured as percent overlap) had a negative relationship with increasing distance from the target park - Yellowstone National Park - ranging from 7% to 54%. The number of species reported as unique to a unit varied considerably by unit and by taxon; this is because several units cover a wider range of habitats than occur in a single large reserve of comparable size. We used species-area curves to estimate that the establishment of a new 100 km super(2) reserve would include 718 species of plants, birds, and mammals and would add approximately 84 unique species to the reserved system. Adding the same size area to an existing small, medium, and large reserve would only add 35, 7, and 1 species, respectively. Most small parks in the region were initially established as cultural/historical sites, yet our results illustrate the role of the smaller National Park System units as biological refugia, migration/dispersal rest stops and corridors, and living outreach programs. Small units have a disproportionate share of regional biodiversity and an understated role in the conservation of biodiversity in the region.
- Urban neighbors' wildlife-related attitudes and behaviors near federally protected areas in Tucson, Arizona, USA
Harris, LK; Shaw, WW; Schelhas, J
Natural Areas Journal [Nat. Areas J.], vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 144-148, Apr 1997
Urban development adjacent to protected natural areas may result in reduced scenic beauty, recreational opportunities, and tourism associated with the natural amenities of these areas. Conservation of the biological, recreational, and scenic resources in parks and preserves requires an understanding of the relationships between the protected areas and their suburban neighbors. This information can be useful to both resource managers concerned with protecting wildlife and natural resources and urban planners concerned with maintaining an attractive residential environment for people. As part of several studies on urban conservation issues being conducted at the University of Arizona, we conducted a mail survey of households within 1.6 km (1 mile) of large federal landholdings adjacent to Tucson, Arizona (Pusch Ridge Wilderness, managed by the U.S. Forest Service, and Saguaro National Park, managed by the U.S. National Park Service). Our sample size was 690. Over 80% of the households completed the survey, providing information about their interests in wildlife resources and about their attitudes and behaviors relating to the public natural areas adjacent to their homes. Issues covered by the survey included interactions with wildlife (57% of the households fed wild birds and 26% fed other wildlife), importance of living near protected areas (69% reported "proximity to protected areas an important factor in choice of home location"), attitudes toward various kinds of development in the neighborhood, and problems caused by wildlife at people's homes. These and other findings were analyzed in terms of their implications for the managers of protected areas and for metropolitan planning.
- Social carrying capacity of natural areas: Theory and application in the U.S. National Parks
Manning, RE; Lime, DW; Hof, M
Natural Areas Journal [NAT. AREAS J.], vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 118-127, 1996
Concern over increasing visitor use of natural areas such as national parks has focused attention on the concept of carrying capacity. Research and management experience suggests that carrying capacity has both biological and social components. Moreover, carrying capacity might be addressed most effectively through identification of indicators and standards of quality. Monitoring of indicator variables would ensure that standards of quality are not violated. Using this approach, the U.S. National Park Service recently designed a carrying capacity-related planning framework called Visitor Experience and Resource Protection (VERP). This planning framework was pilot-tested at Arches National Park through a program of social science research. Based on this research, a series of indicators and standards of quality were identified, a long-term monitoring program is being implemented, and management actions are being undertaken. The VERP process is now being refined and may serve as a model for the rest of the U.S. National Park System and related natural areas.
- Extent and control of resource damage due to noncompliant visitor behavior: A case study from the U.S. National Parks
Johnson, DR; Vande Kamp, ME
Natural Areas Journal [NAT. AREAS J.], vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 134-141, 1996
In a recent nationwide survey, managers at U.S. National Park Service administrative units reported extensive damage caused by visitors who fail to follow rules or behavioral guidelines (i.e., noncompliant visitors). At backcountry sites approximately $14 million in damage was estimated, as well as $2.5 million in repeating annual expenditures. Also reported was extensive damage that is not repairable at any cost. A review of social science literature conducted in conjunction with the survey found the literature pertinent to the control of noncompliance to be diverse, fragmented, and tangentially related to problems encountered by recreational land managers in the National Park Service and other agencies. Nonetheless, the review yielded 12 recommendations useful to backcountry managers. Future research should focus on the development of programs for deterring visitor noncompliance that use multiple techniques or interventions.
- Preservation and management of marine and coastal fisheries in the National Park System: A review of research programs
Natural Areas Journal [NAT. AREAS J.], vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 7-11, 1995
The U.S. National Park Service administers a network of 368 park units scattered across the continental United States, Alaska, Hawaii, and the Virgin Islands. The 32 million ha in the park system represent about 12% of total federal landholdings. Fifty-one park units, or 14% of all parks, provide habitats for marine and coastal resources. Research activities in the coastal units of the National Park System were summarized from investigators' annual reports. In 1991, 65 projects focusing on coastal fisheries issues were conducted by 31 cooperating organizations. The National Park Service provided over $1.8 million of the $2.7 million allocated for research projects in parks. This paper summarizes research activities conducted in these national parks. Such activities included general biological surveys and studies involving fisheries, marine invertebrates, water quality, and marine algae and flora. Future research directions are discussed as a means of filling the information needs of coastal resource managers in the national park system.
- Negotiation of the Montana-National Park Service compact
Amman, D; Cosens, B; Specking, J
Rivers, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 35-45, 1995
In 1994, the State of Montana and the United States signed a compact settling the reserved water rights for Yellowstone National Park, Glacier National Park, and Big Hole Battlefield National Monument. Negotiators were the Montana Reserved Water Rights Compact Commission, the National Park Service, and the U.S. Department of Justice. The Compact protects current private water use, allocates water for future appropriations, and maintains high levels of instream flow for streams shared by private users and the national parks. In addition, a controlled groundwater area was created to limit and monitor groundwater use outside Yellowstone Park that might affect hydrothermal features within the Park. This paper explains the legal and technical analyses of reserved and private water rights, and describes the negotiation process used to finalize the compact.
- An ecological evaluation of proposed new conservation areas in Idaho: Evaluating proposed Idaho national parks
Wright, RG; MacCracken, JG; Hall, J
Conservation Biology [CONSERV. BIOL.], vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 207-216, 1994
Four areas in the state of Idaho, U.S.A., have been proposed by various interest groups to be designated as national parks. We used the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service's Gap Analysis Project databases to evaluate the vegetation types contained in each proposal. The scale of analysis was an ecoregion with the proposals falling within three of six ecoregions that encompass Idaho. Databases included vegetation type, land ownership, and land protection status, which were analyzed using a geographic information system. Vegetation types were used as surrogates for information on the distribution of other biological resources (i.e., biodiversity). A conservation strategy was evaluated that would preserve at least 10% of each vegetation type in an ecoregion.
- Recreational fishing in the national parks: Why is there a question?
Fisheries, vol. 19, no. 9, pp. 6-8, 1994
Fishing has been a traditional recreational activity in most of the U.S. National Park System since congressional authorization of Yellowstone National Park in 1872. Yet despite this and the steadfast support anglers have shown for conservation of park resources and acquisition of new parks, the future of recreational angling in the system has been debated since the early 1900s. A recent article in National Parks magazine (La Pierre 1993) focused new attention on the decades-old issue of fishing in the National Park System and raised questions on the appropriateness of this consumptive use of park resources. In this article I will explore the nature of this issue and describe National Park Service (NPS) philosophies and policies on recreational fishing.
- Management issues in hinterland national parks: A human ecological approach.
Slocombe, DS; Nelson, JG
Natural Areas Journal [NAT. AREAS J.], vol. 12, no. 4, pp. 206-215, 1992
This paper reports the results of a study into the divergent responses to similar management issues at Kluane National Park Reserve, Yukon, Canada; Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and Preserve, Alaska, U.S.A.; and Kakadu National Park, Northern Territory, Australia. Eight management issues were examined: access, tourism, resource extraction, aboriginal role, administration, science, interpretation, and regional integration. The differences among the parks' various approaches to these issues are discussed in terms of a number of factors: park and state history, aboriginal claims, socioeconomic context, history of public involvement, inventory and research, and conception of a national park. The management issues and the origins of different approaches to them are defined and discussed in the context of the human ecology of hinterland, park-centered regions.
- Park-people relationships: An international review.
Zube, EH; Busch, ML
Landscape and Urban Planning [LANDSCAPE URBAN PLANN.], vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 117-131, 1990
An international survey, supported by the U.S. Man and the Biosphere Program, was conducted of selected individuals who were reported to be knowledgeable about relationships between local populations and proximate national parks and equivalent reserves. The study objectives were to identify: (1) specific parks and reserves where efforts are being made to foster mutually supportive interactions and (2) strategies and techniques being employed in these efforts. Fifty-seven parks and reserves were identified in 35 countries in the survey and an additional 42 parks and three countries were identified in a review of the literature. Four general models of park-local population relationships were identified.
- Federal recreational land policy: The rise and decline of the Land and Water Conservation Fund.
Glicksman, RL; Coggins, GC
COLUMB. J. ENVIRON. LAW., vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 125-236, 1984
The U.S. Congress created the Land and Water Conservation Fund ("LWCF" or "Fund") in 1965 to serve as the main funding mechanism for federal and state acquistion of recreational lands. The Fund is financed by special taxes and earmarked receipts, and the amounts authorized for appropriation into the Fund have grown rapidly over the years. With LWCF moneys, federal agencies have been able to purchase over 2.8 million acres for new recreational areas and enlargement of existing national parks, refuges and forests. The fund has also enabled states to enhance their recreational lands systems by more than two million acres. The author discusses the inappropriate attempt by the executive branch of the U.S. government to loot the fund.
- Forest Fires as Management Tools.
ENVIRONMENT., vol. 24, no. 1, pp. 5-6, 1982
In national parks and U.S. forests, fires are being set by on-site professionals with increasing frequency. And fires caused by lightning bolts are being allowed to run their course. Over the past half decade, prescribed (purposely set) and management (lightning first allowed to continue) burning have become common practices in national parks, forests, and on industrial timber plantations. And the pace of this little-noticed trend is expected to increase.
- Mapping patterns of human use and potential resource conflicts on public lands
Schumacher, JV; Redmond, RL; Hart, MM; Jensen, ME
Environmental Monitoring and Assessment [Environ. Monit. Assess.], vol. 64, no. 1, pp. 127-137, Sep 2000
Focusing on a 2.2 million hectare area surrounding the Lolo National Forest in western Montana, USA, we illustrate a GIS method for predicting patterns of human use on public lands and highlighting potential for impacts on fish and wildlife species. Data inputs include human population count (derived from the 1990 Census), roads and trails, and the predicted distributions of bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) and 41 terrestrial vertebrates of special concern. Because results highlight areas where conflicts between humans and resources may occur, they are of potential use to land managers. This approach can be applied wherever data are available, and inputs can be varied according to the topics of interest.
- Ecosystem management and conservation biology
Landscape and Urban Planning [Landscape Urban Plann.], vol. 40, no. 1-3, pp. 41-45, 31 Mar 1998
Ecosystem management argues for the maintenance of native biological diversity, in addition to commodity and amenity uses, on our public lands. Heretofore, natural resource management agencies have focused on managing for single species, usually those that are commercially valuable, threatened or endangered, or over-abundant. For a variety of reasons, the future of public-land management will place increasing importance on managing for species communities. Three approaches which can be used to manage for communities include: (1) a species approach, (2) an ecological processes approach, and (3) a landscape approach. Each method is briefly discussed.
- Wildlife habitat models and land management plans: Lessons from the bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) in Tongass National Forest
Willson, MF; Gende, SM; Marston, BH
Natural Areas Journal [Nat. Areas J.], vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 26-29, Jan 1997
We discuss several problems with the treatment of bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) in land-management plans for Tongass National Forest, Alaska, and use these to illustrate potential problems with the handling of wildlife issues on other public lands. Among these problems are the misapplication of criteria derived from populations with differing ecology, and the inappropriate use of habitat models in the planning process.
- Land ownership and land-cover change in the southern Appalachian highlands and the Olympic Peninsula
Turner, MG; Wear, DN; Flamm, RO
Ecological Applications [Ecol. Appl.], vol. 6, no. 4, pp. 1150-1172, Nov 1996
Social and economic considerations are among the most important drivers of landscape change, yet few studies have addressed economic and environmental influences on landscape structure, and how land ownership may affect landscape dynamics. Watersheds in the Olympic Peninsula, Washington, and the southern Appalachian highlands of western North Carolina were studied to address two questions: (1) Does landscape pattern vary among federal, state, and private lands? (2) Do land-cover changes differ among owners, and if so, what variables explain the propensity of land to undergo change on federal, state, and private lands? Landscape changes were studied between 1975 and 1991 by using spatial databases and a time series of remotely sensed imagery. Differences in landscape pattern were observed between the two study regions and between different categories of land ownership. The proportion of the landscape in forest cover was greatest in the southern Appalachians for both U.S. National Forest and private lands, compared to any land-ownership category on the Olympic Peninsula. Greater variability in landscape structure through time and between ownership categories was observed on the Olympic Peninsula. On the Olympic Peninsula, landscape patterns did not differ substantially between commercial forest and state Department of Natural Resources lands, both of which are managed for timber, but differed between U.S. National Forest and noncommercial private land ownerships. In both regions, private lands contained less forest cover but a greater number of small forest patches than did public lands. Analyses of land-cover change based on multinomial logit models revealed differences in land-cover transitions through time, between ownerships, and between the two study regions. Differences in land-cover transitions between time intervals suggested that additional factors (e.g., changes in wood products or agricultural prices, or changes in laws or policies) cause individuals or institutions to change land management. The importance of independent variables (slope, elevation, distance to roads and markets, and population density) in explaining land-cover change varied between ownerships. This methodology for analyzing land-cover dynamics across land units that encompass multiple owner types should be widely applicable to other landscapes.
- Selecting wilderness areas to conserve Utah's biological diversity
Davidson, DW; Newmark, WD; Sites, JW Jr; Shiozawa, DK; Rickart, EA; Harper, KT; Keiter, RB
Great Basin Naturalist [GREAT BASIN NAT.], vol. 56, no. 2, pp. 95-118, 1996
Congress is currently evaluating the wilderness status of Bureau of Land Management (BLM) public lands in Utah. Wilderness areas play many important roles, and one critical role is the conservation of biological diversity. We propose the objectives for conserving biodiversity on BLM lands in Utah be to (1) ensure the long-term population viability of native animal and plant species, (2) maintain the critical ecological and evolutionary processes upon which these species depend, and (3) preserve the full range of communities, successional stages, and environmental gradients. To achieve these objectives, wilderness areas should be selected so as to protect large, contiguous areas, augment existing protected areas, buffer wilderness areas with multiple-use public lands, interconnect existing protected areas with dispersal and movement corridors, conserve entire watersheds and elevational gradients, protect native communities from invasions of exotic species, protect sites of maximum species diversity, protect sites with rare and endemic species, and protect habitats of threatened and endangered species. We use a few comparatively well-studied taxa as examples to highlight the importance of particular BLM lands.
- Protection of biota on nonpark public lands: Examples from the US Department of Energy Oak Ridge Reservation
Mann, LK; Parr, PD; Pounds, LR; Graham, RL
Environmental Management [ENVIRON. MANAGE.], vol. 20, no. 2, pp. 207-218, 1996
Security buffers of Department of Defense (DoD) and Department of Energy (DOE) reservations provide long-term habitat protection for many rare and endangered species. The importance of these government-owned reservations as nationally valuable resources has been relatively unrecognized. During the last 50 years, the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) has been a relatively protected island in a region of rapidly expanding urbanization and land clearing. Consisting of the Oak Ridge National Environmental Research Park and associated lands surrounding DOE facilities at Oak Ridge Tennessee, the unique nature of the ORR in the surrounding landscape is clearly visible from the air and has been documented using remote sensing data. Although forests dominate much of other regions of eastern Tennessee, this 15,000-ha tract of mostly natural forest habitat is unique in the southern Ridge and Valley physiographic province, which is otherwise widely developed for pasture, marginal cropland, woodlot, and urban uses. Twenty state-listed and federal-candidate plant species are known to be present on the ORR. This richness of species, which are provided protection by state and federal laws, exceeds that of the Great Smoky Mountains National Park on a species area basis and is an index of the value of the ORR both regionally and nationally in conserving biodiversity. With the end of the Cold War, changing DoD and DOE missions combined with increasing development pressure contribute to uncertainty in the future management of security reservations.
- A Forest Service perspective on defining unique units in population conservation
EVOLUTION AND THE AQUATIC ECOSYSTEM: DEFINING UNIQUE UNITS IN POPULATION CONSERVATION., 1995, pp. 434-435, American Fisheries Society Symposium [AM. FISH. SOC. SYMP.], vol. 17
The Forest Service is, and has been, proactive in the management of anadromous fish habitat. One would hope that being proactive would be viewed as a positive position to take; however, being proactive has raised questions by many of the public who have been, and still are, consumptive users of resources managed on national forest system lands. This has lead to copious amounts of planning, time-consuming responses, and either perceived or actual litigation that has used limited staffing and funding that would otherwise be available to get work done which will benefit the fish and wildlife habitat resources. In closing, I would ask the scientific community to help shape the process behind determining the evolutionarily significant unit (ESU), and, more importantly, when doing so to include both the nonconsumptive as well as the consumptive users of national forest resources so that there is broad acceptance of the science used in shaping the ESU concept. This will go a long way in helping to make policy that can be developed, stand the test of time, and defuse litigation.
- Using ecological criteria to evaluate wilderness planning options in Idaho
Merrill, T; Wright, RG*; Scott, JM
Environmental Management [ENVIRON. MANAGE.], vol. 19, no. 6, pp. 815-825, 1995
Legally designated wilderness areas are acknowledged to be an important element in strategies to conserve biological diversity in the United States. However, because of the restrictions on consumptive uses in wilderness, their establishment is normally contentious. Criteria for establishment have typically been associated with opportunity and aesthetic and experiential values. Biological data have not normally played a major role in guiding wilderness establishment. We present four wilderness allocation options for those public lands considered suitable for wilderness designation in Idaho. These options cover the span of choices presently available to wilderness planners in the state and range from not establishing any new wilderness areas to the inclusion of all suitable lands in wilderness. All options are evaluated using spatial biological data from the National Biological Survey's Gap Analysis Project. A conservation strategy that would protect a minimum of 10% of the area occupied by each of 113 native vegetation types and at a minimum 10% of the distribution of each of 368 vertebrate species was evaluated for each option. Only the inclusion of all suitable lands in wilderness, creating a system of 5.1 million ha came close to achieving these goals, protecting 65% of the vegetation types and 56% of the vertebrate species. We feel this approach, which allows planners to evaluate the ecological merits of proposed wilderness units along with other values, can provide a means to resolve the impasse over additional wilderness designation in Idaho.
- Public participation and appeals of Forest Service plans - an empirical examination
Gericke, KL; Sullivan, J*
Society and Natural Resources [SOC. NAT. RESOUR.], vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 125-135, 1994
The National Forest Management Act requires the Forest Service to give individuals and organizations access to the planning process. Due to the greater than anticipated level of dissatisfaction with the land management plans, the role of public participation in the planning process has been questioned. The conflict experienced results from disagreement between individuals, interest groups, and the Forest Service about proposed management actions, about how the decisions were made, and fundamental beliefs about what actions are appropriate on public lands. We obtained information about the public participation activity conducted by the Forest Service during development of 61 forest land management plans and about the appeals of these plans. To examine the relationship between public participation and conflict in forest Service planning (measured in terms of forest plan appeals), we hypothesize conflict to be a function of public participation effort, the extent to which publics perceived their concerns were addressed, and attributes of each forest. Using logistic regression, we found that some measures of forest resource attributes are important in determining the probability of a high number of forest plan appeals and that small group participation activities were important in reducing the probability of a high number of appeals.
- How important is wilderness? Results from a United States survey.
Rudzitis, G; Johansen, HE
Environmental Management [ENVIRON. MANAGE.], vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 227-233, 1991
The designation and management of federal wilderness areas has generated much controversy in the United States. The decade of the 1980s has been a difficult one for public land managers as there has been growing opposition to their traditional "conserve but use philosophy." Public lands are to be managed for the public benefit. Unfortunately there has been little survey research to find out what the attitudes of the public are towards the management of federally designated wilderness. We report the results of a national survey of 2670 residents of wilderness counties. We found that the presence of wilderness is an important reason why 53% of the people moved to or live in the area; 81% felt that wilderness areas are important to their counties; and 65% were against mineral or energy development in wilderness areas. On some issues there was less agreement as 43% of the respondents wanted more access to wilderness, and 39% were in favor of additional wilderness with 26% undecided.
- Fishery resources of the national forests: Extent, uses and economic benefits, 1988.
Tripp, L; Rockland, DB
, 1990, 193 pp
The purpose of the study is to provide a summary of the extent, use, and value of the fishery resources on USDA Forest Service lands. The report provides information on the types and extent of various waters, the consumptive, nonconsumptive, subsistence, and commercial use of the fisheries found in these waters, and the existence and stock condition of aquatic species found in waters on National Forests. The economic significance of the commercial, recreational, nonconsumptive, and subsistence uses are also estimated. This information will better enable the Forest Service to protect and develop the highly valuable resources found on the lands they manage. (Also available from Supt. of Docs. Sponsored by Forest Service, Washington, DC.)
- Forested-wetland trends in the United States: An economic perspective.
Forest Ecology and Management [FOR. ECOL. MANAGE.], vol. 33-34, no. 1-4, pp. 227-238, 1990
Forested wetlands are a valuable resource - they provide habitat for a wide variety of fish and wildlife, play a role in flood control, have a positive effect on water quality, serve as the setting for many forms of outdoor recreation, and are a source of various commercially important products such as timber. In spite of these numerous benefits, however, the area of such lands in the United States has substantially declined. To a large degree, these wetland losses have resulted from differing public and private perspectives of the benefits and costs associated with retaining such lands as opposed to converting them to other uses. Past public policies, particularly at the federal level, have also tended to encourage wetlands development. In looking to the future, several factors seem to suggest that further forested-wetland losses will be significantly curtailed.
- Outdoor recreation and the environment: Problems and prospects.
Dustin, DL; McAvoy, LH
Environmental Professional [ENVIRON. PROF.], vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 343-346, 1987
As recreational use of the public lands intensifies, so too do environmental impacts. What to do about these impacts demands an appreciation of the values underpinning recreationists' conduct as well as the values espoused by recreation land managers themselves. In this paper the authors sort out these values and then discuss the difficulty of ordering them for managerial purposes.
- The use of mineral resource information for minerals planning on national forest lands.
Chambers, DM Jr
Dissertation Abstracts International Part B: Science and Engineering [DISS. ABST. INT. PT. B - SCI. & ENG.], vol. 46, no. 9, 1986, 154 pp
The effects of developing mineral resources on the public lands, and the way surface resources have affected mineral development, have made the mineral resource an emerging issue in land management planning. This research focuses on Forest Service planning for locatable minerals, and the way technical information on the resource is used in the land management planning process.
- Nonpoint pollution control on public lands.
van Haveren, BP; Janes, EB; Lackson, WL
Journal of Soil and Water Conservation [J. SOIL WATER CONSERV.], vol. 40, no. 1, pp. 92-94, 1985
The Bureau of Land Management (BLM) under the Federal Land Policy and Management Act of 1976, manages millions of acres of federally owned land under multiple-use and sustained-yield principles. BLM's land and water management decisions are based on resource inventories, identification of issues, and evaluation of management alternatives. One objective is to establish and maintain land use practices that protect water and related biological resources from chemical, physical, or biological deterioration. Nonpoint-source water quality issues, of course fall within these bounds Monitoring water quality and developing and implementing control measures is no small task, considering the extent of BLM-administered lands.
- Grazing Fees for Public Lands: What's Fair.
Utah Science [UTAH SCI.], vol. 43, no. 1, pp. 1-4, 1982
Public (Federal) Land Grazing Fees have been a point of serious controversy between the public land management agencies and ranchers off and on since the early 1900s. The source of the argument about the connection between grazing fees and overgrazing is unclear. Given the usual amount of rancher discretion allowed in setting stocking rates on public lands (none), there appears to be no empirical evidence that fee levels and overgrazing are related. If the new indices cause a reduction in grazing fees, there would be a reduction in the amount of money returned to the agencies for "on-the-ground range improvements". On the other hand, high cattle prices would cause fees to be higher, thereby increasing the monies going back for range improvements
- From Public Land to Nonindustrial Private Forest: A Minnesota Case Study.
Ellefson, PV; Palm, SL; Lothner, DC
Journal of Forestry [J. FOR.], vol. 80, no. 4, pp. 219-221, 1982
Minnesota statute calls for return of 2.9 million acres of tax-forfeited land to private ownership. Most is forested. Over 600,000 areas were sold between 1964 and 1974. One county, Itasca, disposed of 130,000 acres in 18 years beginning in 1960. Of this amount, 25 percent ended up as nonindustrial private forest (NIPFs). Study indicated that the owners resembled other NIPF owners around the nation. Their objectives were primarily for other purposes than timber growing. They did not manage their land aggressively, had little knowledge of public service programs in forestry, and tended to sell their tracts frequently. Average tenure was 8.5 years; some tracts had six or more owners in the 18 years. These findings raise questions about society's interest in transferring forestland from public to private ownership.
- Public lands -- oil and gas leasing in proposed wilderness areas -- the Wyoming district court's interpretation of Section 603 of the Federal Land Policy Management Act of 1976 -- Rocky Mountain Oil and Gas Association v. Andrus, 500 F. Supp. 1338 (D. Wyo. 1980), appeal docketed, No. 81-1040.
Land and Water Law Review [LAND & WATER LAW REV.], vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 487-508, 1982
Plaintiff Rocky Mountain Oil and Gas Association (RMOGA), a non-profit trade association, brought suit against the Secretary of the Interior, challenging land management policies of the Department of the Interior which plaintiff contended have effectively prohibited oil and gas exploration in areas proposed as wilderness under the Federal Land Policy Management Act of 1976 (FLPMA). The principal issue at trial was Interior's interpretation of the wilderness study provisions contained in Section 603 of the Act, which directed that activities on oil and gas leases in proposed wilderness areas be managed so as to prevent impairment of wilderness values
- Managing the public lands: The authority of the executive to withdraw lands.
Natural Resources Journal [NAT. RESOUR. J.], vol. 22, no. 2, pp. 279-335, 1982
Historically the executive branch of the federal government -- primarily the President and the Secretary of the Interior -- has protected public lands by withdrawing them from availability for private acquisition and use allowed under public land laws. Homesteading, mining and other uses ordinarily considered proper on the public domain were prevented in order to preserve resources or to dedicate them to a public purpose. Beginning soon after the nation's founding, numerous military bases and Indian reservations were set aside by executive orders withdrawing lands from the public domain. Other lands were set aside for wide ranging purposes dictated by the national interest. Although it is not widely appreciated, the use of withdrawals has been a major force in conservation law and history, especially during those eras when statutory law was not nearly as broad and diverse as it is today.
- Public land management opportunities for mitigation. Presented at: The Mitigation Symposium: a National Workshop on Mitigating Losses of Fish and Wildlife Habitats; Fort Collins, CO (USA); 16 Jul 1979
Crawford,J.E.; Roberts,E.C.; Meredith,D.P.
In : The Mitigation Symposium: a National Workshop on Mitigating Losses of Fish and Wildlife Habitats, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado, July 16-20, 1979., Publ. by: US Dep. Agriculture; Fort Collins, CO (USA)., 1979., p. 488-490, Gen. Tech. Rep. U. S. Dep. Agric.
Scattered tracts of Federal public lands administered by the Bureau of Land Management provide islands of habitat diversity and opportunity for the Nation's wildlife. Public lands are managed under multiple-use charter which specifies commodity production as well as protecting environmental values. Special opportunities are identified for protecting and enhancing diversity through land-use planning, management, and habitat manipulation.