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  Environmental Policy Issues

Cars, Light Trucks and CAFE Standards Issues
(Released August 2003)

 

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  1. Overview of regulatory/policy/economic issues related to carbon dioxide

    Leaf, D; Verolme, HJH; Hunt Jr, WF

    Environment International [Environ. Int.]. Vol. 29, no. 2-3, pp. 303-310. Jun 2003.

    This is an overview of Session 2c dealing with the regulatory, policy and economic issues related to carbon dioxide and its impact on global climate change. The information is taken from the two papers presented in this session (the U.S. Perspective by Dennis Leaf and the European Perspective by Hans J.H. Verolme) and from the panel discussion that took place at the end of the session. The overview focuses primarily on the policy responses of both the United States (US) and the United Kingdom (UK) to changes in global atmospheric pollution. To a lesser extent, the progress of policy responses to these changes is discussed. The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNF Sr) has been signed and ratified by over 180 countries. The UNF Sr contained no binding targets or timetables for emissions reductions. The Kyoto Protocol [United Nations. Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. UNEP.IUC/99/10. Chatlelaine, Switzerland: United Nations Environment Programme's Information Unit for Conventions, for the Climate Change Secretariat, 1997] to the UNF Sr did contain targets and timetables for reductions of greenhouse gases on the part of developed countries. The US has signed but not ratified the Kyoto Protocol. The US has experienced some movement to reduce greenhouse gas emissions on the part of various levels of government, as well as the private sector. The UK's commitment to reducing green house gases is laid down in the UK Climate Change Programme 2000. The UK is a member of the European Union (EU). In this context, an example of EU-wide progress, the voluntary agreement with car manufacturers to reduce CO 2 emissions in new vehicles, will be discussed. In addition, there will be some discussion on the UK CO 2 trading scheme that created the first market in the world in April 2001. Overall, the policy process is constantly informed by scientific research. In the case of climate change, much of this work is carried out under the auspices of international scientific panels.

  2. Energy policy and climate change in Turkey

    Kaygusuz, K

    Energy Conversion & Management [Energy Convers. Manage.]. Vol. 44, no. 10, pp. 1671-1688. Jun 2003.

    The problem of massive emissions of carbon dioxide (CO 2) from the burning of fossil fuels and their climatic impact have become major scientific and political issues. Future stabilization of the atmospheric CO 2 content requires a drastic decrease of CO 2 emissions worldwide. In this study, energy utilization and its major environmental impacts are discussed from the standpoint of sustainable development, including anticipated patterns of future energy use and subsequent environmental issues in Turkey. Several aspects relating to energy utilization, renewable energy, energy efficiency, environment and sustainable development are examined from both current and future perspectives. Turkey is an energy importing country; with more than half of the energy requirement being supplied by imports. Domestic oil and lignite reserves are limited, and the lignites are characterised by high ash, sulfur and moisture contents. Because of increasing energy consumption, air pollution is becoming a great environmental concern for the future in the country. In this regard, renewable energy resources appear to be one of the most efficient and effective solutions for sustainable energy development and environmental pollution prevention in Turkey. Turkey's geographical location has several advantages for extensive use of most of the renewable energy sources.

  3. The costs of the Kyoto Protocol in the European Union

    Viguier, LL; Babiker, MH; Reilly, JM

    Energy Policy [Energy Policy]. Vol. 31, no. 5, pp. 459-481. Apr 2003.

    We estimate reference CO 2 emission projections in the European Union, and quantify the economic impacts of the Kyoto commitment on Member States. We consider the case where each EU member individually meets a CO 2 emissions target, applying a country-wide cap and trade system to meet the target but without trade among countries. We use a version of the MIT Emissions Prediction and Policy Analysis (EPPA) model, here disaggregated to separately include 9 European Community countries and commercial and household transportation sectors. We compare our results with that of four energy-economic models that have provided detailed analyses of European climate change policy. In the absence of specific additional climate policy measures, the EPPA reference projections of carbon emissions increase by 14% from 1990 levels. The EU-wide target under the Kyoto Protocol to the Framework Convention on Climate Change is a reduction in emissions to 8% below 1990 levels. EPPA emissions projections are similar to other recent modeling results, but there are underlying differences in energy and carbon intensities among the projections. If EU countries were to individually meet the EU allocation of the Community-wide carbon cap specified in the Kyoto Protocol, we find using EPPA that carbon prices vary from $91 in the United Kingdom to $385 in Denmark; welfare costs range from 0.6% to 5%.

  4. New consumers: The influence of affluence on the environment

    Myers, N; Kent, J

    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA [Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA]. Vol. 100, no. 8, pp. 4963-4968. 15 Apr 2003.

    Growing consumption can cause major environmental damage. This is becoming specially significant through the emergence of over 1 billion new consumers, people in 17 developing and three transition countries with an aggregate spending capacity, in purchasing power parity terms, to match that of the U.S. Two of their consumption activities have sizeable environmental impacts. First is a diet based strongly on meat, which, because it is increasingly raised in part on grain, puts pressure on limited irrigation water and international grain supplies. Second, these new consumers possess over one-fifth of the world's cars, a proportion that is rising rapidly. Global CO 2 emissions from motor vehicles, of which cars make up 74%, increased during 1990-1997 by 26% and at a rate four times greater than the growth of CO 2 emissions overall. It is in the self-interest of new consumer countries, and of the global community, to restrict the environmental impacts of consumption; this restriction is achievable through a number of policy initiatives.

  5. Globalization of the automobile industry in China: dynamics and barriers in greening of the road transportation

    Gan, L

    Energy Policy [Energy Policy]. Vol. 31, no. 6, pp. 537-551. May 2003.

    This article describes the state of the automobile industry and urban road transportation management in China. It reviews how the automobile industry is evolving to respond to challenges in economic development, environmental regulations, and technological change. The dynamics and barriers resulting from technological change of automobiles in response to reduction of exhaust emissions and energy-efficiency improvement are analyzed. It is argued that consideration of externality costs should be integrated in automobile industrial policymaking and transportation management. Efforts need to be made to use more economic incentives for emissions reduction, and to promote technological change for cleaner vehicle development. This paper questions the current government policy of encouraging private car ownership, and suggests that improvement in public transportation systems, stronger emissions control, and technology innovation on environmental friendly automobile technologies would be relevant to China's drive toward sustainable transportation development. Social inequities resulted from automobile use is also stressed in the analysis.

  6. Is there a 'California effect' in US environmental policymaking?

    Fredriksson, PG; Millimet, DL

    Regional Science & Urban Economics [Reg. Sci. Urban Econ.]. Vol. 32, no. 6, pp. 737-764. Nov 2002.

    What determines state environmental policymaking in the US? Vogel (Trading Up: Consumer and Environmental Regulation in a Global Economy, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA, 1995; J. Eur. Pub. Pol. 4 (1997) 556-571) argues that California has been a de facto leader since the early 1970s in terms of automobile emissions standards. In this paper, we investigate the generality of California's leadership role with respect to changes in overall pollution abatement expenditures. We present a simple model of yardstick competition in abatement costs. Using state-level panel data from 1977 to 1994 on abatement costs, our results indicate at best a minor role for California. Other states, in particular California's immediate neighbors, do not appear to use California as a guideline.

  7. A Systematic Assessment of the Environmental Impacts of Transport Policy

    Hensher, DA

    Environmental & Resource Economics [Environ. Resour. Econ.]. Vol. 22, no. 1-2, pp. 185-217. Jun 2002.

    This paper presents an integrated urban passenger transport model system for evaluating the impact of a large number of interrelated policy instruments on urban travel behaviour and the environment. The model system has four integrated modules defining household location and automobile choices, commuter workplace and commuting travel choices, non-commuting travel activity, and worker distributed work practices. The demand model system, estimated as a set of discrete and continuous choice models, is combined with a set of equilibrating criteria in each of the location, automobile and commuting markets to predict overall demand for passenger travel in various socio-economic segments, automobile classes and geographic locations. We illustrate the diversity of the system by applying the integrated system to Perth (Western Australia), in the context of assessing their impacts on greenhouse gas emissions. The model system is embedded within a decision support system to make it an attractive suite of tools for practitioners.

  8. Anthropogenic and natural CO 2 emission sources in an arid urban environment

    Koerner, B; Klopatek, J

    Environmental Pollution [Environ. Pollut.]. Vol. 116, suppl. 1, pp. S45-S51. 2002.

    Recent research has shown the Phoenix, AZ metropolitan region to be characterized by a CO 2 dome that peaks near the urban center. The CO 2 levels, 50% greater than the surrounding non-urban areas, have been attributed to anthropogenic sources and the physical geography of the area. We quantified sources of CO 2 emissions across the metropolitan region. Anthropogenic CO 2 emission data were obtained from a variety of government and NGO sources. Soil CO 2 efflux from the dominant land-use types was measured over the year. Humans and automobile activity produced more than 80% input of CO 2 into the urban environment. Soil CO 2 efflux from the natural desert ecosystems showed minimal emissions during hot and dry periods, but responded rapidly to moisture. Conversely, human maintained vegetation types (e.g. golf courses, lawns, irrigated agriculture) have greater efflux and are both temperature and soil moisture dependent. Landfills exhibited the most consistent rates, but were temperature and moisture independent. We estimate the annual CO 2 released from the predominant land-use types in the Phoenix region and present a graphical portrayal of soil CO 2 emissions and the total natural and anthropogenic CO 2 emissions in the metropolitan region using a GIS-based approach. The results presented here do not mimic the spatial pattern shown in previous studies. Only, with sophisticated mixing models will we he able to address the total effect of urbanization on CO 2 levels and the contribution to regional patterns.

  9. Sustainability: Lessons from climate variability and climate change

    Agrawala, Sh; Cane, MA

    Columbia Journal of Environmental Law [Columbia J. Environ. Law]. Vol. 27, no. 2, pp. 309-322. 2002.

    Science has made significant, even remarkable progress in understanding and predicting many aspects of seasonal climate variability as well as long-term human induced climatic change. The last two decades of the previous century have seen climate change emerge from being a theoretical concern among climate modelers to one of the most prominent issues on the international political agenda. Nations of the world have come together to sign an international convention, followed by a legally binding protocol to reduce greenhouse emissions. This same period witnessed the development of dynamical models to predict the onset and evolution of El Nino and La Nina events, and the development of capability in many parts of the world to regularly produce and utilize seasonal climate forecasts. The real contribution of climate science has been to transform both climate change and seasonal climate prediction from the esoteric to the mundane. Yet, along the way, we have discovered new wrinkles and a few boulders. From a climate perspective, even the most aggressive proposals to curb greenhouse gas emissions are but a finger in the dyke. On the other hand, achieving even the weakest of such proposals remains an environmentalist's pipe dream, despite the Kyoto Protocol and the accords reached recently in Marrakech. It is of course easy to put the blame on politicians or certain governments, particularly the world's biggest contributor to greenhouse emissions - the United States - that recently reneged on its Kyoto commitments. But in the end, U.S. policy reflects democratic choices; the fossil fuel or automobile lobby would not have so much influence on governance were it not for our own addiction to fossil energy. In seasonal forecasting, meanwhile, science has occasionally made a significant impact on societal decision-making. But some of this use remains clouded by debates over public versus private benefit, as well as issues of social equity. In most other instances, getting society to make use of such information remains a tough grind. In our efforts to achieve socially worthwhile goals, we must not lose sight of the fact that too many people act on their own short-term self-interest, at the expense of their contemporaries or future generations. The choice is a moral or ethical issue, and not a narrowly technical one. How willing are we to sacrifice some of our creature comforts in order to preserve the environment for future generations. Will the present generation in the developing world be willing to slow their economic progress to protect a distant future. Should they be.

  10. The influence of transportation management strategies on vehicular air emissions: A case study in Taipei City

    Yang, Wen-Lung; Chen, Luke

    Journal of the Chinese Institute of Environmental Engineering [J. Chin. Inst. Environ. Eng.]. Vol. 11, no. 4, pp. 289-305. Dec 2001.

    Traffic emission is usually the major air pollutant source in most cities. How the transportation management strategy affects the urban traffic condition and how it indirectly affects urban air quality are the concerns of city policy makers. This study proposes and demonstrates a System Dynamics based decision support system to estimate the change of mobile air pollutant emission due to the implementation of three transportation management strategies. The proposed system includes three sub-models, namely the Logit sub-model, traffic flow sub-model and traffic emission sub-model. The considered air pollutants are NO sub(x) and HC. The modes considered in the system are car, motorcycle, bus, mass rapid transit (MRT) and taxi. To demonstrate the application of the system, case studies of Taipei City were performed. The demonstration cases include applying the system to assess the impact of three transportation management strategies. The assessed strategies were compensation of MRT fare, rescheduling MRT frequency and modified taxi rate. Taipei City traffic related GIS was established and used to display the assessment results. Based on the the assessment we conclude that there will be a reduction of NO sub(x) 4.9 kg/day and HC 29.6 kg/day for MRT fare compensation. The rescheduling of the MRT frequency during off-peak periods is estimated to reduce NO sub(x) emission 8.4 kg/day and HC 712.9 kg/day individually. If the taxi rate is raised NT 5, the system predicts that there will be a reduction of HC 215.5 kg/day and an increase of NO sub(x) 84.4 kg/day.

  11. Estimating Used Motor Oil Volumes Generated by Do-It-Yourself Oil Changers in Bellevue, Washington

    Stitzhal, D; Holmes, DR

    Environmental Practice [Environ. Practice]. Vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 113-121. Jun 2001.

    Since 1993 the City of Bellevue, Washington, has managed a Closed Loop Oil Recycling and Education Program. A central aim of the program is to recover used oil generated by do-it-yourself oil changers. While collection volumes for used oil are accurately estimated, the amount of oil generated by do-it-yourselfers--and therefore available for collection--is less well known. The challenge is compounded by the unavailability of sales figures for new oil, and because considerable volumes of oil drip from, or are burned in, car engines. Additionally, estimates of do-it-yourself activity are imperfect, especially with regard to the average number of oil changes per year, and the variable oil capacity of engine crankcases. Finally, some oil volume is disposed along with used oil filters and is not recovered through do-it-yourself channels. This model and report attempt to generate a state-of-the-art methodology for determining available volumes of used do-it-yourself oil in a given jurisdiction. In this case, the City of Bellevue found that 23,642 gallons are being collected annually of an estimated 58,132 available, for a 40.7% collection rate. This rate is considerably higher than most other estimates around the country.

  12. A model system for the assessment of the effects of car and fuel green taxes on CO2 emission

    Hayashi, Y; Kato, H; Teodoro, RVR

    Transportation Research, Part D: Transport and Environment [Transp. Res. D: Transp. Environ.]. Vol. 6D, no. 2, pp. 123-139. Mar 2001.

    This study aims at developing a model system to examine the changes in the car market configuration, the life cycle CO 2 emission from automobile transport and the tax revenues due to different taxation policies. The model system specifically determines the effect of varying the weights of the tax components in the stages of a) car purchasing, b) car owning, and c) car using to the changes in the car class and age mix and the car users' driving pattern and behavior towards car class choice and decommissioning. Five sub-models comprise the model system, formulated using car ownership related data in Japan from 1980 to 1994. Performance tests conducted against the sub-models generally yielded encouraging results. The sensitivity analysis identified car usage tax as the most significant parameters in reducing CO 2. An increase in, ownership tax, on the other hand, significantly results to a shift to smaller cars, while the propensity to decommission and repurchase can be reduced by increasing the purchase tax and can be decreased by increasing the ownership tax. The model system was utilized to determine the impact of the 1989 tax reform and to forecast future scenarios using different taxation schemes. The model system is being further developed for possible future application in other countries.

  13. Development of the ultra-low-fuel-consumption hybrid car - INSIGHT

    Fukuo, Koichi; Fujimura, Akira; Saito, Masaaki; Tsunoda, Kazuhiko; Takiguchi, Shiro

    JSAE Review [JSAE REV]. Vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 95-103. Jan 2001.

    This paper describes the key technologies that achieve high fuel efficiency in a variety of driving conditions. For the global environment preservation, a vehicle has been developed with the objective of reducing fuel consumption and exhaust CO 2 to half that of Honda's typical low-fuel-consumption car Civic. These new technologies have been developed around a new hybrid power train layout. They include improvement in engine thermal efficiency, vehicle weight reduction and reduction of aerodynamic drag, resulting in extremely high fuel economy of 35 km/l at 10-15 mode. Also, the exhaust emissions are as low as half of the 2000 Japanese exhaust emission regulation. Consideration was also given to recycling compatibility, crash safety performance, comfortable running and styling to create a highly sophisticated ultra-low-fuel-consumption hybrid car.

  14. The transport sector as a source of air pollution

    Colvile, RN; Hutchinson, EJ; Mindell, JS; Warren, RF

    Atmospheric Environment [Atmos. Environ.]. Vol. 35, no. 9, pp. 1537-1565. 2001.

    Transport first became a significant source of air pollution after the problems of sooty smog from coal combustion had largely been solved in western European and North American cities. Since then, emissions from road, air, rail and water transport have been partly responsible for acid deposition, stratospheric ozone depletion and climate change. Most recently, road traffic exhaust emissions have been the cause of much concern about the effects of urban air quality on human health and tropospheric ozone production. This article considers the variety of transport impacts on the atmospheric environment by reviewing three examples: urban road traffic and human health, aircraft emissions and global atmospheric change, and the contribution of sulphur emissions from ships to acid deposition. Each example has associated with it a different level of uncertainty, such that a variety of policy responses to the problems are appropriate, from adaptation through precautionary emissions abatement to cost-benefit analysis and optimised abatement. There is some evidence that the current concern for road transport contribution to urban air pollution is justified, but aircraft emissions should also give cause for concern given that air traffic is projected to continue to increase. Emissions from road traffic are being reduced substantially by the introduction of technology especially three-way catalysts and also, most recently, by local traffic reduction measures especially in western European cities. In developing countries and Eastern Europe, however, there remains the possibility of great increase in car ownership and use, and it remains to be seen whether these countries will adopt measures now to prevent transport-related air pollution problems becoming severe later in the 21st Century.

  15. Global Climate Change: The role for energy efficiency

    Sissine, F

    Global Climate Change. pp. 19-30. 2001.

    Energy efficiency is increased when an energy conversion device, such as a household appliance, automobile engine, or steam turbine, undergoes a technical change that enables it to provide the same service (lighting, heating, motor drive) while using less energy. Energy efficiency is often viewed as a resource option like coal, oil or natural gas. It provides additional economic value by preserving the resource base and reducing pollution. Energy security, a major driver of federal energy efficiency programs in the past, is now somewhat less of an issue. On the other hand, worldwide emphasis on environmental problems of air and water pollution and global climate change have emerged as important drivers of support for energy efficiency policies and programs. Also, energy efficiency is seen as a technology strategy to improve the competitiveness of U.S.-made appliances, cars, and other energy-using equipment in world markets. The Clinton Administration views energy efficiency as the flagship of its energy policy for global climate change and other environmental reasons.

  16. Automotive Emissions in Developing Countries: Traffic Management and Technological Control Measures

    Sbayti, H; El-Fadel, M; Kaysi, I; Baaj, H

    Environmental Engineering Science [Environ. Eng. Sci.]. Vol. 18, no. 6, pp. 347-358. 2001.

    Urbanization in developing countries is causing an increase in roadside air pollution, which is associated with adverse environmental impacts. Such impacts are most prevalent in densely overpopulated urban centers, creating the need for mitigation strategies. In developed countries, traffic and environmental policy planners are relying on stringent regulations, advanced tailpipe emission-reduction technologies, and complex traffic control measures (such as high-occupancy vehicles restricted lanes, bus-dedicated lanes, park- and-ride facilities, dynamic traffic light signalization, and hot-spot management) to mitigate excess automotive emissions. In contrast, developing countries may require only conventional or traditional traffic control measures (such as truck rerouting, car pooling, and promoting mass transit) along with affordable simple technological solutions to reduce automotive emissions to acceptable levels, at least in the short term, because of differences in traffic fleet characteristics and transportation infrastructure extensiveness. The present research aims at integrating a traffic model (EMME/2) and an emission model (MOBILE5B) to simulate the emission inventory in the future central business district of Beirut city. The modeling effort will serve as a decision support tool for environmental/transportation policy planners to manage traffic-related air pollution problems. Simulation results showed that, with a proper set of policies and fiscal incentives, simple control measures can reduce total emissions by 45-85% depending on the alternative selected.

  17. Air quality planning and empirical model to evaluate SPM concentrations

    Karim, MdMasud; Ohno, Takashi

    Journal of Environmental Engineering [J ENVIRON ENG]. Vol. 126, no. 12, pp. 1116-1124. Dec 2000.

    The state of air pollution in Japan, and in particular in Nagoya, has improved since the 1960s in terms of sulfur dioxide (SO 2) and carbon monoxide (CO). However, suspended particulate matter (SPM), nitrogen oxides (NO sub(x)) emitted by automobiles, and photochemical oxidants (O sub(x)), especially ozone (O sub(3)), have become major pollution problems in urban life. Nagoya has adopted a number of measures to improve air quality, such as air pollution monitoring, regulation and guidance for industries and businesses, and measures against automobile exhaust gases. This paper reviews the air quality measures in Nagoya and develops an empirical model for evaluating urban SPM concentration in problem areas. The model presented in this study is suitable for predicting long-term average SPM concentrations and can be utilized for analyzing the effects of various traffic emission reduction strategies. In addition, this model can be utilized for new urban development as an alternative to vigorous monitoring by predicting long-term SPM concentration from NO sub(x) monitoring data.

  18. Leicester environment city: learning how to make Local Agenda 21, partnerships and participation deliver

    Roberts, I

    Environment and Urbanization [Environ. Urban.]. Vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 9-26. Oct 2000.

    This paper describes the pioneering experience of the city of Leicester (in the UK) over the last 10 years in developing its Local Agenda 21, and other aspects of its work towards environmental improvement and sustainable development. It includes details of measures to improve public transport and to reduce congestion, traffic accidents, car use and air pollution. It also describes measures to improve housing quality for low-income households, to reduce fossil fuel use and increase renewable energy use and to make the city council's own operations a model for reducing resource use and waste. It also describes how this was done - the specialist working groups that sought to make partnerships work (and their strengths and limitations), the information programmes to win hearts and minds, the many measures to encourage widespread participation (and the difficulties in involving under-represented groups) and the measures to make local governments, businesses and other groups develop the ability and habit of responding to the local needs identified in participatory consultations

  19. Life-cycle analysis of alternative automobile fuel/propulsion technologies

    Lave, Lester; Maclean, Heather; Hendrickson, Chris; Lankey, Rebecca

    Environmental Science & Technology [ENVIRON SCI TECHNOL]. Vol. 34, no. 17, pp. 3598-3605. Sep 2000.

    We examine the economic and environmental implications of the fuels and propulsion technologies that will be available over the next two decades for powering a large proportion of the light duty fleet (cars and light trucks). Since R&D change is rapid, we treat the uncertainty about future technologies using bounding calculations. A life-cycle perspective is used to analyze fossil fuels [conventional unleaded and reformulated gasolines, low sulfur reformulated diesel, and compressed natural gas (CNG)], ethanol from biomass, and electricity together with current and advanced internal combustion engines (ICE, indirect (port) and direct injection, spark, and compression ignited) and electric vehicles (battery-powered, hybrid electric, and fuel cell). Technological advances continue to improve the efficiency and environmental performance of ICE automobiles powered by low sulfur fossil fuels. Absent a doubling of petroleum prices or stringent regulation [due, for example, to intense concerns about greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions], ICE using fossil fuels will dominate the market for the next two decades. CNG cars have low emissions, including GHG, but must be redesigned to store enough CNG to achieve the current range. Battery-powered cars have limited range and are expensive, and the life-cycle of battery components leads to discharges of toxic materials. Although both hybrid and fuel cell vehicles promise better fuel economy and lower emissions, in the near term these do not justify their higher costs. If global warming becomes a major concern, CNG offers carbon dioxide emission reductions of up to 30%, and bioethanol could provide a fuel with no net carbon dioxide emissions, although the bioethanol price would be more than twice current petroleum prices.

  20. Modelling the effects of transport policy levers on fuel efficiency and national fuel consumption

    Kirby, Howard R; Hutton, Barry; McQuaid, Ronald W; Raeside, Robert; Zhang, Xiayoan

    Transportation Research, Part D: Transport and Environment [TRANSPORT RES PART D TRANSPORT ENVIR]. Vol. 5, no. 4, pp. 265-282. 2000.

    The paper provides an overview of the main features of a Vehicle Market Model (VMM) which estimates changes to vehicle stock /kilometrage, fuel consumed and CO 2 emitted. It is disaggregated into four basic vehicle types. The model includes: the trends in fuel consumption of new cars, including the role of fuel price; a sub-model to estimate the fuel consumption of vehicles on roads characterized by user-defined driving cycle regimes; procedures that reflect distribution of traffic across different area/road types; and the ability to vary the speed (or driving cycle) from one year to another, or as a result of traffic growth. The most significant variable influencing fuel consumption of vehicles was consumption in the previous year, followed by dummy variables related to engine size, the time trend (a proxy for technological improvements), and then fuel price. Indeed the effect of fuel price on car fuel efficiency was observed to be insignificant (at the 95% level) in two of the three versions of the model, and the size of fuel price term was also the smallest. This suggests that the effectiveness of using fuel prices as a direct policy tool to reduce fuel consumption may be limited. Fuel prices may have significant indirect impacts (such as influencing people to purchase more fuel efficient cars and vehicle manufacturers to invest in developing fuel efficient technology) as may other factors such as the threat of legislation.

  21. How to reduce US automobile greenhouse gas emissions

    Difiglio, Carmen; Fulton, Lewis

    ENERGY (OXFORD). Vol. 25, no. 7, pp. 657-673. 2000.

    This paper presents an analysis of alternative policies and measures for reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the US light-duty vehicle sector to specified levels by 2010 and beyond (to 2030). Although the Kyoto treaty does not require specific reductions in each sector, the authors consider the likelihood that light-duty vehicles can `pull their weight' relative to other sectors. The authors use economic relationships between fuel prices, travel, and vehicle fuel economy to estimate the effect of different GHG policies. The estimated GHG savings from a number of travel-related and vehicle-related policies are compared to reductions that would be needed in order to achieve Kyoto-type reductions in the sector by 2010. The authors find that, apart from an unrealistically large increase in fuel taxes, no single policy appears likely to be capable of achieving the target reductions by 2010, although certain combinations of policies may be able to achieve the targets. However, if the time frame is extended out to 2030, certain technology-oriented policies appear quite promising for achieving large GHG reductions

  22. Driving Less for Better Air: Impacts of a Public Information Campaign

    Henry, Gary T; Gordon, Craig S

    Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, 2003, 22, 1, winter, 45-63.

    In the wake of the 1990 amendments to the Clean Air Act, localities across the United States initiated public information campaigns both to raise awareness of threats to air quality & to change behavior related to air pollution by recommending specific behavioral changes in the campaign messages. These campaigns are designed to reduce the health hazards associated with poor air quality & to avoid federal sanctions resulting from the failure to meet air quality standards. As in many other communities across the country, a coalition of government agencies & businesses initiated a public information campaign in the Atlanta metropolitan region to reduce certain targeted behaviors, mainly driving. A two-stage model used to analyze data from a rolling sample survey shows that the centerpiece of the information campaign - air quality alerts - was effective in raising awareness & reducing driving in a segment of the population. When the overall information campaign was moderated by employers' participation in programs to improve air quality, drivers significantly reduced the number of miles they drove & the number of trips they took by car on days when air quality alerts were sounded. Public information campaigns can be successful in increasing awareness, but changing well-established behaviors, such as driving, is likely to require institutional mediation to provide social contexts that support the behavioral change, as well. 8 Tables, 1 Figure, 28 References. [Copyright 2003 John Wiley and Sons, Ltd.].

  23. Urban Growth and the Politics of Air Pollution: The Establishment of California's Automobile Emission Standards

    Gonzalez, George A

    Polity, 2003, 35, 2, winter, 213-236.

    The state of CA has been the nation's leader in the formulation of automobile emission standards. Given that CA is at the center of policy making in the US with regard to automobile emission standards, this study analyzes the factors that have historically shaped the formulation of CA's standards. Policy analysts in this area, to explain the development of the state's pollution abatement policies, largely concentrate on the role of public officials, scientists, policy specialists, & interest group competition. The author of this study, however, centers his analysis on economic elites. He specifically holds that central to the effort to regulate automobile emissions in CA are business elites whose economic interests lie in rising property values & an expanding local consumer base. These locally oriented elites are at the core of what Harvey Molotch refers to as a 'growth coalition.' Adapted from the source document.

  24. Air Pollution and the Quality of the Urban Environment

    Denti, Antonio Ballarin

    Aggiornamenti Sociali, 2002, 53, 3, Mar, 209-220.

    Although steps taken in recent years have improved the air quality of Italian cities, there are still significant air pollution-associated health risks to urban residents. The standard responses to environmental threats include the adoption of measures that discourage the use of the automobile & private transport: this is an important contribution to effective environmental policy. 1 Table. Adapted from the source document.

  25. Priorities for a Low-Carbon Economy: The Spending Review and the Environment

    Hewett, Chris

    New Economy, 2002, 9, 1, Mar, 11-15.

    Considers how fiscal policy, & particularly the 2002 Spending Review, has handled British economic development per unit of carbon dioxide emissions in the context of the UK's overriding economic concern for raising productivity & closing the productivity gap. The challenge in decoupling economic development from carbon emissions is addressed, assessing the 2002 Spending Review as the key to intergovernmental coordination in energy policy reform. Sustainable development objectives are discussed, offering an economic rationale for pursuing expenditure changes to reduce emissions. Government procurement is an area that could be used to leverage emissions reduction. Government energy efficiency (eg, in government buildings) is touched on, noting that spending might need to rise in the short term to see long-term green gains. Reform of transport spending is another means to positively impact a low-carbon economy. Revising the 10-year transport investment plan & clean car technology are discussed. A low-carbon economy can be advanced via energy efficiency by way of investing in new technologies. How the Dept for the Environment, Food & Rural Affairs can help push energy-efficient policy are cited. Treasury will have to pursue policy solutions geared toward rapid technological change, innovation, & productivity gains. J. Zendejas.

  26. Democratic Ethics and Ecological Modernization: The Formulation of California's Automobile Emission Standards

    Gonzalez, George A

    Public Integrity, 2001, 3, 4, fall, 325-344.

    The state of CA is the force leading the nation's automobile emission standards. Environmental groups working on clean air policies, however, have been co-opted by the state agency responsible for setting the state's automobile emission standards, the California Air Resources Board, & the automobile & oil industries. This has been done primarily by controlling the nature of the discourse surrounding the public debate on how to improve air quality. This debate is centered not on health & the environment but on "ecological modernization," or the technology of controlling air pollution. Thus land use planning is ignored or is not considered as a viable policy option. Given the bounded nature of this debate, I hold that the most ethical & efficacious approach for environmental groups is to withdraw from the state's policy-making process & redeploy their time & resources toward civil society. I draw this conclusion by employing an ethics rooted in democracy & by offering a description of the forces that are driving the ecological modernization of the automobile in CA. 99 References. Adapted from the source document.

  27. The Paradoxes of U.S. Policy in the Middle East

    Monshipouri, Mahmood

    Middle East Policy, 2002, 9, 3, Sept, 65-84.

    Explores contradictory US policies toward the Middle East that have contributed to the anger that fueled the tragic events of September 11. US policies during the last half of the 20th century have focused on protecting the flow of oil, supporting Israel, & maintaining political stability. More recent objectives include fighting terrorism; brokering an Israeli-Palestinian truce; & curtailing weapons of mass destruction. Seven paradoxes that characterize US foreign policy are discussed: (1) truce brokering /partisan diplomacy; (2) cheap oil/energy security; (3) maintaining sanctions & the status quo; (4) supporting reformist & nonaccountable regimes; (5) militarization/stability; (6) enemy vs ally; & (7) power/interdependence. It is contended that peace in the Middle East is unlikely as long as the US continues to support corrupt governments & oil politics are the basis of foreign policy. The US must shift its focus from trying to destroy radical Islamist movements to pursuing policies that promote civil participation & address the grievances that led to political dispossession & terrorism. J. Lindroth.

  28. Energy Independence or Interdependence? Integrating the North American Energy Market

    Nivola, Pietro S

    Brookings Review, 2002, 20, 2, spring, 24-27.

    Though proclaimed as a panacea to US energy woes, eliminating our reliance on foreign energy is an inherently defective strategy. First, it is far more costly to produce oil from our existing oil reserves than it is to import it from a member of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC). Second, it is wise for many reasons to cultivate an even closer trading relationship with & to "recognize the energy potential of our neighbors, Canada & Mexico." Finally, the free-market principles that underlie the North American Free Trade Agreement's (NAFTA) existing energy regulations must be enhanced. America's energy security will be strengthened only when it becomes, in the words of President George W. Bush, "easier for buyers & sellers of energy to do business across our borders." K. Larsen.

  29. United States Energy Security

    Bahgat, Gawdat

    Journal of Social, Political and Economic Studies, 2001, 26, 3, fall, 515-542.

    Shortly after taking office, President George W. Bush established the National Energy Policy Development Group (NEPDG), headed by Vice President Dick Cheney, to examine the "energy crisis" the US faces. On May 17th, the president presented the recommendations of the NEPDG, a main theme of which is the need to diversify the fuel sources & geographic sources of energy. This study examines the history & outlook of fossil fuels & analyzes various energy strategies to enhance US energy security. For the foreseeable future, oil will continue to play a significant role in the energy mix & the Persian Gulf will retain its strategic importance for US energy security. 3 Tables. Adapted from the source document.

  30. Globalization of the automobile industry in China: dynamics and barriers in greening of the road transportation

    Gan, L

    Energy Policy [Energy Policy]. Vol. 31, no. 6, pp. 537-551. May 2003.

    This article describes the state of the automobile industry and urban road transportation management in China. It reviews how the automobile industry is evolving to respond to challenges in economic development, environmental regulations, and technological change. The dynamics and barriers resulting from technological change of automobiles in response to reduction of exhaust emissions and energy-efficiency improvement are analyzed. It is argued that consideration of externality costs should be integrated in automobile industrial policymaking and transportation management. Efforts need to be made to use more economic incentives for emissions reduction, and to promote technological change for cleaner vehicle development. This paper questions the current government policy of encouraging private car ownership, and suggests that improvement in public transportation systems, stronger emissions control, and technology innovation on environmental friendly automobile technologies would be relevant to China's drive toward sustainable transportation development. Social inequities resulted from automobile use is also stressed in the analysis.