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The Anacostia Waterfront Initiative:
Development and the Environment

(Released May 2004)



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  1. A ten-year summary of concurrent ambient water column and sediment toxicity tests in the Chesapeake Bay watershed: 1990-1999

    Hall, LW Jr; Anderson, RD; Alden, RW III

    Environmental Monitoring and Assessment [Environ. Monit. Assess.]. Vol. 76, no. 3, pp. 311-352. Jun 2002.

    The goal of this study was to identify the relative toxicity of ambient areas in the Chesapeake Bay watershed by using a suite of concurrent water column and sediment toxicity tests at seventy-five ambient stations in 20 Chesapeake Bay rivers from 1990 through 1999. Spatial and temporal variability was examined at selected locations throughout the 10 yr study. Inorganic and organic contaminants were evaluated in ambient water and sediment concurrently with water column and sediment tests to assess possible causes of toxicity although absolute causality can not be established. Multivariate statistical analysis was used to develop a multiple endpoint toxicity index (TOX-INDEX) at each station for both water column and sediment toxicity data. Water column tests from the 10 yr testing period showed that 49% of the time, some degree of toxicity was reported. The most toxic sites based on water column results were located in urbanized areas such as the Anacostia River, Elizabeth River and the Middle River. Water quality criteria for copper, lead, mercury, nickel and zinc were exceeded at one or more of these sites. Water column toxicity was also reported in localized areas of the South and Chester Rivers. Both spatial and temporal variability was reported from the suite of water column toxicity tests. Some degree of sediment toxicity was reported from 62% of the tests conducted during the ten year period. The Elizabeth River and Baltimore Harbor stations were reported as the most toxic areas based on sediment results. Sediment toxicity guidelines were exceeded for one or more of the following metals at these two locations: arsenic, cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, nickel and zinc. At the Elizabeth River stations nine of sixteen semi-volatile organics and two of seven pesticides measured exceeded the ER-M values in 1990. Ambient sediment toxicity tests in the Elizabeth River in 1996 showed reduced toxicity. Various semi-volatile organics exceeded the ER-M values at a number of Baltimore Harbor sites; pyrene and dibenzo(a,h)anthracene were particularly high at one of the stations (Northwest Harbor). Localized sediment toxicity was also reported in the Chester, James, Magothy, Rappahannock, and Potomac Rivers but the link with contaminants was not determined.

  2. Trophic transfer of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the food web of the Anacostia River (Washington, D.C.)

    Brown, PD

    Dissertation Abstracts International Part B: Science and Engineering [Diss. Abst. Int. Pt. B - Sci. & Eng.]. Vol. 62, no. 12, p. 5622. Jun 2002.

    The Anacostia River, which flows through Washington, D.C., USA, is contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Median sediment concentrations are approximately 225 ng/g dwt in the main portion of the river, with concentrations of around 1,700 ng/g dwt in the hot spot located near the Navy Yard. Zooplankton, benthic organisms, and fish were analyzed for PCB concentrations, and these values were used to develop and evaluate a bioaccumulation model that predicts PCB concentrations in fish based on concentrations in the environment. On a wet weight basis, concentrations in zooplankton and benthic organisms were similar to the concentrations in the sediment and particulate matter, typically around 85% of those concentrations. However, when lipid and organic carbon normalized accumulation factors were calculated, they were in the range of 1 to 3 for these organisms. Four species of fish were modeled: the pumpkinseed (Lepomis gibbosus), the brown bullhead (Ameiurus nebulosus), the spottail shiner (Notropis hudsonius), and the white perch (Morone americana). PCB concentrations in the fish ranged from 115 ng/g wwt to 1420 ng/g wwt, with some differences between species, age classes and sites. Seasonal differences in PCB concentrations were also noted. A model for trophic transfer of PCBs from the prey organisms to the fish was developed, based in large part on bioenergetics equations for largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides). Growth of the fishes was modelled using species-specific von Bertalanffy equations derived from the data collected during the project. Using median measured prey values as input, model predictions proved to be close to measured concentrations, with [lt]25% error. Based on model calculations, bioaccumulation in this system is driven primarily by the balance between dietary uptake and growth dilution, with only a small component ([lt]1%) derived from bioconcentration. Linking the empirically derived bioaccumulation factors and the fish model allowed prediction of fish whole body concentrations from sediment and particulate values. Using measured concentrations in those compartments, predictions for the fish were again close to measured values, with an error of [lt]35%. Using the model to evaluate current conditions in the river and several reduction scenarios as compared to human health and ecological benchmarks showed the greatest reductions in the fish would occur if both sediment and source reduction measures were implemented. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

  3. Hydrogeochemistry and transport of organic contaminants in an urban watershed of Chesapeake Bay (USA)

    Foster, GD; Roberts, EC Jr; Gruessner, B; Velinsky, DJ

    Applied Geochemistry [Appl. Geochem.]. Vol. 15, no. 7, pp. 901-915. Aug 2000.

    Stream water samples were collected in the two main free-flowing branches of the Anacostia River watershed above the head of tide over a one year time period. Both the Northeast and Northwest Branches drain large suburban and urban land areas that flow into the more urbanized tidal portion of the Anacostia River within Washington, DC. Large volume (40-75 l) water samples were filtered, and the suspended particulate matter and filtrate were analyzed for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) at sub-nanogram per liter concentrations using ultra-trace analytical methods. Higher amounts of PCBs, PAH, and OCPs in the tidal Anacostia River occurred primarily in the particulate phase during high flow events. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the particulate phase within fluvial transport consisted primarily of pyrogenic homologues characteristic of weathered or combusted petroleum products. Fluxes were exceptionally high for PAHs which showed annual fluxes to the tidal Anacostia River comparable to those determined for the much larger mainstem Potomac River. Aromatic hydrocarbons in runoff from urban regions may serve as an important source of PAH fluxes to the tidal waters of Chesapeake Bay.

  4. Toxicity of Anacostia River, Washington, DC, USA, sediment fed to mute swans (Cygnus olor)

    Beyer, WN; Day, D; Melancon, MJ; Sileo, L

    Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry [Environ. Toxicol. Chem.]. Vol. 19, no. 3, pp. 731-735. Mar 2000.

    Sediment ingestion is sometimes the principal route by which waterfowl are exposed to environmental contaminants, and at severely contaminated sites waterfowl have been killed by ingesting sediment. Mute swans (Cygnus olor) were fed a diet for 6 weeks with a high but environmentally realistic concentration (24%) of sediment from the moderately polluted Anacostia River in the District of Columbia, USA, to estimate the sediment's toxicity. Control swans were fed the same diet without the sediment. Five organochlorine compounds were detected in the treated diets, but none of 22 organochlorine compounds included in the analyses was detected in livers of the treated swans. The concentrations of 24 polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons measured in the treated diet were as high as 0.80 mg/kg, and they were thought to have been responsible for the observed induction of hepatic microsomal monooxygenase activity in livers. A concentration of 85 mg/kg of lead in the diet was enough to decrease red blood cell ALAD activity but was not high enough to cause more serious effects of lead poisoning. The dietary concentrations of Al, Fe, V, and Ba were high compared to the concentrations of these elements known to be toxic in laboratory feeding studies. However, the lack of accumulation in the livers of the treated swans suggested that these elements were not readily available from the ingested sediment. We did not study all potential toxic effects, but, on the basis of those that we did consider, we concluded that the treated swans were basically healthy after a chronic exposure to the sediment.

  5. Mercury and methylmercury transport through an urban watershed

    Mason, RP; Sullivan, KA

    Water Research [WATER RES.]. Vol. 32, no. 2, pp. 321-330. Feb 1998.

    Samples for mercury (Hg) and methylmercury (MMHg) were collected during both base flow and storm flow over the period of a year in the two branches of the Anacostia River, an urban, impacted river within greater Washington, D.C. The concentrations in each branch were correlated for comparable samples suggesting that similar processes are contributing Hg and MMHg to each branch. Concentrations of total Hg during base flow were less than 10 ng/l but were 3-5 times higher during storm flow, mainly as a result of the high particulate loading (up to 800 mg/l). Storm flows are therefore the major vector for Hg transport in this river. Total Hg concentrations generally increased as SPM and POC increased. However, the K sub(d) decreased with increasing SPM for both Hg and MMHg, and the magnitude of the K sub(d) was a function of the %POC, suggesting that the strength of particulate binding was a function of the organic content of the particles. Reactive Hg was a small fraction of the total and there was little relationship between dissolved Hg and DOC. Equilibrium calculations suggest that all the dissolved Hg is bound to DOC even at the lowest DOC concentrations encountered, Watershed yield calculations suggest that the flux from these rivers is a relatively large fraction of the atmospheric input, in contrast to what has been found in other systems.

  6. Contaminant Distribution and Fate in Anacostia River Sediments: Particulate Transport Survey

    Coffin, RB; Orr, M; Carey, E; Cifuenties, L; Pohlman, J

    This report consists of preliminary data from a current research program, Contaminant Distribution and Fate in Anacostia River Sediments, funded by the Environmental Regulatory Coordinator to Parmely H. Pritchard and Richard B. Coffin, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC. The Anacostia River is impacted by urban development, input of untreated sewage from combined sewer outfalls, non-point source surface runoff from agricultural activities and storm drains, and the release of chemical contaminants from industrial and federal facilities. As a first step in restoring the watershed, it is necessary to determine the contaminant sources, mechanisms of distribution and fate in the river sediments. Most of the major contaminants in the river (PCBs, PAHs, metals, pesticides, etc.) are particle reactive, resulting in a significant potential for transport through the river. This study focuses on contaminant distribution through analysis of suspended solid transport and deposition. The objective of this survey is to establish regions of river from which contaminants originate and to determine the levels of contaminant transport on suspended particles through the river.

  7. The asiatic clam (Corbicula fluminea) and water pollutants

    Phelps, HL

    Journal of Shellfish Research [J. SHELLFISH RES.]. Vol. 16, no. 1, p. 294. Jun 1997.

    The Asiatic clam (Corbicula fluminea) invaded the freshwater tidal Potomac River estuary near Washington, DC in 1978 and by 1984 the population of five km below DC was estimated at 8 x 10 super(6) kg. Corbicula has a high filtration rate and was estimated to filter from one-third to most of the water passing through that region of the estuary. It has invaded most US states, but is raised in culture in Asia and could become an aquaculture species of interest to Asians. The ability of the clam to remove the pollutants phosphate, nitrate, and iron (FeCl super(3)) from the water column was studied using suspensions of cultured algae (Thalassosira weisflogii), mud sediment (74 u) and plankton collected from the Potomac and Anacostia rivers, and the C&O Canal. The native plankton samples had quartz fragments with some algae and organic material fragments. Suspensions were made with and without pollutants, and with and without added clams. The suspensions were at an ecologically relevant level (100 mg/l), agitated to maintain suspension, and subsamples taken over three hours. Subsamples were centrifuged and analyzed for pollutant concentration remaining in the water column. All experiments were run in triplicate. Nitrate concentrations were not affected with or without algae, sediment, plankton, clams, or any combination of those factors. Phosphate concentrations increased in algae suspensions alone and with clams present (probably due to cell damage) but did not change in plankton suspensions with or without clams. Phosphate concentrations decreased in all sediment suspensions and much more rapidly with clams present. Iron concentrations decreased with clams present in suspensions of river plankton but not sediment or algae suspensions. Iron concentrations also decreased with clams without suspensions: mucus production was observed and may have been a factor. In conclusion, when an added water pollutant such as phosphate decreased over time, it was probably due to sorption by suspended material and settling. The removal rate was 50% higher in the presence of clams. (DBO)

  8. Restoration in an urban watershed: Anacostia River of Maryland and the District of Columbia

    Shepp, DL; Cummins, JD

    Watershed Restoration: Principles and Practices. pp. 297-317. 1997.

    The Anacostia watershed is a largely degraded urban ecosystem located in suburban Maryland and the District of Columbia. The Anacostia has often been called "the forgotten river" because, prior to 1987, its decline never received the attention that did its parent in the Washington metropolitan area, the Potomac River. However, a concerted and focused effort to restore the Anacostia watershed began over a decade ago. Since that time, local, state, regional, and federal government agencies, as well as environmental organizations, businesses, and dedicated private citizens have contributed significant resources toward protecting and restoring as much of the watershed ecosystem as possible. Formal cooperation between government agencies came with the 1987 signing of the Anacostia Watershed Restoration Agreement and the formation of the Anacostia Watershed Restoration Committee (AWRC). Members of the AWRC include the District of Columbia, Montgomery and Prince George's counties in Maryland, the state of Maryland, and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACOE) as the federal representative and liaison.

  9. Tumor Prevalence and Biomarkers of Exposure and Response in Brown Bullhead (Ameiurus nebulosus) from the Anacostia River, Washington, DC and Tuckahoe River, Maryland, USA

    Pinkney, AE; Harshbarger, JC; May, EB; Reichert, WL



    EPA number: 030072D, Draft EIS--688 pages, Appendices--1,321 pages, February 20, 2003

    PURPOSE: The implementation of a flood control and ecosystem restoration project in East St. Louis and Vicinity area of Illinois is proposed. The 106,000-acre study area is located in Madison and St. Clair counties, along the left bank of the Mississippi River between river miles 175 and 195. Approximately 55,000 acres are protected by a levee system. An additional 51,000 acres of upland area are tributary to the area and drain into the bottomland. As a result of development over the last two centuries, the project area now lies in the second largest concentration of residential, commercial, and industrial land use on the Mississippi River floodplain. Major flooding in the study area resulted in four disaster declarations from 1993 to 1996. An array of alternatives were considered for the nine action areas in the five watersheds in the project area. The recommended plan would establish nine habitat areas in the floodplain affecting a total of 4,593 acres, and 155 sites for sediment detention in the uplands for affecting 493 acres. The plan would create or improve swamp habitat on 948 acres, lake habitat encompassing 460 acres, and 410 acres of upland forest. The plan would also include stream restoration along 10.4 miles of stream corridor encompassing 161 acres, placement of 651 wood duck and 20 acres of shoreline plantings. as well as construction of 155 upland dry detention basins, 15.5 miles of earthen embankments, and numerous hydraulic control devices, the latter including culverts, flap gates, and new channels. Cost of the recommended plan is estimated at $211.9 million. POSITIVE IMPACTS: In addition to reducing flooding, the plan would improve ecosystem health in the affected area significantly. Natural flooding would be restored where appropriate. Urban runoff and other sources of water quality degradation would be reduced significantly. Wetland areas and upland forest, and the associated wildlife habitat, would be enhanced. NEGATIVE IMPACTS: The gain in approximately 2,450 acres of new natural habitats consisting of forest, prairie, marsh, stream, and lake communities would occur at the cost of the loss of 1,650 acres of cropland, 525 acres of hay production areas, 120 acres of urban development, and 170 acres of urban old field. In the upland watershed areas, the project would result in a loss of 80 acres of forest due to the construction of 155 dry sediment detention basins. In the bottomland areas, approximately 120 acres of forested areas, 75 acres of marsh, and 90 acres of scrub-shrub wetlands would be converted to other natural habitat types. LEGAL MANDATES: Flood Control Act of 1965 (P.L. 89-298), Water Resources Development Act of 1976 (P.L. 94-587), and Water Resources Development Act of 2000 (P.L. 106-541).

  11. Coupling Simulation of Water and Energy Budgets and Analysis of Urban Development Impact

    Jia, Y; Ni, G; Yoshitani, J; Kawahara, Y; Kinouchi, T

    Journal of Hydrologic Engineering [J. Hydrol. Eng.]. Vol. 7, no. 4, pp. 302-311. Jul-Aug 2002.

    A distributed watershed model--is developed for coupling simulation of hydrological and energy processes in watersheds with complex land covers. In the model, the state variables include depression storage on land surfaces or canopies, soil moisture content, land surface temperature, groundwater level, and river water stage. The subgrid heterogeneity of land use is also taken into consideration using a mosaic method. Estimation methods are proposed for impervious ratio of land use and parameters of soil, aquifer, and vegetation. The model is applied to the Ebi watershed in Japan and validated through comparing simulated river discharges, groundwater levels, and surface temperatures with observed values. In addition, impact of urban development on water budgets is shown through comparing two simulation results for present and future land uses. Lastly, mitigation alternatives of installing infiltration trenches and/or storm-water detention ponds are examined. Joint implementation of infiltration trenches and storm-water detention ponds is suggested for improving the hydrological cycle in the watershed.

  12. Sediment sources in an urbanizing, mixed land-use watershed

    Nelson, EJ; Booth, DB

    Journal of Hydrology (Amsterdam) [J. Hydrol. (Amst.)]. Vol. 264, no. 1-4, pp. 51-68. 30 Jul 2002.

    The Issaquah Creek watershed is a rapidly urbanizing watershed of 144 km super(2) in western Washington, where sediment aggradation of the main channel and delivery of fine sediment into a large downstream lake have raised increasingly frequent concerns over flooding, loss of fish habitat, and degraded water quality. A watershed-scale sediment budget was evaluated to determine the relative effects of land-use practices, including urbanization, on sediment supply and delivery, and to guide management responses towards the most effective source-reduction strategies. Human activity in the watershed, particularly urban development, has caused an increase of nearly 50% in the annual sediment yield, now estimated to be 44 tonnes km super(-2) yr super(-1). The main sources of sediment in the watershed are landslides (50%), channel-bank erosion (20%), and road-surface erosion (15%). This assessment characterizes the role of human activity in mixed-use watersheds such as this, and it demonstrates some of the key processes, particularly enhanced stream-channel erosion, by which urban development alters sediment loads.


    EPA number: 020282F, Final EIS--1,188 pages and maps, Appendices-1,327 pages and maps, June 27, 2002

    PURPOSE: The issuance of permits to discharge approximately 2.5 million cubic yards of fill material into waters of the United States, including wetlands, is proposed to create dry land to allow for the construction of a mixed-use commercial development project adjacent to the Hackensack River within the Hackensack Meadowlands District in the boroughs of Carlstadt and Moonachie and the township of South Hackensack, Bergen County New Jersey. Empire Ltd seeks the permit to implement a 587-acre project, to be known as Meadowlands Mills that would result in the development of a super-regional retail/entertainment center, office space, hotel space, a mass transit facility, warehouse/distribution facilities, and associated parking structures and roadways. The development would consist of five integrated components, including 2.45 million square feet of retail/entertainment space, 2.2 million square feet of office space, 1,000 hotel rooms with a conference center encompassing 799,000 square feet, 150,000 square feet of warehouse space, and 13,000 square feet of mass transit facilities. The project would be implemented in cooperation with The Mills Corporation of Arlington, Virginia. A No Action Alternative and three development alternatives, including Empire's proposed alternative, are considered in this final EIS. As proposed by Empire, the project would occupy a 592-acre site, known as the Empire Tract and two acres of land adjoining New Jersey Turnpike Authority property. Three development footprint alternatives, alternative sites, and a No Action Alternative are considered in detail in this draft EIS. Two footprint alternatives would involve development of the commercially zoned site on a 90.5-acre footprint. A 144-acre wetland fill alternative would include the applicant's computation of 53.5 acres needed for water control infrastructure and transportation components, in addition to the 90.5 acres. A 134-acre wetland fill alternative would realize the various components of the project through a modified site layout, resulting in a smaller development footprint than the 144-acre alternative. Empire has proposed a wetland mitigation plan, which would entail enhancement of 335 acres of wetland and preservation of 45 acres of wetland on the Empire Tract. The wetlands enhancement component would involve removal of common reed grasses, followed by regrading and replanting these areas to create shallow water, an emergent marsh, and forested, scrub-shrub and wet meadow habitats. POSITIVE IMPACTS: The development would provide an expanded employment base in the area during both construction and operation. Sales and income taxes to municipal, county, state, and federal governments Wetlands mitigation would result in an increase in plant species and habitat diversity designed to improve habitat quality and offset impacts to wildlife. Eleven state-listed threatened or endangered species could benefit. Waterfowl, migratory shorebirds, wading birds and, possibly, other species could benefit via the regional effects of wetlands mitigation and through the reintroduction of tidal flow to brackish wetlands. NEGATIVE IMPACTS: Regardless of the alternative selected, the development would result in placement of fill in 134 acres of waters, including wetlands, further fragment existing common reed wetland habitat in the Hackensack Meadowlands. The site would be located on the western edge of a larger block of wetlands that would be reduced. Regional habitat of certain endangered species, including the northern harrier, could suffer from fragmentation. The development would increase vehicular traffic in the area significantly, though appropriate infrastructure would be available to accommodate this increase. The average wastewater flow to flow to the Bergen County treatment facility would increase by 0.77 million gallons per day (mgd) to a level of 85 mgd; the facility has a treatment capacity of 109 mgd. LEGAL MANDATES: Federal Water Pollution Control Act of 1972 (33 U.S.C. 1251 et seq.) and Rivers and Harbors Act of 1899 (33 U.S.C. 401 et seq.). PRIOR REFERENCES: For the abstract of the draft EIS, see 00-0473D, Volume 24, Number 4.

  14. An approach for evaluating the hydrological effects of urbanization and its application

    Cheng, S-J; Wang, R-Y

    Hydrological Processes [Hydrol. Process.]. Vol. 16, no. 7, pp. 1403-1418. May 2002.

    This study focuses mainly on observing urban development in Taiwan's Wu-Tu watershed from the perspective of urban hydrological theory. An approach is proposed for developing a method for incorporating available meteorological data to define the degree of change in a runoff hydrograph for urbanizing basins. The mean rainfall was estimated using the Kriging method. For calibration, two methods of calculating the effective rainfall (the Phi -index method and the non-linear-programming (NLP) method) were used as model inputs, and the optimal global parameters of the linear reservoir model were then obtained from the shuffled complex evolution (SCE) algorithm. Twenty-six (1966-1991) and eight (1994-1997) rainfall-runoff events were used for calibration and verification, respectively. The NLP method yielded better results than the Phi -index method, especially for multipeak rainfall-runoff events. The regression equation determined the relationship between the parameters of the model and impervious areas. A comparison based on the results of the instantaneous unit hydrograph of the study area revealed that three decades of urbanization had increased the peak flow by 27%, and the time to peak was decreased by 4 h. The study simply describes the results of the impact of imperviousness on hydrological modelling.

  15. Water quality in shallow alluvial aquifers, Upper Colorado River Basin, Colorado, 1997

    Apodaca, LE; Bails, JB; Smith, CM

    Journal of the American Water Resources Association [J. Am. Water Resour. Assoc.]. Vol. 38, no. 1, pp. 133-150. Feb 2002.

    Shallow ground water in areas of increasing urban development within the Upper Colorado River Basin was sampled for inorganic and organic constituents to characterize water-quality conditions and to identify potential anthropogenic effects resulting from development. In 1997, 25 shallow monitoring wells were installed and sampled in five areas of urban development in Eagle, Grand, Gunnison, and Summit Counties, Colorado. The results of this study indicate that the shallow ground water in the study area is suitable for most uses. Nonparametric statistical methods showed that constituents and parameters measured in the shallow wells were often significantly different between the five developing urban areas. Radon concentrations exceeded the proposed USEPA maximum contaminant level at all sites. The presence of nutrients, pesticides, and volatile organic compounds indicate anthropogenic activities are affecting the shallow ground-water quality in the study area. Nitrate as N concentrations greater than 2.0 mg/L were observed in ground water recharged between the 1980s and 1990s. Low concentrations of methylene blue active substances were detected at a few sites. Total coliform bacteria were detected at ten sites; however, E. coli was not detected. Continued monitoring is needed to assess the effects of increasing urban development on the shallow ground-water quality in the study area.

  16. Status of water quality at Holbox Island, Quintana Roo State, Mexico

    Tran, Kim Chi; Valdes, D; Euan, J; Real, E; Gil, E

    Aquatic Ecosystem Health & Management [Aquat. Ecosyst. Health Manage.]. Vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 173-189. 2002.

    Holbox Island (with its coastal lagoon, Yalahau Lagoon) located in the littoral zone at the north-eastern tip of the Yucatan Peninsula, Gulf of Mexico, is a relatively undisturbed ecosystem that is currently under threat from unplanned and intensive urban development. Although other ecosystems in this littoral zone have been studied to determine the basic requirements for sustainable development, little information about Holbox Island exists. Thus far, no data concerning coastal pollution in Yalahau Lagoon have been published. As part of a larger, on-going study, this article reports the results of analyses to determine the temporal and spatial variations of standard physical and chemical parameters and to evaluate the relationships among these parameters. Water and sediment samples collected from 42 stations during two seasons of the year (rainy and dry seasons) were analyzed using standard methods. The results indicate that, in general, the area is relatively undisturbed by human influence. Dissolved oxygen content was lower than 4 ml l super(-1) and the percentage of oxygen saturation lower than 90%, suggesting that the site supports higher consumption than production of oxygen. Nitrogen is mostly present as ammonium and low concentrations of nitrate; nitrite, and phosphate indicate that eutrophication is not widespread in the area. Sediments are mostly sandy, containing less than 10% organic matter at most stations. The redox potential of sediments was negative for all samples. Water quality at stations in the proximity of boating and dumping activities shows higher degradation than at other stations within the lagoon. These preliminary results provide the opportunity to construct a baseline for coastal water quality, prior to impending urban development, and may serve to determine whether the future natural and development processes have impact on the conditions and health of coastal ecosystems around Holbox Island. In addition, because the area is, as yet, relatively undisturbed, the data reported here allow us to take stock of the extent to which other sites in the Yucatan littoral zone have already been degraded by human development activities.

  17. Changes in mangrove/salt-marsh distribution in the Georges River Estuary, southern Sydney, 1930-1970

    Haworth, R*

    Wetlands (Sydney) [Wetlands (Syd.)]. Vol. 20, no. 2, pp. 80-103. 2002.

    Aerial photographs taken between 1930 and 1970 of the Georges River in southern Sydney, New South Wales (Australia) show a rapid advance of mangroves landward (upslope) at the expense of salt marsh, though the timing and extent of the advance was not the same in all locations. By 1970, in the central estuarine reaches, salt marsh had all but disappeared from the tidal wetlands of the bayhead fluvial-estuarine deltas, surviving only on the more open 'half moon' embayments adjacent to the main river, as well as on the Mill Creek delta. In contrast, there was little or no advance of the mangroves seaward onto tidal mud flats during this period, except in the one instance of upper Salt Pan Creek, which also contains the highest proportion of erodible shale in its catchment. Salt marsh survived best in wetland sites with least disturbance from urban development and engineering works, strongly pointing to increased urban runoff and nutrient-enriched sediment as key factors accounting for local differences in mangrove advance. The confined topography of bay head sites produced the most complete and earliest changeover to mangroves, probably because they concentrated both runoff and nutrient in comparison to the more open sites near the main river. Mill Creek, with the least urbanised catchment, had areas that represented both geomorphic types, yet significant areas of salt marsh survived in all parts of the wetland. The general upslope advance of mangroves after 1940 in the Georges River is undoubtedly partly associated with the degree and timing of catchment disturbance as Sydney spread southwards. However, despite this local variability, the mid to late 20th Century mangrove advance both in the Georges River and elsewhere in southeast Australia is so widespread that the influence of other forcing agents, such as global sea level rise and regional changes in temperature and rainfall, cannot be ruled out.

  18. Near-stream landuse effects on streamwater nutrient distribution in an urbanizing watershed

    Sonoda, K; Yeakley, JA; Walker, CE

    Journal of the American Water Resources Association [J. Am. Water Resour. Assoc.]. Vol. 37, no. 6, pp. 1517-1532. Dec 2001.

    We investigated spatial and temporal relationships among surface and subsurface watershed attributes and stream nutrient concentrations in urbanizing Johnson Creek watershed in northern Oregon. We sampled stream water at eight urban and five nonurban locations from March 1998 through December 1999. We sampled eight wells distributed over the two primary aquifers in the watershed. Using a Geographic Information System (GIS), percentages of landuse attributes within a radius of 30, 91, and 152 m from each sample site were quantified. We analyzed relationships between (1) nutrient concentrations and percentage cover of different landuse attributes, and (2) nutrient concentrations and underlying hydrologic units. We did not find a significant relationship between ground water chemistry and stream water chemistry. We found elevated levels of phosphorus (P) concentrations correlated with urban landuse, while higher nitrogen (N) concentrations were correlated with nonurban (primarily agricultural) landuse. We concluded that elevated levels of N in nonurban areas of Johnson Creek watershed were associated with agricultural practices. We further concluded that urban development factors such as increases in storm drains, dry wells, and impermeable surfaces may be responsible for higher input of P to the stream in urbanizing areas of the Johnson Creek watershed.

  19. Non-spatial calibrations of a general unit model for ecosystem simulations

    Boumans, RM; Villa, F; Costanza, R; Voinov, A; Voinov, H; Maxwell, T

    Ecological Modelling [Ecol. Model.]. Vol. 146, no. 1-3, pp. 17-32. 1 Dec 2001.

    General Unit Models simulate system interactions aggregated within one spatial unit of resolution. For unit models to be applicable to spatial computer simulations, they must be formulated generally enough to simulate all habitat elements within the landscape. We present the development and testing of a unit model for the Patuxent River landscape in the state of Maryland, USA. The Patuxent Landscape Model (PLM) is designed to simulate the interactions among physical and biological dynamics in the context of regional socioeconomic behavior. The PLM is a tool for evaluating landscape change within the Patuxent watershed through simulation of ecological systems. A companion economic model estimates land development patterns and effects on human decisions from site characteristics, ecosystem properties, and regulatory paradigms. Landscape elements that are linked within the PLM are forest, agriculture and open water systems, and three levels of urban development. Urban developments are low and medium density residential areas (14.07% of the total watershed), and commercial, industrial and institutional area (5.7%). Forests are mixed populations of deciduous and evergreen species (45.11%). Agricultural areas (28.02%) are simulated through rotating crops of corn, winter wheat and soybeans within a cycle of two years. Open water (6.84%) represents the ecosystems within the rivers and streams where phytoplankton are the primary producers. In this paper we illustrate, how we gathered and formalized working models used within the Patuxent watershed for forests, agriculture urban settings and wetlands. Further, we show how we tested and merged the variety of models employed by scientific disciplines and created a general unit model to be used in the Patuxent Landscape Model (Pat_GEM). The Patuxent Landscape Model is built under the Spatial Modeling Environment.


    EPA number: 010327F, 477 pages and maps, August 24, 2001

    PURPOSE: The implementation of a plan for community revitalization, stormwater management, and transportation improvements in the Antelope Valley Study Area of Lincoln, Nebraska is proposed. Flooding along Antelope Creek would cause significant damage to existing and new developments in the valley. Current developments within the area have grown in unplanned ways, creating the potential for underutilization of land and creating conflicts among various interests. Adequate north-south and east-west vehicular connector routes are absent. Other problems include hazardous railroad crossings, vehicle-pedestrian conflicts, and the lack of recreational facilities for youth. With respect to community revitalization, the proposed action would involve encouraging development of a 40,000-square-foot downtown supermarket, mixed-use development downtown, and closer-to-home strategies; including overlay districts to encourage development along a common neighborhood theme, stormwater conveyance-related parks and mixed-use development to buffer potentially conflicting land uses, and the marketing of well-located public properties for redevelopment; encouraging new downtown housing in the form of townhomes and mixed-use development as well as a new employment center; construction of a new bike path linking existing trails with a safe route around downtown; development of a 33-acre park south of the railroad tracks between 28th and 32nd streets; and construction of a new medical clinic in the vicinity of Holdrege and 27th streets as part of a wrap-around center. A new stormwater conveyance channel and improvements to the existing channel would combine to provide a new drainage system extending from J Street northward to Salt Creek. Transportation improvements would include the construction of a new north-south roadway within the 19th Street corridor from K Street along the east side of the University of Nebraska to 14th Street near Military Avenue and the construction of an east-west roadway extending from 10th and Avery streets eastward along the Burlington Northern and Santa Fe tracks to Cornhusker Highway and Superior Street. Connections to other major neighborhood streets would be provided. A No Action Alternative is also considered in this final EIS. POSITIVE IMPACTS: Overall quality of life of residents of Antelope Valley would improve. The new roadways would reinforce neighborhood boundaries, and traffic would be removed from local roads. Emergency vehicle response would improve. Economic development in the area would be spurred, and consistent land uses would be promoted. Tax rolls would increase. The improved stormwater system would remove 835 structures from within the floodplain, effectively all structures that could be affected by flood events. By increasing the length of open stream, improving channel cross-section, and providing a continuous greenbelt and a new pond. the project would provide long-term wildlife and aquatic habitat improvements. NEGATIVE IMPACTS: Some businesses may relocate outside the area, resulting in a potential for a certain level of job dislocation, but redevelopment of the downtown area would create new employment opportunities. Noise levels in excess of federal standards would affect fifteen properties. An estimated 0.9 acre of wetlands would be affected, though these losses would be mitigated. The Antelope Creek floodplain would be reduced to a channel. Development spurred by the project would probably result in the development of a large parcel of farmland on the south side of Superior Street. Five historic houses could require relocation, and three archaeological sites could be affected. Nine potential hazardous substance release sites, 51 known petroleum release sites, and 59 potential petroleum release sites would lie adjacent to components of the project. [LEG]Federal Water Pollution Control Act of 1972 (33 U.S.C. 1251 et seq.) and Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991 (49 U.S.C. 101 et seq.). PRIOR REFERENCES: For the abstract of the draft EIS, see 00-0421D, Volume 24, Number 4.

  21. Impacts of Urbanization on Stream Habitat and Fish Across Multiple Spatial Scales

    Wang, L; Lyons, J; Kanehl, P; Bannerman, R

    Environmental Management [Environ. Manage.]. Vol. 28, no. 2, pp. 255-266. Aug 2001.

    We analyzed the relation of the amount and spatial pattern of land cover with stream fish communities, in-stream habitat, and baseflow in 47 small southeastern Wisconsin, USA, watersheds encompassing a gradient of predominantly agricultural to predominantly urban land uses. The amount of connected impervious surface in the watershed was the best measure of urbanization for predicting fish density, species richness, diversity, and index of biotic integrity (IBI) score; bank erosion; and base flow. However, connected imperviousness was not significantly correlated with overall habitat quality for fish. Nonlinear models were developed using quantile regression to predict the maximum possible number of fish species, IBI score, and base flow for a given level of imperviousness. At watershed connected imperviousness levels less than about 8%, all three variables could have high values, whereas at connected imperviousness levels greater than 12% their values were inevitably low. Connected imperviousness levels between 8 and 12% represented a threshold region where minor changes in urbanization could result in major changes in stream condition. In a spatial analysis, connected imperviousness within a 50-m buffer along the stream or within a 1.6-km radius upstream of the sampling site had more influence on stream fish and base flow than did comparable amounts of imperviousness further away. Our results suggest that urban development that minimizes amount of connected impervious surface and establishes undeveloped buffer areas along streams should have less impact than conventional types of development.

  22. Problem-solving case study in an urban stream corridor using a comprehensive toolbox

    Chapman, TW; Scholl, JE

    Abstracts from the 44th Conference on Great Lakes Research, June 10-14, 2001. Great Lakes Science: Making it Relevant. p. 18. 2001.

    Natural watercourse drainage systems are often the focal point for urban development activities, which can result in ecosystem degradation and economic losses due to flooding. Identifying acceptable solutions to these problems in an urban stream corridor requires a process that combines scientific, social, economic, and engineering tools. These tools guide the decision-making process. Located in southeast Wisconsin, the Menomonee River watershed has a drainage area of 135 square miles with headwaters in rural areas and an outlet to Lake Michigan. Sixty percent of the watershed area is developed and covers 17 political jurisdictions. The 100-year flood event results in nearly $17 million in damages impacting over 400 properties. The Milwaukee Metropolitan Sewerage District is working with local and regional units of government to prepare a plan to solve existing problems, avoid causing new ones, and preserve or rehabilitate natural systems. Development of this plan involved using a comprehensive toolbox including hydrologic and hydraulic models, sediment transport investigations, environmental analyses, public involvement activities, corridor field monitoring, and preliminary design evaluations. The cost opinion for the selected plan is estimated to be more than $100 million.

  23. Restoration of the oyster resource in Chesapeake Bay: The role of oyster reefs in population enhancement, water quality improvement and support of diverse species-rich communities.

    Mann, R

    Bulletin of the Aquaculture Association of Canada. St. Andrews NB [Bull. Aquacult. Assoc. Can.]. no. 101-1, pp. 38-42. 2001.

    Restoration of the oyster Crassostrea virginica resource to the Chesapeake Bay is a widely supported goal. The role of the oyster in restoration through benthic-pelagic coupling is examined in the context of current and projected watershed management problems, agricultural and urban development with associated nutrient and sediment erosion issues, in the entire Chesapeake Bay watershed. Efforts to date have focused on rebuilding three-dimensional reef structures, often with oyster broodstock enhancement, in predominantly small estuaries with retentive circulation to provide demonstration of increased resultant recruitment. Fishery enhancement activity is then based on local increases in recruitment. Such examples are used to increase public awareness of the success of restoration processes and increase long-term participation in such programs by schools, non profit and civic organizations, and commercial and recreational fishing groups.

  24. Water policy in the United States: a perspective

    Deason, JP; Schad, TM; Sherk, GW

    Water Policy [Water Policy]. Vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 175-192. 2001.

    Lessons learned from the evolution of US water policy over two centuries of rapid population growth, economic expansion and urban development may shed light on promising approaches to issues in other areas of the world. An explanation of the major philosophical and legal underpinnings of water quantity and water quality policies that have evolved in the US federal-state system is presented. Other areas of the world may benefit from mistakes made during the evolution of US water policy in the areas of institutional reform, improved processes for conflict resolution, and increased use of modern planning and decision making procedures.

  25. Urban communities and environmental management in France: the example of the Toulon Bay Contract

    Henocque, Yves

    Ocean & Coastal Management [Ocean Coast. Manage.]. Vol. 44, no. 5-6, pp. 371-377. 2001.

    Until the beginning of the 1980s, land planning and urbanization efforts in France were rather centralized. Since the decentralization laws (1982) were enforced, the urban development process is under local control with the development of contracting agreements between the State and territorial communities. Today, environmental protection is one of the major issues at stake in most of the urban communities, as is the case for coastal urban areas like Brest on the Atlantic coast or Toulon on the Mediterranean. This paper elaborates on the Toulon case through the preparation of a Bay Contract, a typical contracting agreement between local, regional and national Authorities about water quality and uses in the frame of an integrated coastal area and river basin approach. Located on the Mediterranean coast, Toulon is also presented as a typical European Mediterranean city.

  26. Source Identification and Modeling the Transport of Nitrogen into the St. Jones Estuary

    Yetter, C

    Coastal GeoTools '01. Proceedings of the 2nd Biennial coalstal GeoTools Confernce. Charleston, SC, January 8-11, 2001. [np]. 2001.

    The St. Jones watershed in central Delaware, including one component of the Delaware National Estuarine Research Reserve (DNERR), is critically impacted by urban development. Presently, the watershed is a mix of forested, agricultural, residential and commercial land uses. A large portion of the watershed has been targeted by county government as a planned growth region due to its proximity to existing public services. To understand the potential effects of a transition from primarily agricultural to developed land use on nitrogen loading of the estuary, an all-encompassing model of the nitrogen sources and transport methods was developed. Using the ArcView-based BASINS model, the surface hydrology was simulated. Transferring the spatial data output from BASINS to the groundwater model MODFLOW enabled the prediction of subsurface hydrology. Through a comprehensive sampling program of storm water runoff nitrogen, along with in-depth analysis of atmospheric deposition data, ground water nitrogen data, septic loadings, point sources, naturally occurring nitrogen formation and fertilizer applications, an estimate of a nitrogen source loading for the watershed was developed. Geophysical factors of the six landuse classifications, derived from GIS data, were input into the models. The model-derived hydrologic outputs were coupled with surface and subsurface nitrogen loadings to develop a watershed-based nitrogen loading simulation. The individual landuse outputs from these models were inserted into an estuary loading equation that can be easily modified to estimate the impacts of future development. Analysis of the current landuse conditions shows that the primary nitrogen load affecting the estuary comes from nitrates in the groundwater that appear as baseflow in the streams. Storm runoff accounts for over 8 percent of the nitrogen loading, and atmospheric deposition directly onto the estuary is responsible for another 8 percent. Nitrogen in rainfall is the major contributor of storm runoff nitrogen and the primary contributor to non-organic nitrogen runoff. It is estimated that atmospheric deposition accounts for 15 percent of the total nitrogen load in the estuary. The present-day scenario shows an estuary nitrogen loading of 130 pounds per acre or more than 270 tons of nitrogen per year in the 4200 acre estuary. Nitrogen loading from agricultural land is only slightly higher than residential areas on a per acre basis. Build-out scenarios of the watershed do not predict significant changes in the total nitrogen load into the estuary. However, the model does indicate a significant increase in nitrogen from increased surface runoff. This would cause high episodic rates of flow and nitrogen loading levels that could adversely affect the estuary.

  27. Environmental impacts to the Everglades ecosystem: a historical perspective and restoration strategies

    Chimney, MJ; Goforth, G

    Wetland Systems for Water Pollution Control 2000. pp. 93-100. Water Science & Technology [Water Sci. Technol.]. Vol. 44, no. 11-12.

    The Everglades is a vast subtropical wetland that dominates the landscape of south Florida and is widely recognized as an ecosystem of great ecological importance. As a result of anthropogenic disturbances over the past 100 years (i.e., agricultural and urban development, eutrophication resulting from stormwater runoff, changes in hydrology and invasion of exotic species), the biotic integrity of the entire Everglades is now threatened. To protect this valuable resource, the state of Florida and the Federal Government, in cooperation with other interested parties, have developed a comprehensive restoration strategy that addresses controlling excess nutrient loading and reestablishment of a more natural hydrology. These efforts include building approximately 17,000 ha of treatment wetlands, referred to as Stormwater Treatment Areas, to treat surface runoff before it is discharged into the Everglades. We briefly discuss the history of the Everglades in the context of environmental disturbance and outline the steps being taken to ensure its survival for future generations.

  28. Macroinvertebrates and water quality of some streams in Valencia province (Spain)

    Lozano-Quilis, MA; Pujante, A; Martinez-Lopez, F

    Boletin de la Real Sociedad Espanola de Historia Natural (Seccion Biologica) [Bol. R. Soc. Esp. Hist. Nat. (Secc. Biol.)]. Vol. 96, no. 3-4, pp. 151-164. 2001.

    This work presents a physico-chemical and biological study of some rivers and streams of three regions of Valencia (Spain): Horta, Foia de Bunyol and Ribera Alta. It were considered 23 sampling points, which were visited during 1995 autum-winter and spring-summer seasons. To classify the sampling points according to the species and the environmental parameters values, the multivariate methods Canonical Correspondencies Analysis (CCA) and TWINSPAN - Two Way Indicator Species Analysis-, were used. The results let us to conclude that the most of the streams studied are under the agricultural and industrial influence. This is reflected by chemical parameters analyzed, and by abundance of the most tolerant taxa. A restoration plan of the degradated streams should be established, and also a strict control of the discharged wastes. Only the streams near to leisure areas, as Bosna stream, some Bunol and Mijares rivers sections are relatively well preserved. The need in establishing control measures on the strongly polluted water courses is much more evident when comparing our results with those obtained by Del Moral et al. (1997) for "Sierra de Espadan" streams. One of the mountainous places of Castellon province (Valencian Community, Spain) that keeps very well preserved its natural streams. From a chemical point of view, the nitrites, nitrates, sulphates and ammonium concentrations, do not exceed 0.16, 41.20, 460.91 and 0.53 mg/l respectively, versus 3.00, 135.05, 2843.00 and 13.03 mg/l obtained at our study area. Consequently Del Moral et al. (1997), found a higher abundance of untolerant species, and also an increasing faunistic diversity. The high preservation standard at "Sierra de Espadan" is linked to the scarce industrialization and urban development, showing their waters low nitrites, nitrates, sulphates and ammonium concentrations. On the other hand, if we compare our results with those of Dominguez et al. (1997) at Cabriel river basin, we can observe a generalized deterioration of the streams when approaching the river mouth. This is caused by an increasing human pressure. While the 75% of the studied sampling points at Cabriel river basin show good water quality, only the 39% of our sampling points can be considered in that level. Our results are comparable to those obtained by Hernandez-Villar (1996) at Magro river. Particularly the river section studied by this author extends 48 km upstream Forata reservoir, and ends after the Mijares river confluence. This author, like Rueda (1997), who also makes a study about this Magro river section, concludes that a human pressure impacts the river, related to the industrial and agricultural wastes. Therefore, at some river sections the nitrites and ammonium concentrations are over 8.00 and 180.00 mg/l respectively. However, this situation is improving at the last section studied, due to the self-purification effects and to the discharge of water from Mijares river. Also some waters can become troublesome to public health, because at a great number of sampling points studied at Magro river, like at our sites, there is a boom of Chironomidae, Psychodidae and other organisms very tolerant to pollution. This is another reason why an immediate restoration and a management plan of all degradated streams of Valencia province (Spain) has to be established.

  29. Trend in Environmental Water Quality of Inner Jakarta Bay, Indonesia.

    Ferianita-Fachrul, M; Mohd Said, MI; Salim, MR; Dahuri, R

    International Conference on the International Data and Information Exchange in the Western Pacific (IODE-WESTPAC) 1999: The needs of scientific research programmes for oceanographic and coastal data. pp. 347-354. 2001.

    Jakarta Bay is a semi enclosed coastal bay located north of Jakarta City near the Java Sea. It is famous for fisheries and recreation, beside its importance of being the international port of Indonesia. However, the bay and its rivers are being subject to various types of pollution arising from human activities, such as domestic and industrial effluent. Eventhough the country is marching towards prosperity, the environmental pollution is steadily increasing and has become a matter of public concern. The pollution, if left unchecked, would result in the degradation of water quality and environmental alteration, ultimately limiting the beneficial uses of the coastal waters. A part from the annual water quality monitoring of Jakarta Bay by the Research Institute for Urban Development and Environmental (KPPL) DKI Jakarta since 1982, additional investigations have been carried out by several researchers. In general, the environmental water quality in Jakarta Bay has shown a gradual decrease. It is becoming worse. However, the continuing presence of pollution in Jakarta Bay suggested recent input, which is probably due to anthropogenic source. This paper presents an assessment to trend of water quality of Jakarta Bay over the past ten years.

  30. Eradication of a freshwater cyanobacterial (Microcystis aeruginosa) bloom, causing accumulation of hepatotoxins in marine filter feeders (Choromytilus meridionalis and Mytilus galloprovincialis), using artificial salinity enhancement.

    Harding, WR

    Congress in Dublin 1998. Proceedings. Vol. 27, no. 4, pp. 2120-2123. [Verh. Int. Ver. Theor. Angew. Limnol./Proc. Int. Assoc. Theor. Appl. Limnol./Trav. Assoc. Int. Limnol. Theor. Appl.]. 2001.

    The bold and deliberate use of artificial salinity enhancement, in a previously estuarine environment, proved to be an environmentally friendly method of eradicating a dense and toxic bloom of M. aeruginosa, without impacting on other desirable components of the biota. The rapid disappearance of the cyanophyte following the first introduction of salt confirmed the observed intolerance of M. aeruginosa to salinities of less than 3 ppt. The response recorded in Wildevoelvlei underscores the value of this technique for use in urban-impacted, nutrient enriched coastal wetlands, as well as in estuaries where the effects of tidal interchange have been reduced by inflows of urban runoff. Despite the rapid eradication of the problematical cyanobacterium, the result may be expected to be of short duration and, should the ecosystem imbalance persist the cyanobacterial bloom could easily reoccur once salinities return to the pre-treatment state. The use of this technique must also be evaluated against the risks of creating a brackish environment in which halotolerant, potentially-toxic cyanophytes such as Nodularia spumigena may proliferate. It is, therefore, important that, in the long term, the nutrient loading of Wildevoelvlei be reduced to a level which the wetland can assimilate. This will entail improvements not only to the wastewater treatment plant, but also to the management of stormwater at the level of the watershed. This case study further illustrates the need to mitigate against the disruption of coastal wetland character and, in particular, loss of seasonal and/or estuarine character which may occur as a consequence of urban development within the catchment.

  31. 'Smart growth' and dynamic modeling: implications for quality of life in Montgomery County, Maryland

    Preuss, I; Vemuri, AW

    Ecological Modelling [Ecol. Model.]. Vol. 171, no. 4, pp. 415-432. Feb 2004.

    Growth management initiatives have spread wildly through the planning and ecology professions, but as yet are relatively untested for their positive effect on regional quality of life and development patterns. This model illustrates the process through which select initiatives can impact development patterns, population growth, and quality of life in Montgomery County, Maryland. Model analysis suggests that a conservative environmental development approach has the most positive impact on local quality of life.

  32. A framework for quantitative smart growth in land development

    Moglen, GE; Gabriel, SA; Faria, JA

    Journal of the American Water Resources Association [J. Am. Water Resour. Assoc.]. Vol. 39, no. 4, pp. 947-959. Aug 2003.

    Increasing awareness about the problems brought on by urban sprawl has led to proactive measures to guide future development. Such efforts have largely been grouped under the term "Smart Growth." Although not widely recognized as such, the "smart" in Smart Growth implies an optimization of some quantity or objective while undertaking new forms of urban development. In this study, we define Smart Growth as that development plan that leads to the optimal value of a precisely defined measure identified by a stakeholder or stakeholders. To illustrate a formal, quantitative framework for Smart Growth, this study develops definitions of optimal development from the perspectives of four different types of stakeholders: a government planner, a land developer, a hydrologist, and a conservationist subject to certain development constraints. Four different objective functions are posed that are consistent with each of these stakeholders' perspectives. We illustrate the differences in consequences on future development given these different objective functions in a stylized representation for Montgomery County, Maryland. Solutions to Smart Growth from the individual perspectives vary considerably. Tradeoff tables are presented that illustrate the consequences experienced by each stakeholder depending on the viewpoint that has been optimized. Although couched in the context of an illustrative example, this study emphasizes the need to apply rigorous, quantitative tools in a meaningful framework to address Smart Growth. The result is a tool that a range of parties can use to plan future development in ways that are environmentally and fiscally responsible and economically viable.

  33. Brownfields and Greenfields: The Intersection of Sustainable Development and Environmental Stewardship

    Dorsey, JW

    Environmental Practice [Environ. Practice]. Vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 69-76. Mar 2003.

    The recent growth of urban brownfield redevelopment and greenfield protection initiatives is a positive indicator of the redirected priorities of the public and private sectors to restore and regenerate sustainable places and spaces in the American landscape. Concepts such as "sustainable development" and "environmental stewardship" are universal ideals, achievable goals, and intergenerational necessities that have practical applications. This article suggests that brownfield redevelopment and greenfield protection are land use strategies that emphasize long-term sustainability goals rather than unrestrained economic growth and resource expansion. Brownfield initiatives are deeply intertwined with community economic redevelopment and job creation, and they are also important aids in health and safety issues, neighborhood restoration, and the reuse of urban space to counter suburban sprawl into green, open spaces. Planning processes such as "smart growth" and "urban infill" help to better manage development and slow down sprawl. Central to smart growth are brownfields and infill development, because smart growth strives to use underdeveloped areas within the urban environment more efficiently. Urban infill, such as brownfields redevelopment, holds the promise of enabling cities and communities to grow and evolve over time through many incremental changes. By creating places of enduring value and by restoring and reusing buildings and other urban spaces, we can build common ground between sustainability and historic preservation efforts, and provide alternatives to developing greenfield sites.

  34. Insect conservation in an urban biodiversity hotspot: The San Francisco Bay Area

    Connor, EF; Hafernik, J; Levy, J; Moore, VL; Rickman, JK

    Journal of Insect Conservation [J. Insect Conserv.]. Vol. 6, no. 4, pp. 247-259. Dec 2002.

    The San Francisco Bay Area hosts a diverse insect fauna and a dense cluster of urban areas. The high diversity of insects in the Bay Area arises for three primary reasons: its location in the California biotic province, the diverse local environment and the entomologist-area effect. The juxtaposition of high insect diversity and an area intensively used by humans led to the first recorded extinction as well as the first efforts to conserve insects in the United States. Habitat loss due to urbanization, agriculture, and invasive species is largely responsible for local extinctions and reduction in abundance of the remaining species. Invasive species such as the Argentine ant and pathogens causing mortality of oaks and pines are poised to have substantial impacts on the insect fauna of the Bay Area in the near future. Understanding which taxa can or cannot persist in remnant habitat patches within an urban or agricultural matrix, and what management practices would encourage persistence should be a focus of future research. Assessments of population status should be focused on insects at risk of extinction because of their restricted geographic ranges, low vagility, interactions with invasive species, or known reduction in their habitat. Assessments that combine examinations of museum collections, literature, and field surveys might enable determination of the status of many species within the Bay Area. Such an approach might better define the scope and magnitude of the problem of conserving insects in an increasingly urbanized region.

  35. BIODIVERSITY RESEARCH: Comparative population dynamics of Eucalyptus cladocalyx in its native habitat and as an invasive species in an urban bushland in south-western Australia

    Ruthrof, KX; Loneragan, WA; Yates, CJ

    Diversity and Distributions [Divers. Distrib.]. Vol. 9, no. 6, pp. 469-483. Nov 2003.

    Eucalyptus cladocalyx F. Muell., is a tree with a restricted distribution in the Southern Flinders Ranges, South Australia. It was originally introduced into the urban bushland of Kings Park, Perth, Western Australia in 1932 as an ornamental. Since its planting, E. cladocalyx has become invasive, spreading into the bushland up to 70 m away from planting sites. Anecdotal evidence suggests that the E. cladocalyx population is increasing at a greater rate than the two principal native tree species, E. gomphocephala DC. and E. marginata Donn ex Smith, but little is known about the factors influencing its invasion, or its biology. This study describes the population structure of E. cladocalyx, E. gomphocephala and E. marginata in Kings Park and the role of fire in the recruitment process. The study indicated that the three species have characteristics common to temperate Eucalyptus species that mass recruit seedlings following fire, with high numbers of seedlings found in recently burnt areas and low numbers in unburnt areas. Seedling survival in E. cladocalyx was higher than either of the native species. Furthermore, E. cladocalyx adults showed higher rates of canopy recovery following fires. It is argued that although fire in Kings Park is providing opportunities for E. cladocalyx, E. gomphocephala and E. marginata recruitment, the E. cladocalyx population is more resilient in an environment frequently disturbed by fire compared with the native populations.

  36. Smart Growth and Sustainable Development: challenges, solutions and policy directions

    Alexander, D; Tomalty, R

    Local Environment [Local Environ.]. Vol. 7, no. 4, pp. 397-409. Nov 2002.

    In this paper, we focus on the issues related to development densities that emerged from our study of sprawl and development issues in three regions of British Columbia, Canada. We chose to focus on this aspect of the Smart Growth agenda because, while many of its other elements enjoy wide support across social interests, the goal of achieving a higher density urban fabric is highly controversial. We proceeded by collecting data on development densities and 13 indicators of community sustainability in 26 municipalities. The results suggest that the density of communities is associated with efficiencies in infrastructure and with reduced automobile dependence, with the ecological and economic implications which flow from that. However, it does not necessarily correlate with greater affordability of housing or more access to green space. In fact, if anything, we discovered a negative relationship between housing affordability and green space per capita and higher land-use densities. In a second stage of the research, we conducted a qualitative analysis of a subset of six municipalities and identified key policy issues for moving ahead with the Smart Growth agenda. The paper concludes with a discussion of the policy issues that emerged from these case studies.

  37. Growth through greening: developing and assessing alternative economic development programmes

    Gatrell, JD; Jensen, RR

    Applied Geography [Appl. Geogr.]. Vol. 22, no. 4, pp. 331-350. Oct 2002.

    The paper articulates how communities can capitalize on the specific benefits of urban forestry and assesses the outcomes of urban forestry efforts. To accomplish this, the paper defines the context of local economic development and urban forestry; outlines the economic, aesthetic, and ecological benefits of a smart-growth agenda that includes urban forestry; and presents two brief case studies that empirically assess the viability of urban forestry policy by measuring the dynamics of the urban canopy. The research methodology presented here can be used by policy-makers to assess policy outcomes and the overall success of smarter and greener economic development strategies.


    EPA number: 020417D, 441 pages, September 30, 2002

    PURPOSE: The construction of a new multimodal terminal on the site of the present Transbay Terminal and other transportation improvements and associated developments in the city of San Francisco and San Francisco, San Mateo, and Santa Clara counties, California is proposed. In addition to the terminal, the project would include and extension of the Peninsula Corridor Service (Caltrain) from its current San Francisco terminus at Forth and Townsend streets to a new underground terminus beneath the new terminal and establishment of a redevelopment area plan with related development projects, including transit-oriented development on publicly owned land in the vicinity of the new terminal. The existing Transbay Terminal, which was built in 1939, does not meet current seismic safety or space utilization standards. In addition to the No Action Alternative, this draft EIS addresses two alternatives with respect to the terminal, two alternatives with respect to the Caltrain extension, and two alternatives with respect to the Transbay redevelopment plan. Under the full-build alternative, the Transbay redevelopment plan alternatives would result in the construction of 7.6 million square feet of residential, office, retail, and hotel space, including 5.6 million square feet of residential development within 4,700 units, 1.2 million square feet of office space, 475,000 square feet of hotel development, and 355,000 square feet of retail space. Under the reduced scope alternative, the Transbay redevelopment plan alternatives would result in the construction of 4.7 million square feet of residential, retail, and hotel space, including 4.1 million square feet of residential development within 3,400 units, 350,000 square feet of hotel development, and 260,000 square feet of retail space. Depending on the alternatives considered, estimated cost of the Transbay Terminal and the Caltrain extension range from $1.0 billion to $1.2 billion and from $844.3 million to $912.9 million, respectively. POSITIVE IMPACTS: The modernization of the terminal facility would not only provide for a more adequate facility that would meet seismic standards, but would also provide the opportunity to revitalize the surrounding area with a mix of land uses that include both market-rate and affordable housing and to extend Caltrain service from its current terminus outside the downtown area into the San Francisco employment core. Increases in Caltrain and other transit ridership, reductions in non-transit vehicle use, and improvements in regional air quality would be expected. NEGATIVE IMPACTS: Numerous residences and businesses would be displaced. Demolition of the existing terminal would result in the loss of a structure eligible for inclusion in the National Register of Historic Places, as well as the loss of the terminal loop ramp, a contributing element to the historic Bay Bridge. Up to 13 other historically significant buildings that contribute to downtown historic districts would be affected. Traffic levels would increase significantly at seven intersections in the vicinity of the project, and project facilities would displace parking spaces in the area. Wind velocities would exceed city standards in portions of the redevelopment area. Vibration impacts would occur in the vicinity of four buildings due to operation of the Caltrain extension. Up to seven hazardous waste sites could be encountered during construction. [LEG]Department of Transportation Act of 1966, as amended (49 U.S.C. 1651 et seq.), Federal Transit Laws (49 U.S.C. 5301(e)), National Historic Preservation Act of 1966, as amended (16 U.S.C. 470 et seq.), and Uniform Relocation Assistance and Real Property Acquisition Policies Act of 1970 (42 U.S.C. 4601).

  39. Structure and Dynamics in an Urban Landscape: Toward a Multiscale View

    Bessey, KM

    Ecosystems [Ecosystems]. Vol. 5, no. 4, pp. 360-375. 2002.

    Ecosystems and city systems often form hierarchically structured landscapes whose spatial pattern is scale dependent. While trends in the upper tail of national city-size distributions leave the impression that fractal-scaling laws such as Zipf's law or the rank-size rule truly represent the essence of the system, the linearity depicted at aggregate scale actually obscures variation and discontinuity in the urban size-density function, including multimodalities evident in regional data sets. Tracing individual city trajectories through these hierarchical patterns reveals structural resilience at macroscopic scale, the punctuated growth of individual cities of differing sizes, the persistence and self-reinforcing character of spatial agglomeration, and a general need for further empirical investigation of the relationship between city size and growth. It also raises questions for future exploration, including the meaning of persistent departures from the power laws of traditional urban systems theory. Interpretation of such departures in the context of questions of jurisdictional scale in environmental management and "smart growth" policy adds a practical dimension to the research agenda.

  40. Urban Containment Policy and Exposure to Natural Hazards: Is There a Connection?

    Burby, RJ; Nelson, AC; Parker, D; Handmer, J

    Journal of Environmental Planning and Management [J. Environ. Plann. Manage.]. Vol. 44, no. 4, pp. 475-490. Jul 2001.

    Planners throughout much of the past century have advocated containment of urban sprawl through regulatory restrictions that include growth boundaries, green belts and limits to utility extensions. Containment is widely practised in Europe and is a key component of 'smart growth' being advocated by a number of interest groups in the USA. In fact, it has already been incorporated in growth management policies in use in 73 US metropolitan areas. In this paper, we argue that containment may have a serious side-effect. It can lead to increased exposure to natural hazards and higher losses in disasters. However, we also show that measures are available to counter this effect, if planners recognize the threat and take vigorous steps to contain hazards, adjust building techniques or limit the development of potentially hazardous areas.

  41. Brownfield redevelopment as a smart growth option in the United States

    Greenberg, M; Lowrie, K; Mayer, H; Miller, KT; Solitare, L

    Environmentalist [Environmentalist]. Vol. 21, no. 2, pp. 129-143. Jun 2001.

    An evaluation is made of brownfields redevelopment as a smart growth policy compared to purchase of land, restrictive growth policies, changing transportation patterns, promoting compact development designs on the metropolitan fringe, and regional government. In the US brownfields redevelopment has clear advantages with regard to environmental protection, moral imperative, and government and special interest reactions. Its rank with regard to economic feasibility, ability to respond to changes in technology, and public reaction are not clear. A great deal more research is needed, especially about the costs of brownfield redevelopment and public preferences for housing type and location to be certain about brownfields redevelopment as a viable smart growth option.

  42. Environment, Quality of Life, and Urban Growth in the New Economy

    Hirschhorn, JS

    Environmental Quality Management [Environ. Qual. Manage.]. Vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 1-8. 2001.

    Sooner or later, most environmental professionals will be affected by the national smart growth movement, which addresses suburban sprawl and urban revitalization. Environmental sustainability is at the heart of more sustainable economic growth--which means growth that does not sacrifice quality of life for economic prosperity. This article summarizes the findings of a recent report on the linkage between growth and quality of life in the new economy, with a special emphasis on the role of governors.

  43. Testing predictions of displacement of native Aedes by the invasive Asian Tiger Mosquito Aedes albopictus in Florida, USA

    Lounibos, LP; O'Meara, GF; Escher, RL; Nishimura, N; Cutwa, M; Nelson, T; Campos, RE; Juliano, SA

    Biological Invasions [Biol. Invasions]. Vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 151-166. 2001.

    The Asian Tiger Mosquito Aedes albopictus arrived in the USA in 1985 in used automobile tires from Japan and became established in Texas. This species has since spread to become the most abundant container-inhabiting mosquito in the southeastern USA, including Florida, where it has reduced the range of another non-indigenous mosquito, Aedes aegypti. To assess the accuracy of predictions that A. albopictus would competitively exclude the native Eastern Treehole Mosquito Aedes triseriatus from tires but not from treeholes (Livdahl and Willey (1991) Science 253: 189-191), we extensively monitored the abundances of mosquito immatures before and after the Asian Tiger invaded these habitats in south Florida. These field data failed to demonstrate exclusion of A. triseriatus from treeholes following the establishment of A. albopictus in this microhabitat in 1991. However, A. albopictus had significantly higher metamorphic success and showed a significant increase in mean crowding on A. triseriatus in treeholes monitored from 1991 to 1999. In urban and suburban sites, A. triseriatus was uncommon in abandoned tires even before the arrival of A. albopictus. In some wooded sites, there is evidence for a decline in numbers of A. triseriatus in used tires and cemetery vases, but the native species has not been excluded from these habitats. Overall, the negative effects of A. albopictus on A. triseriatus has been less severe than that on A. aegypti. Experiments outdoors in surrogate treeholes showed that A. albopictus was more successful than A. triseriatus in survival to emergence in the presence of predatory larvae of the native mosquito Toxorhynchites rutilus when first instar predators encountered both prey species shortly after their hatch. Eggs of A. albopictus also hatched more rapidly than those of A. triseriatus, giving larvae of the invasive species an initial developmental advantage to escape predation. Biological traits that may favor A. albopictus are offset partly by greater treehole occupancy by A. triseriatus and the infrequency of the invasive mosquito species in undisturbed woodlands, which mitigates against displacement of the native mosquito in these habitats.

  44. California's urban protected areas: progress despite daunting pressures

    Trzyna, T

    Parks [Parks]. Vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 4-15. 2001.

    In the US State of California, progress is being made in protecting natural areas in and around cities in spite of relentless urban sprawl. Although a confusing number of agencies are involved, partnerships are common. Non-governmental organisations have a pivotal role. Examples are provided from the two major cities of the state, Los Angeles and San Francisco. Almost all protected areas are managed for a range of benefits. Biodiversity is a primary goal, along with recreation, education, and in many places watershed protection. Economic benefits are varied and substantial. Management issues include administrative and physical fragmentation, invasive species, fire, and pollution. Agencies recognise a need to reach out to urban residents, but performance is mixed. A new "natural park" in a poor Los Angeles neighbourhood is a striking innovation. California has much to learn from other countries, and much to share.

  45. Globally significant biodiversity within city limits: the case of South Africa's Cape

    McNeely, JA

    Parks [Parks]. Vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 44-50. 2001.

    Located in close proximity to a major urban centre (Cape Town), the unusually rich biodiversity of the Cape of Good Hope region, South Africa, is under considerable pressure. Intensive tourism and the unauthorised use of resources by poverty-stricken people both present major management challenges. Other key threats to biodiversity include colonisation by alien invasive species and uncontrolled fire. In an attempt to stem ecosystem degradation, various steps have been taken. Three hitherto independent nature reserves have had land added and, in 1998, were merged into a single Cape Peninsula National Park, creating a more viable protected area. Considerable international support (from GEF [the Global Environment Facility], WWF, and the French Development Agency) has been given to a variety of regional projects attempting, with some success, to integrate biodiversity and human development objectives during this challenging period.