- The global environment: institutions,
law, and policy
Regina S. Axelrod.
CQ Press, 2005, xx+300 pp.
Analyzes key issues affecting protection of the global environment;
topics include treaties, role of environmental NGOs, policies
of the US, European Union, and developing countries, national
and international implementation of sustainable development
principles, China's Three Gorges Dam project, and nuclear
power in the Czech Republic.
- Human and Institutional Capacity Enhancement
for Environmental Management in Indonesia: The Experience of
the University Consortium on the Environment, 1987-2002
Canadian Journal of Development Studies, Vol. 24, No. 1,
May 2003, pp, 73-88.
The University Consortium on the Environment involved collaboration
among Waterloo, York, and seven Indonesian universities in
Java and Sulawesi in a comprehensive effort to enhance the
capacity of Environmental Studies Centres in Indonesian universities
to support good environmental management. Focussing on graduate
student education (for both Indonesians and Canadians), joint
faculty research, workshops, and the preparation of academic
publications and practical training manuals, this large, complex
project yields a number of important lessons. Important factors
relating to success include forms of participation, leadership
and management, institutional relations and structures, communication,
and cross-cutting themes for environmental research, training,
and management. The experience demonstrates the particular
values and challenges of undertaking such projects in Canadian
- Assessing the effectiveness of intergovernmental
organizations in international environmental politics
Frank Biermann and Steffen Bauer.
Global Environ.Change, Vol. 14, No. 2, Jul 2004, pp, 189-193.
- Politics of Trade and Environment and
the Transboundary Trade of Genetically Modified Organisms: A
Study of Institutional Process, Regime Overlap and North-South
Politics, in Global Rule-Making
Dissertation Abstracts International, A: The Humanities and
Social Sciences, Vol. 64, No. 11, May 2004, pp, 4196-A.
In this study I examine process and deliberation in global
trade and environment fora which deal with overlapping trade-environment
issues. I suggest that differences between fora in these previously
independent areas of international co-operation can be meaningfully
categorized in terms of the degree to which they promote communicative,
as compared to strategic action. I find that in rule-making
on the trans-boundary trade in genetically modified organisms,
the existence of a forum with more inclusive and egalitarian
process and greater information symmetry, worked in favor
of the diffusion of green norms and rules. This pattern largely
contradicts the rich-green model of trade-environment politics
which posits developed countries to be the primary advocates
and beneficiaries of green rule-making, and which subsequently
implies that fora in which these states are most powerful
are likely to be the most environment-friendly. I examine
the generalizability of patterns in this case to a broader
realm of international trade-environment issues by interviewing
officers of relevant global environmental non-governmental
organizations as to their views of what constitute the major
trade-environment issues, the relative importance of these
issues, and their organizations' degree of agreement with
the US, G77, and EU positions on each issue. I find that with
the exception of the case of overlapping issues in the WTO,
the respondents tend to see their organizations as having
the greatest degree of agreement with the G77. This suggests
that the rule-making on trade in genetically modified organisms
is not anomalous in its divergence from the rich-green model.
I conclude that institutions can either intensify or mitigate
the extent to which asymmetry and egoism prevail as factors
in international rule-making, and that the explanatory efficacy
of the rich-green hypothesis must be considered limited and
conditional, most applicable in cases where power asymmetries
and egoistic behavior are built into institutional process
and deliberation. Its expectation that broader inclusivity,
and greater empowerment of developed states will inhibit environment-friendly
rule-making seems unwarranted. Greater inclusion, and more
public and egalitarian process, may in fact advance the cause
of environment-friendly rule-making on trade-environment issues.
- International influence of an Australian
nongovernment organization in the protection of Patagonian toothfish
Liza D. Fallon and Lorne K. Kriwoken.
Ocean Development and International Law, vol. 35, no. 3,
pp. 221-266, July/September 2004
Discusses a case study of the International Southern Oceans
Longline Fisheries Information Clearing House, based in Hobart,
Tasmania, Australia; focuses on illegal, unreported, and unregulated
fishing that undermined fisheries management by coastal states
and the Convention for the Conservation of Arctic Maritime
- Revealed Preferences of an International
Trade and Environment Institution
Land Economics, Vol. 80, No. 2, May 2004 2004, pp, 224-238.
International cooperation on environmental problems is examined
through the factors influencing a North American Free Trade
Agreement (NAFTA) institution's decisions over environmental
problems along the U.S.-Mexico border. An econometric study
relates the approval by the NAFTA institution of environmental
improvement projects to observed attributes of the proposed
projects. Results show strong preference for projects solving
transboundary wastewater pollution and the polluter pays principle.
The institution does not prefer projects that generate revenues
nor minimize costs. Bi-national grants and loans dominate
the funding for approved projects, implying both countries
pay. More U.S. projects have been approved than projects from
- Greening the Earth with Trees: Science,
Storylines and the Construction of International Climate Change
Cathleen Ann Fogel.
Dissertation Abstracts International, A: The Humanities and
Social Sciences, Vol. 64, No. 1, July 2003, pp, 279-A.
This dissertation traces the development of a controversial
international environmental policy from its inception to its
application. The policy it considers is that of planting trees
as a way of mitigating global climate change. The study broadens
scholarly understanding of the social justice, cultural and
democratic implications of environmental treaty formation
through the use of constructivist and multi-sited research
methodologies. It explores how knowledge and policies on global
climate change have been constructed and legitimized. Drawing
upon theories of discourse coalitions, environmental storylines,
and asymmetrical institutional structures, I trace the emergence
and spread of the idea of afforestation to mitigate climate
change starting in the 1970's, identify unifying metaphors
within scientific discourse and then link this discourse to
political negotiations on forests and climate change in the
1980's and 1990's. I explain how and why political discourse
about institutions to incorporate forests within a global
climate change regime evolved from 'coercive' to 'reciprocal'
and finally to 'exchange' proposals, as embodied in the Kyoto
Protocol. The middle portion of my work analyzes the construction
and use of 'global knowledge' through a case study of the
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and its 2000
Special Report on forests and climate change. I analyze the
IPCC as an international boundary organization that straddles
and internalizes both scientific and political practices and
I explicate the highly unequal access that powerful states
such as the United States had to the IPCC 2000 scientific
advisory process. I analyze the work of the IPCC, including
its management of uncertainties, its deconstruction and reconstruction
of terms and categories (for instance, what constitutes a
'forest') and its extensive boundary work, for instance between
scientists and state negotiators. I conclude by examining
the construction of local-global accountability mechanisms
on biotic carbon sequestration within the Kyoto Protocol.
To do this, I trace representations of indigenous peoples
within the IPCC and the protocol since 1990 and summarize
indigenous peoples' responses to their perceived invisibility.
I reiterate the importance of representation, transparency
and free speech within transnational policy networks and outline
several distinct facets of environmental storylines, describing
how improved understanding of these might contribute to the
constructive resolution of environmental conflicts.
- The World Trade Organization, Kyoto
and Energy Tax Adjustments at the Border
Journal of World Trade, Vol. 38, No. 3, June 2004 2004, pp,
- Globalization and the Environment: Moving
beyond Neoliberal Institutionalism
International Journal of Peace Studies, Vol. 9, No. 1, spring-summer
2004, pp, 29-46.
This article deals with the issue of the environment in international
politics & makes a case that the environment as a subject
matter is fundamentally different from other political issues.
To this effect, the concept of eco-holistic analysis is put
forward whereby environmental issues are incorporated into
the analysis rather than the structural & systemic forces
& constraints within which actors operate. The concept of
eco-holistic analysis is based on three pillars (the historical
dimension of environment-society relations, the concept of
consumption, & equity) which offer new dimensions of analysis
highlighting why traditional institutionalist approaches to
the study of international environmental politics are lacking
in offering suggestions for effective environmental improvement.
41 References. Adapted from the source document.
- Organizational Learning in Multinationals:
R&D Networks of Japanese and US MNEs in the UK
Journal of Management Studies, Vol. 40, No. 3, May 2003,
The institutional approach treats organizational forms and
behaviour as contingent upon institutions that are durable
and socially embedded and so several authors have argued that
the nature and modes of operation of multinational enterprises
(MNEs) vary according to their national origins. This paper
examines the ways in which national patterns of organization
and innovation affect Japanese and US MNEs' global R&D networks
and transnational learning, based on case studies of their
R&D laboratories in the UK. In particular, it focuses on how
these MNEs tap into the foreign academic knowledge base and
scientific labour through collaborative links with higher
education institutions. Relative to many Japanese MNEs, US
firms have developed a greater organizational capacity for
coordinating globally dispersed learning and embedding themselves
in local innovation networks because the liberal institutional
environment within which US MNEs have developed enables them
to extend their organizational and human resource systems
across institutional and geographical boundaries. By contrast,
Japanese MNEs appear to be more limited in their transnational
learning because of the much more tightly integrated organizational
and business system within which they are embedded. (PsycINFO
Database Record (c) 2004 APA, all rights reserved)
- NGOs, Organizational Culture, and Institutional
Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science,
Vol. 590, No. 0, November 2003 2003, pp, 212-226.
This paper draws on ongoing qualitative research on a sericulture
project in Bangladesh to explore the ways in which the concept
of organizational culture--which is rarely considered within
the analysis of development interventions--can help reveal
the complex roots of sustainability problems within multi
agency rural development projects. The approach focuses both
on local organizational realities and on power in the relationships
that link project actors and process with wider systems and
structures. It was observed that many of the initial project
meanings have gradually fragmented over time, despite the
earlier coherence expressed through the formal project culture
expressed through documents and other artifacts.
- International law and organization:
closing the compliance gap
Edward C. Luck and Michael W. Doyle.
Littlefield Publishers, Inc., 2004,
Case studies of compliance behavior across four critical
areas of international cooperation; trade and finance, climate
change and the environment, human rights and humanitarian
norms, and atomic weapons control and nuclear nonproliferation,
Contents: Introduction: Expanding norms, lagging compliance,
by Katharina P. Coleman and Michael W. Doyle; Conceptual issues
surrounding the compliance gap, by George W. Downs and Andrea
W. Trento; The institutional dilemmas of market integration:
compliance and international regimes for trade and finance,
by Kathleen R. McNamara; South Korea and international compliance
behavior: the WTO and IMF in comparative perspective, by Chung-in
Moon; Compliance with multilateral agreements: the climate
change regime, by Philippe Sands and Jan Linehan; Crises and
conflicts in the Great Lakes region: the problem of noncompliance
with humanitarian law, by James R. Katalikawe, Henry M. Onoria,
and Baker G. Wairama; Compliance with the laws of war: the
role of the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda, by
Luc Côté; International laws of war and the African child:
norms, compliance, and strategy, by Jeffrey Herbst; Dilemmas
of compliance with arms control and disarmament agreements,
by Harold A. Feiveson and Jacqueline W. Shire; The American
problem: the United States and noncompliance in the world
of arms control and nonproliferation, by Zia Mian; Conclusion:
gaps, commitments, and the compliance challenge, by Edward
- Purchasing power: harnessing institutional
procurement for people and the planet
Discusses the environmental costs of purchases by governments,
corporations, universities, and other large institutions,
and efforts around the world to introduce and support environmentally-friendly,
sustainable, or green purchasing practices.
- The Participation of Individuals and
Nongovernmental Organizations in the Creation, Application and
Control of the Implementation of International Law: The Case
of the Protection of Human Rights and the Environment
Sylviane Estelle Mongbe.
Dissertation Abstracts International, A: The Humanities and
Social Sciences, Vol. 63, No. 9, Mar 2003, pp, 3347-A.
- Delegation to International Organizations:
Agency Theory and World Bank Environmental Reform
Daniel L. Nielson and Michael J. Tierney.
International Organization, Vol. 57, No. 2, Spring 2003 2003,
Current international relations theory struggles to explain
both the autonomy and transformation of international organizations
(IOs). Previous theories either fail to account for any IO
behavior that deviates from the interests of member states,
or neglect the role of member states in reforming IO institutions
and behavior. We propose an agency theory of IOs that can
fill these gaps while also addressing two persistent problems
in the study of IOs: common agency and long delegation chains.
Our model explains slippage between member states' interests
and IO behavior, but also suggests institutional mechanisms--staff
selection, monitoring, procedural checks, and contracts--through
which states can rein in errant IOs. We evaluate this argument
by examining multiple institutional reforms and lending patterns
at the World Bank from 1980 to 2000.
- Canada and regional fisheries organizations:
implementing the UN fish stocks agreement
Ocean development and international law, Vol. 34, No. 2,
Apr-Jun 2003, pp, 209-228.
Canada is a strong supporter of the United Nations Fish Stocks
Agreement. Whether Canada's support is matched by its actions
in strengthening regional fisheries organizations and arrangements
dealing with straddling and highly migratory fish stocks is
thus worthy of investigation. This contribution examines Canadian
activities within regional fisheries organizations with particular
reference to implementation of the precautionary and ecosystem
approaches and the issue of enforcement of conservation and
management measures. Although Canadian actions appear generally
to be furthering implementation of the Agreement, comprehensive
integration of words and deeds remains to be achieved.; Reprinted
by permission of Taylor & Francis Ltd.
- Who ratifies environmental treaties
and why? institutionalism, structuralism and participation by
192 nations in 22 treaties
J. Timmons Roberts.
Analyzes theoretical explanations for states' decisions about
participation in international environmental policy; 1946-99.
- Building on the strengths and addressing
the challenges: the role of Law of the Sea institutions
Donald R. Rothwell.
Ocean development and international law, Vol. 35, No. 2,
Apr-Jun 2004, pp, 131-156.
With the Law of the Sea Convention celebrating its 10th anniversary
in 2004, an opportunity arises to assess the impact of new
institutions created by the Convention. An analysis is undertaken
of the work of the Commission on the Limits of the Continental
Shelf, the International Sea-Bed Authority, and the International
Tribunal for the Law of the Sea. It is argued that all three
of these institutions are playing an important role in the
evolution of the law of the sea, and giving effect to fundamental
norms of the Convention, such as the common heritage principle.
However, conflicts loom over the delimitation of maritime
space, forum shopping, and treaty parallelism. It is concluded
that these institutions will continue to play an important
role for the law of the sea in the coming decade.; Reprinted
by permission of Taylor & Francis Ltd.
- Kyoto Institutions: Baselines and Bargaining
under Joint Implementation
Simon Schmitz and Axel Michaelowa.
Environmental Politics, Vol. 14, No. 1, Feb 2005, pp, 83-102.
The 'first track' of Joint Implementation under the Kyoto
Protocol gives host & investor countries total freedom in
choosing a baseline for a project reducing or sequestering
greenhouse gases. This is because an overly generous granting
of emission credits leads to a corresponding reduction of
the host country' s emission budget. However, a majority of
interests prefers lax baselines & it is unlikely that cash-strapped
governments can prevent granting of a more lenient baseline
than would be objectively warranted. Standardized, multi-project
baselines defined by government officials can lower gaming
to some extent & reduce transaction costs, especially in relatively
homogeneous sectors. However, host countries need capacity
not only to calculate baselines but also to decide against
powerful interests. Interviews with government officials &
other stakeholders in East European EU accession countries
suggest that countries have not yet realized the issues of
baseline definition under the first track. 3 Tables, 1 Figure,
18 References. Adapted from the source document.
- Mapping institutional linkages in European
air pollution politics
Henrik Selin and Stacy D. VanDeveer.
- International Nongovernmental Organizations
and Carbon Dioxide Emissions in the Developing World: A Quantitative,
John M. Shandra, Bruce London, Owen P. Whooley and John B.
Sociological Inquiry, Vol. 74, No. 4, Nov 2004, pp, 520-545.
This quantitative, cross-national study is designed to test
hypotheses linking the activities of international nongovernmental
organizations to reductions in carbon dioxide emissions in
the developing world. While many quantitative studies of variation
in carbon dioxide emissions have been published, none has
included a control for the presence of international nongovernmental
organizations. We review the literature that discusses the
many ways that international nongovernmental organizations
work to reduce environmental degradation in developing nations.
We then conduct a panel regression analysis in which we include
a variable to estimate the effects of international nongovernmental
organizations on carbon dioxide emissions while including
variables suggested by other relevant theoretical perspectives.
Our findings are quite clear in that nations with high levels
of international nongovernmental organization presence have
lower levels of carbon dioxide emissions than nations with
low levels of international nongovernmental organization presence.
We also find support for the ecological modernization hypothesis
pertaining to the existence of an environmental Kuznet's curve
between the level of economic development & level of carbon
dioxide emissions. 1 Table, 83 References. Adapted from the
- The political economy of the European
Union: Institutions, policy and economic growth
Gert Tinggaard Svendsen.
2003, pp. 195.
Derives new insights into the political economy of the European
Union and its present institutional setup and explores how
this institutional setup affects policy outcomes and economic
growth. Surveys three political economy approaches--the public
choice school, "collective good" analysis, and institutional
economics--and combines the approaches into one general model
of the political economy. Analyzes the political economy of
the European Union, considering the cost sharing issue; the
EU institutions; the Common Agricultural Policy; EU lobbyism
and interest groups; corruption; social capital; and economic
growth. Examines interest group theory and analyzes the political
economy of an internal greenhouse gas market in the European
Union. Provides a political economy perspective on on EU participation
in the global efforts to combat the greenhouse effect. Assesses
the wind energy market and considers subsidies for wind energy.
Svendsen is Associate Professor of Economics at the Aarhus
School of Business. Bibliography; index.
- Taking Institutions Seriously: How Regime
Analysis Can Be Relevant to Multilevel Environmental Governance
Global Environmental Politics, Vol. 3, No. 2, May 2003 2003,
This article starts with the observation that in the study
and practice of global environmental governance (GEG) institutions
and organizations are often conflated. For regime theorists
they are not the same thing and the argument is advanced that,
despite its failings, the regime/institutional approach continues
to have significant analytical advantages. However, the benefits
of regime analysis can only be realized if it avoids becoming
an arena for inter-governmental rational choice theorizing
and takes institutions seriously. One way of doing this is
to utilize John Searle's "general theory of institutional
facts." Searle's work provides the inspiration for a re-consideration
of the bases, components, domain and explanation of global
environmental regimes. It is argued that it could yield a
new institutional approach which overcomes some of the problems
of existing regime analyses in ways appropriate to the study
of multilevel environmental governance.