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Frantz Fanon’s Call to Anti-Colonial Violence
(Released October 2011)

 
  by Erin McCoy  

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  1. Thoughts about Doing Fanonism in the 1990s

    NIGEL GIBSON, College Literature, 04-15-1999

    After the "Fanonism" of the 1970s (see Wallerstein 1979), and the "Critical Fanonism" of the 1980s, by now almost wholly institutionalized (see Gates 1991), where should the next generation go? As Homi Bhabha, a leading Critical Fanonist, puts it, "Why invoke Frantz Fanon today, quite out of historical context? Why invoke Fanon when the ardor of emancipatory discourse has seemingly yielded to fervent, ferocious pleas for 'the end of history,' the end of struggle"? (1996, 188) Alternatively, despite Fanon's continual relevance to contemporary African politics and the continued discussion of his major works in the U.S. (Black Skin White Masks, The Wretched of the Earth, A Dying Colonialism, and Toward the African Revolution), why the present invasion of a melancholic "British Fanonism" in the context of "the end of struggle"?

    In the following I use Fanon to polemicize against invented "Fanons," and show how the conceptual weight of "end of struggle" informs the way Fanon is read. I am neither embarrassed at declaring my Fanon to be more authentic than others, nor concerned that "my Fanon" radically disturbs the political claims of cultural studies in the U.S. Fanon and the inventions of these other Fanon(s) are the subjects of this paper.

    For full-text documents see ProQuest's eLibrary

  2. "Black skins" and white masks: Comic books and the secret of race

    Singer, Marc, African American Review, 04-01-2002

    The stereotypes through which American popular culture often interprets and represents racial identity operate not only as tools of defamation but also as vehicles for far more subtle manipulations of race. In his 1946 essay "Twentieth-Century Fiction and the Black Mask of Humanity," Ralph Ellison observes that stereotypes of African Americans, whatever other purposes they might serve, become a means "by which the white American seeks to resolve the dilemma arising ... between his acceptance of the sacred democratic belief that all men are created equal and his treatment of every tenth man as though he were not" (28)-a means, in other words, of reconciling the contradictions between an ideology of democracy and a history and practice of prejudice. Whether these stereotypes assume the form of unrealistic portrayals of racial minorities or an equally unrealistic invisibility, they often fulfill this double function of oppression and reaffirmation.

    Comic books, and particularly the dominant genre of superhero comic books, have proven fertile ground for stereotyped depictions of race. Comics rely upon visually codified representations in which characters are continually reduced to their appearances, and this reductionism is especially prevalent in superhero comics, whose characters are wholly externalized into their heroic costumes and aliases. This system of visual typology combines with the superhero genre's long history of excluding, trivializing, or "tokenizing" minorities to create numeorus minority super-- heroes who are marked purely for their race: "Black Lightning," "Black Panther," and so forth. The potential for superficiality and stereotyping here is dangerously high. Yet in recent years, some comics creators have demonstrated that the superhero genre's own conventions can invite a more nuanced depiction of minority identity. Race in contemporary comics proves to be anything but simplistic. If some titles reveal deceptively soothing stereotypes lurking behind their veneers of diversity, then others show complex considerations of identity.

    For full-text documents see ProQuest's eLibrary

  3. Of Masks, Mimicry, Misogyny, and Miscegenation: Forging Black South African Masculinity in Bloke Modisane's Blame Me on History

    Goldsmith, Meredith, Journal of Mens Studies, The, 04-30-2002

    This essay analyzes the dilemma of black male South African intellectuals of the 1950s, of whom autobiographer Bloke Modisane was a pivotal example. Exiled in the aftermath of the harsh apartheid laws of the 1960s, these artists were trapped on a precarious divide between the white artistic world and the black political milieu, never fully belonging to either. Modisane uses the strategies of masking to reclaim a sense of masculinity erased by racist and colonialist exploitation; simultaneously, however, he displaces his own anxieties about acceptance by whites through misogyny, particularly toward black women. I theorize my work on Modisane through recourse to the work of Martinican psychoanalyst Frantz Fanon, who analyzes the results of a racist gaze on black male identity formation, and postcolonial theorist Homi Bhabha, who posits mimicry as a mode of partial self-affirmation for colonized subjects.

    For full-text documents see ProQuest's eLibrary

Historical Newspapers
  1. Not Terrorism in France — But War; Now-or-Never Seems to Be FLN Attitude

    By Edmond Taylor and Waverly Root, The Washington Post and Times Herald (1954-1959). Washington, D.C.: Sep 7, 1958. pg. E1, 2 pgs

    Abstract (Summary) PARIS — The terrorist campaign which the Algerian Front of National Liberation launched on the home territory of France during the night of Aug. 24-25 is shaping up not as just one more flare-up in a series of comparable incidents, but as the long delayed implementation of a declaration of war against the mainland which has been uttered several times during the past year.

    Original Newspaper Image (PDF)

  2. Multi-faceted Treatise on Colonial Revolution

    By PERRY LONDON, Los Angeles Times (1923-Current File). Los Angeles, Calif.: May 23, 1965. pg. O27, 1 pgs

    Abstract (Summary) No nightmare, ugly fantasy, or evil intuition can frighten reasoning men as can a terrifying argument whose truth seems unavoidable. Frantz Fanon has wrought just that in "The Wretched of the...

    Original Newspaper Image (PDF)

  3. The Story of Snick; From 'Freedom High' to 'Black Power' The Story of Snick If scaring whites is an art, Carmichael seems well on the way to being a master

    By GENE ROBERTS, New York Times (1923-Current file). New York, N.Y.: Sep 25, 1966. pg. 242, 8 pgs

    Abstract (Summary) DURING one of the many rallies that accompanied the civil rights march through Mississippi in June, Willie Ricks, a 23-yearold member of the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee, stood on the back of a flat-bed truck and harangued a crowd of nearly a thousand Negroes.

    Original Newspaper Image (PDF)

Taken from ProQuest's Historical Newspapers.

Dissertations

  1. Frantz Fanon's clinical studies (1954-1960)

    by Allen, Mazi A., Ph.D., State University of New York at Binghamton, 2011, 208 pages; AAT 3465741

    Abstract (Summary)
    Between 1954 and 1960, Frantz Fanon conducted numerous clinical studies on the social role of psychiatry (in his capacity as director of psychiatric wards in French Algeria and later post-independence Tunisia.) Later published as articles, conference papers and lectures, these studies—eight of which are translated in this dissertation for the very first time—ask us to consider the possibility of constituting community from a non-antagonistic basis. Whereas previous political theory has presupposed antagonism towards the "other"—offering the choice of either rendering the "other" transparent (in terms of fitting them into one's understanding of the world) or else conflict—Fanon asks us to consider whether we cannot move beyond such self-centered understanding of the world and actually know the "other" as such. In reading these studies in conjunction with Fanon's better-known work, I will trace the development of this alternative vision of community from its origins in Black Skin, White Masks and will argue that Fanon's attempt to reconceive of community from a non-antagonistic basis constitutes a central them in his thought—linking both his professional and political commitments.

    For full-text documents see ProQuest's Dissertations & Theses Database

  2. Thinking from the limits of being: Levinas, Fanon, Dussell and the cry of ethical revolt

    by Maldonado Torres, Nelson, Ph.D., Brown University, 2002, 291 pages; AAT 3050932

    Abstract (Summary)
    This dissertation is focused on the work of three figures who share a fundamental impetus to rethink the question of the human in post-imperial ways: Emmanuel Lévinas, Frantz Fanon, and Enrique Dussel. I provide an account of major themes in their work in light of their response to a European master morality of domination and control. I also spell out their alternative visions of human existence and social life.

    The first chapter of the dissertation offers an analysis of the Lévinasian description and critique of the philosophy of Hitlerism and of its alleged links with liberalism and with other apparent alternative philosophical positions. The second chapter spells out Lévinas's strategy to confront the Western paradigm of violence and war that, according to him, undergirds dominant Western conceptions of the human. As innovative and productive as Lévinas attempt is, I argue that his account of ethics and human fraternity is skewed by his inability to successfully bridge the gap between the ethical and the political.

    The third and the fourth chapter are dedicated to the analysis of the work of Frantz Fanon, which arguably provides a more successful effort to link the ethical and the political. The third chapter focuses on the betrayal of the search for human fraternity by the project of sustaining an Imperial World. It describes how certain ideas of God are fundamental in the effort to maintain master morality alive. The fourth chapter demonstrates in turn how the slave's search for recognition becomes, for Fanon, a consistent expression of the search for human fraternity. In the fifth and final chapter I evaluate Enrique Dussel's appropriation of Lévinas's work through my analysis of the work of Lévinas and Fanon. I argue that, although there are points in which Dussel should have been Fanonian instead of Lévinasian, his work contributes in important ways to the Lévinasian and Fanonian attempt to overcome the paradigm of violence and war and the Western master morality of aggression and control. This work is a contribution to the study of religious thought and to its links with phenomenology, critical theory, ethics, and political philosophy.

    For full-text documents see ProQuest's Dissertations & Theses Database

  3. Frantz Fanon: Towards an integrated psychosocial model and its application to the African-American

    by Nadell, James, Psy.D., Nova University School of Psychology, 1991, 245 pages; AAT 9203052

    Abstract (Summary)
    The present study offers a comprehensive analysis of the theories of psychoanalyst Frantz Fanon regarding the psyche of the colonized African, toward formulating an integrated psychosocial model. Fanon's premature death at age 36 in 1961 prevented the extension of his understanding to the African-American. The study at hand will undertake this task. Having demonstrated the conditions of African-Americans to be essentially those of an oppressed, colonized people, it is established that Fanon's suppositions relating to the colonized African are applicable to the African-American. In order to provide a parsimonious means of organizing and integrating Fanon's thought, four conceptual themes around which his postulates coalesce serve as points of departure: (1) The dialectic of colonizer and colonized. (2) The alienation of the colonized. (3) The disalienation of the colonized. (4) Freedom. By integrating the thought of Fanon, a psychosocial model emerges which if applied to the African-American, broadens the knowledge base from which we understand the psychological existence of this population. Psychotherapeutic implications of this model are discussed as a means of enhancing the efficacy of treatment provided to African-Americans.

    For full-text documents see ProQuest's Dissertations & Theses Database