Resources taken from Proquest's eLibrary
Algeria Becomes Independent; July 3, 1962 After nearly twenty years of struggle with French colonial forces, Algeria was declared an independent nation on this day in 1962. Originally colonized by France in 1848, Algeria has since independently endured years of political instability and continued strife between Muslim fundamentalist and pro-Western factions.
ARCHIVE PHOTOS/Paris Match.
People wave black and white balloons as the coffin of French poet Aime Cesaire is carried out of his home on April 18, 2008 in Fort-de-France on the French Caribbean island of Martinique. French poet Aime Cesaire, a leading voice of black cultural identity whose struggle against colonialism resonated in Africa and the United States, died in Martinique. He was 94.
FRANCK FIFE/AFP/Getty Images.
People view photographs retracing the life of former Senegalese poet Leopold Sedar Senghor, Senegal's first president, 08 October 2006 at the Saint Joseph Seminary of Ngasobil, where he studied from 1914 to 1922, and where festivities will begin for the centenary of his birth Monday. Senghor supported Negritude, the movement to restore the identity of Africans by rejecting European values and affirming the culture of the African diaspora — and sought to reverse centuries of colonial stigmatisation of black people. Senghor's argument that the souls of Africans are metaphysically different than those of other peoples had a dramatic influence on culture and politics in west Africa, but it also drew protest. Senghor died in 2001 at the age of 95.
GEORGES GOBET/AFP/Getty Images.
Charts and Tables
Tables taken from ProQuest's Illustrata
Maps can show us more than location and distance. They can also help us get a clearer picture of history. The above map shows which European countries governed Africa 100 years ago. In 1885, the leaders of several powerful European countries met in Berlin, Germany, and divided the continent of Africa into colonies. Many years later, when these countries achieved independence, they kept their colonial borders. This helps explain why Africa has 53 independent countries-more than any other continent. It also explains why so many European languages are spoken in Africa today. The structure of Africa today was greatly influenced by the world of 100 years ago.
Scholastic News, suppl. MAPMAN's Guide to Understanding Your World (2001): 16.
Barreraas Model of Internal Colonialism and Class Segmentation in Advanced Capitalist Society
Class, Self-Perception, and Racial Group Identification Among African Americans
Grimes, Michael D; Jenkins, Pamela J; Reavis, Rebel M; Grimes, Michael D, Critical Sociology 22. 1 (1996): 73-91.
The ratio of killing rates by terrorists before and after government responses is related to the death rate inflicted by authorities for seven terror campaigns analyzed by Nevin (2003): Jewish terrorists vs. British authorities, Palestine 1945-48; Arabs vs. French authorities, Morocco, 1953-56; FLN vs. French authorities, Algeria, 1954-56; IRA vs. British authorities, Northern Ireland, 1971-73; Basque ETA vs Spanish authorities, Spain, 1973-83; Tamil LTTE vs Sri Lankan authorities, Sri Lanka, 1983-87; Shining Path vs Peruvian authorities, Peru, 1991-93. Zero on the y-axis is plotted at 0.2; zero on the x-axis is plotted at 0.2.
RETALIATING AGAINST TERRORISTS: ERRATUM, REANALYSIS, AND UPDATE
Nevin, John A, Behavior and Social Issues 13. 2 (Fall 2004): 155-159.
Scholars taken from ProQuest's Community
- Elizabeth Frazer
Official Fellow/Lecturer, Department of Politics and International Relations, University of Oxford
A series of papers on the broad themes of 'what politics ought to be' and 'political virtue' by way of critical study of the thought of figures including Max Weber, Hannah Arendt, Isaiah Berlin, and also Rousseau and Wollstonecraft.
With Kim Hutchings, LSE, a series of papers on the theme of political violence and its justification, including critical study of Machiavelli, Clausewitz, Weber, Schmitt, Arendt, de Beauvoir, Merleau Ponty, Fanon, Sartre, Derrida, as well as just war theorists and feminist critics of violence.
- Richard C. Keller
Assistant Professor, African Studies Program, University of Wisconsin-Madison
Department of Medical History and Bioethics, University of Wisconsin-Madison
European and colonial medicine and public health, history of psychiatry and psychoanalysis, history of the human sciences, science and race.
Psychiatry and madness in colonial Africa, the history of modern psychiatry.
- Reiland Rabaka
Associate Professor, Department of Ethnic Studies, University of Colorado at Boulder
Associate Professor, Humanities Program, University of Colorado at Boulder
Affiliate Faculty, Women and Gender Studies Program, University of Colorado at Boulder
Dr. Rabaka's research interests include Africana philosophy, critical race theory, feminist theory, postcolonial theory, radical politics, critical social theory, critical pedagogy, and liberation theology. Included among his regular teaching topics are black abolitionism, the Black Women's Club Movement, Pan-Africanism, Negritude, black nationalism, black Marxism, the New Negro Movement, the Harlem Renaissance, the Civil Rights Movement, the Black Power Movement, the Black Women's Liberation Movement, black feminism, womanism, and Hip Hop Studies.