Resources taken from Proquest's eLibrary
The Lumiere Brothers, Louis and Auguste, at work in their Lyons laboratory. The Lumieres are generally credited with the invention of the film camera and projector, for which they received a patent on February 13, 1895.
Archive New Media, c. 1996
View of one of the first cinema projectors, manufactured by August (1862-1954) and Louis Lumiere (1864-1948)
Bridgeman, c. 2004
Poster advertising the 'Cinematographe Lumiere,' 1896 (colour litho)
Brispot, H. (1846-1928)/Bridgeman, c. 2004
Charts and Tables
Tables taken from ProQuest's International Index to Performing Arts
Fig. 8. French patents taken out yearly from 1890 to 1910 concerning pre-cinemaand cinema. Source: Institut National de la Propriete Industrielle (INPI).
How Cinema Became a Cultural Industry: The Big Boom in France Between 1905 and 1908
Meusy, Jean-Jacques, Film History 14. 3-4 (2002): 418-429.
Fig. 6. Floor plan of the new Mutual Film exchange at 1219-21 Vine Street, Philadelphia, 1917(MPW, 6 June 1917, p. 1815). [Public Library of Cincinnati and Hamilton County.]
The Origins of the Film Exchange
Alvarez, Max, Film History 17. 4 (2005): 431-465.
Patent illustration for Len Spencer's sound-and-image "Picture Apparatus", filed 12 January 1900, granted 17 April 1900.
Reconfiguring the History of Early Cinema through the Phonograph, 1877-1908
Feaster, Patrick, Film History 21. 4 (Dec 2009): 311-325.
Scholars taken from ProQuest's Community
- Marta Braun
Professor, Photographic Preservation and Collections Management, Ryerson University
Marey; Muybridge; early film history; photography and cinema; scientific cinema; photography and science; visual anthropology; early cinema technology.
- Peter J. Bloom
Assistant Professor, Center for Film, Television and New Media, University of California, Santa Barbara
Specializing in French and francophone cinema and society, his interests range from the development of international film technologies at the turn of the twentieth century to contemporary film and media in Europe and Africa. His ongoing research examines the relationship between French colonial cinema, the history of ethnographic film, postcolonial francophone visual culture, and historical practices of media production. He has presented his work internationally, curated film programs, and has published more than a dozen articles on colonial cinema, early hygiene films, francophone African cinema, and the history of French anthropology in French and English.
- Vicki Callahan
Associate Professor, Department of Art & Design, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee
Her research interests include feminist theory, silent film history, digital media, and intermedia. She is particularly engaged with work that explores new ways of writing history and theory, for example, database narratives, participatory archives, web-based interactive essays, and other parafilmic or multimodal forms of critical thought.