Examples of Functional Components
Class/Components
Source*
Potential Benefit
Cartenoids
Beta-carotene carrots, pumpkin,sweet potato, cantaloupe
neutralizes free radicals, which may damage cells; bolsters cellular antioxidant defenses;can be made into vitamin A in the body
Lutein, Zeaxanthin
kale, collards, spinach, corn, eggs, citrus
may contribute to maintenance of healthy vision
Lycopene tomatoes and processed tomato products, watermelon, red/pink grapefruit may contribute to maintenance of prostate health
Flavonoids
Anthocyanins-Cyanidin, Delphinidin, Malvidin berries, cherries, red grapes

bolsters cellular antioxidant defenses; may contribute to maintenance of brain function
Flavanols-Catechins, Epicatechins, Epigallocatechin, Procyanidins
tea, cocoa, chocolate, apples, grapes
may contribute to maintenance of heart health
Flavanones-Hesperetin, Naringenin
citrus foods
neutralize free radicals, which may damage cells; bolster cellular antioxidant defenses
Flavonols-Quercetin, Kaempferol, Isorhamnetin, Myricetin
onions, apples, tea, broccoli
neutralize free radicals, which may damage cells; bolster cellular antioxidant defenses
Proanthocyanidins cranberries, cocoa, apples, strawberries, grapes, wine, peanuts, cinnamon may contribute to maintenance of urinary tract health and heart health
Isothiocyanates
Sulforaphane

cauliflower, broccoli, broccoli sprouts, cabbage, kale, horseradish

may enhance detoxification of undesirable compounds; bolsters cellular antioxidant defenses
Minerals
Calcium**
sardines, spinach, yogurt, low-fat dairy products, fortified foods and beverages


may reduce the risk of osteoporosis
Magnesium
spinach, pumpkin seeds, whole grain breads and cereals, halibut, brazil nuts may contribute to maintenance of normal muscle and nerve function, healthy immune function, and bone health
Potassium** potatoes, low-fat dairy products, whole grain breads and cereals, citrus juices, beans, bananas may reduce the risk of high blood pressure and stroke, in combination with a low-sodium diet
Selenium fish, red meat, grains, garlic, liver, eggs neutralizes free radicals, which may damage cells; may contribute to healthy immune function
Phenolic Acids
Caffeic acid, Ferulic acid apples, pears, citrus fruits, some vegetables, coffee may bolster cellular antioxidant defenses; may contribute to maintenance of healthy vision and heart health
Plant Stanols/Sterols
Free Stanols/Sterols** corn, soy, wheat, wood oils, fortified foods and beverages
may reduce risk of CHD (Coronary Heart Disease)
Stanol/Sterol esters** fortified table spreads, stanol ester dietary supplements may reduce risk of CHD
* Examples are not an all-inclusive list.
** FDA approved health claim established for component.
*** Preformed vitamin A is found in foods that come from animals. Provitamin A carotenoids are found in many darkly colored fruits and vegetables and are a major source of vitamin A for vegetarians.
July 2006
Table reconstructed from Functional Foods. International Food Information Council Foundation. 2006. http://ific.org