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Global Positioning System (GPS) Technology and Cars
(Released April 2002 )

 
  by Chao-Hsu Yao  

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  1. Model-based systems engineering of automotive systems

    Fisher, Gerard H

    DASC - AIAA/IEEE/SAE Digital Avionics Systems Conference, 17th, Bellevue, WA, Oct. 31-Nov. 7, 1998, Proceedings. Vol. 1 (A99-28776 07-01), Piscataway, NJ, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc., 1998, p. B15-1 (7 p.)

    This paper describes the design of the Automotive Personal Assistance System (APAS) exploiting the features of the GPS, which is similar to the Cadillac OnStar System. It includes the entire systems engineering life cycle, from source requirements analysis, through behavior analysis and physical architecture, to verification and validation. The behavior model can be fully executed to verify its correctness long before money is wasted on building prototypes. The use of the model-based approach will aid in the reduction of product cost and the increase in product quality. (Author)

  2. Use of map data information in an on-board intersection violation detection system

    Pierowicz, John R

    DASC - AIAA/IEEE/SAE Digital Avionics Systems Conference, 17th, Bellevue, WA, Oct. 31-Nov. 7, 1998, Proceedings. Vol. 2 (A99-28885 07-01), Piscataway, NJ, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc., 1998, p. I25-1 to I25-6

    About 75 percent of intersection crashes may be attributed to driver errors, such as failure to observe the traffic control or driver inattention. Calspan is developing an on-board countermeasure system to prevent collisions at intersections. This effort is part of the Intersection Collision Avoidance Using IVHS Countermeasures program being sponsored by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administrations' Office of Crash Avoidance Research. A feature of this countermeasure is the detection of the intersection the vehicle is approaching, and the determination of the traffic control device at that intersection. This information is derived from an on-board geographical information system (GIS) in conjunction with vehicle position data acquired from GPS. The use of these data, combined with other vehicle state information, can be used to determine the potential for driver violation of the intersection. This paper describes the use of information from the GIS along with other vehicle parameters to provide a warning of intersection violation to the driver. Examples of the application of this technique are provided. (Author)

  3. Sensors for linear referencing [for Intelligent Transportation System]

    Goodwin, Cecil W H; Lau, John W

    Intelligent transportation systems; Proceedings of the Conference, Pittsburgh, PA, Oct. 15-17, 1997 (A98-47066 13-85), Bellingham, WA, Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE Proceedings. Vol. 3207), 1998, p. 86-93

    Two solutions to the vehicle location problem are commonly discussed for Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS): active roadside beacons and GPS satellites. This paper presents requirements for new linear referencing sensors, defined as sensors that will identify a vehicle's location along a roadway in terms of distance along the roadway from known points or by the automatic identification of known points. Requirements for linear referencing sensors come from new national location referencing standards being developed by initiatives of the U.S. DOT and from international location referencing standardization activities. Linear referencing sensors can extract information from the visual scene presented by the roadside environment, or from the environment illuminated by laser or microwave radiation. They can also be based on new, low cost techniques for labeling roads or by modulating lane reflectors or other regular road infrastructure components. Such sensors, singly and in combination, avoid the map matching problem common to vehicle navigation systems that rely on GPS, and can be deployed at much lower cost than roadside beacons, particularly when designed as one function of multipurpose in-vehicle sensors and computers. (Author)

  4. Numerical modeling of on-glass conformal automobile antennas

    Abou-Jaoude, Ramzi; Walton, Eric K

    IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation (0018-926X), vol. 46, no. 6, June 1998, p. 845-852

    This paper presents the development of computer models for the analysis of on-glass conformal automobile antennas. The numerical models used are the method of moments and the uniform geometric theory of diffraction (UTD). Models were developed to analyze antennas for LF applications (AM), antennas on a resonant vehicle structure (FM), and HF applications (cellular, GPS, radar). Calculation results are verified on the basis of measurements. (Author)

  5. High performance ACC system based on sensor fusion with distance sensor, image processing unit, and navigation system

    Baum, D; Hamann, C D; Schubert, E

    Vehicle System Dynamics [VEH SYST DYN], vol. 28, no. 6, pp. 327-338, Dec 1997

    Curve sensors used in first generation 'Adaptive Cruise Control' systems (ACC) are based on steering angle sensors, lateral accelerometers or yaw rate sensors. The disadvantage of these curve sensors is that they do not have any preview characteristics. This leads in many driving situations to misinterpretations by the ACC system, e.g. wrong path assignments of vehicles ahead because of non-constant curve radii particularly in the beginning and ending of curves. The consequence is that the ACC car brakes due to vehicles in adjacent lanes or it ignores relevant obstacles. In the following a second generation ACC system will be presented whose curve sensor is realized by a real time image processing system with the support of a GPS-based navigation system. This multi-sensor fusion system is now suitable for collision avoidance and stop and go applications.

  6. Constructing the algorithms of functioning and the research results of integrated strapdown INS of the automobile

    Plotnikov, P K; Andrijanov, V A; Nikishin, V B; Ponomarev, V G; Ramzaev, A P

    Saint Petersburg International Conference on Integrated Navigation Systems, 4th, St. Petersburg, Russia, May 26-28, 1997 (A97-30869 07-35), St. Petersburg, Russia, State Research Center of Russia Elektropribor, 1997, p. 81-95

    The theory and operation of an integrated automobile navigating system is investigated. Its inertial module is built according to the usual SISON scheme, but with low-accuracy sensors. They are fitted with noninertial nature sensors - a three-component magnetometer and a way and traveling speed sensor - as well as with GPS/GLONASS. (Author)

  7. A study on estimating car drag parameter with using GPS solutions

    Ho, Ching-Shun

    Navigation and positioning in the information age; Proceedings of the Inst. of Navigation National Technical Meeting, Santa Monica, CA, Jan. 14-16, 1997 (A97-31149 08-32), Alexandria, VA, Institute of Navigation, 1997, p. 531-535

    This paper describes an approach in applying the GPS technique to estimate drag parameters. The adopted approach consists of two parts: the estimation of car position using the least-squares (LS) method and Differential GPS (DGPS) data, and the estimation of drag parameters by processing car 3D LS position estimates using the extended Kalman filter. Two experiments of ground vehicle testing were conducted. Two Ashtech Z-12 receivers were used in collecting GPS pseudo-range data. The results show the adopted approach is appropriate. The applied models are suitable in obtaining the mechanical drag parameter with an average of 0.148 and the aerodynamic drag parameter averaging 0.000334. The estimated parameter values show a noise-corrupted behavior when bad LS solutions are encountered. The noise situation is caused by the change in satellite constellation. (Author)

  8. Enhanced GPS usage in urban environments

    Liu, Kevin; Chansarkar, Mangesh

    ION GPS-96; Proceedings of the 9th International Technical Meeting of the Satellite Division of the Institute of Navigation, Kansas City, MO, Sept. 17-20, 1996. Pt. 1 (A97-20826 04-32), Alexandria, VA, Institute of Navigation, 1996, p. 505-508

    GPS has very limited usage in urban environments today due to satellite blockage and severe multipath reflections. This has led to the use of hybrid systems to enhance its usage for car navigation. These systems use a combination of gyroscopes, odometers, and GPS. GPS usage in these systems is limited to initialization, and to reset the system if it is lost. The limitation of these systems is the cost; further, it is difficult to make these systems portable. A stand-alone car navigation GPS receiver has been developed using a low-cost chip-set with features of tracking low-level and wide dynamic range signals, fast reacquisition, and single satellite navigation for self-sufficient navigation capability, and dual multipath rejection scheme to increase the navigation accuracy. Test results have been collected during live tests in San Francisco area and emulate tests using satellite signal simulators. (Author)

  9. Comparative benefits of various automotive navigation and routing technologies

    Sweeney, Lawrence E Jr

    IEEE 1996 Position, Location and Navigation Symposium, Atlanta, GA, Apr. 22-26, 1996, Proceedings (A97-23401 05-32), Piscataway, NJ, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc., 1996, p. 415-421

    The first practical in-vehicle automotive navigation systems, introduced in 1985, used dead reckoning combined with digital map-matching to keep track of vehicle positions and to show them in real-time on digital map displays. Dead reckoning was based on wheel sensors and a magnetic compass, and map-matching was based on extremely accurate digital maps. Routing to destinations was based on vector navigation. Digital map accuracy, coverage, and completeness have all improved, and gyroscopes and electric odometers have simplified installation of dead-reckoning systems. GPS and differential GPS have provided significant navigation system improvements when combined with dead-reckoning, and enabled alternative navigation systems that operate without dead reckoning. The introduction of map databases with accurate connectivity, directionality, and turn-restriction attributes have permitted automatic computation of optimum routes as well as presentation of turn-by-turn route-guidance instructions for driving those routes. This paper describes advantages and limitations of various automobile location and routing techniques, and discusses how limitations can be overcome by combining techniques. Tradeoffs between features, performance, and cost are also presented for some specific implementations. (Author)

  10. Application of DGPS/INS to automobile navigation with latency compensation

    Grewal, M S; Farrell, J; Barth, M

    IEEE 1996 Position, Location and Navigation Symposium, Atlanta, GA, Apr. 22-26, 1996, Proceedings (A97-23401 05-32), Piscataway, NJ, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc., 1996, p. 433-436

    Differential GPS (DGPS) techniques are frequently used to correct for ranging errors common to two receivers, one of which is at a known position. One such source of error is Selective Availability (SA). A time delay (latency) is inherent between the generation of pseudorange corrections and their application by the user, and can result in large residual errors. This is especially important in applications where the corrections are sent by a low bandwidth channel. DGPS corrections lag behind standard GPS data. The data latency of the DGPS correction is a fundamental limitation on DGPS performance accuracies. These corrections can be predicted for relatively short periods of time. In this paper, an innovative methodology is developed which predicts the corrections and compensates the GPS data in real time. It also takes care of any transients in the DGPS data and/or GPS data in real time. This methodology is being applied to automobile navigation and tested in a DGPS/INS system. For these experiments, we are using a 12-channel Ashtech XII GPS Receiver. The INS system includes a three-axis fiberoptic gyro, a three-axis accelerometer, and an electronic compass. Results and the algorithm for DGPS latency calculation and compensation are presented. (Author)

  11. Compensation of gyroscope errors and GPS/DR integration

    Kim, Jinwon; Lee, Jang-Gyu; Jee, Gyu-In; Sung, Tae-Kyung

    IEEE 1996 Position, Location and Navigation Symposium, Atlanta, GA, Apr. 22-26, 1996, Proceedings (A97-23401 05-32), Piscataway, NJ, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc., 1996, p. 464-470

    In car navigation, a dead-reckoning (DR) system is required for solving the problem of GPS signal-blocking in urban areas. The vibrating gyroscope widely used to determine vehicle heading in a DR system has a low accuracy; error compensation is required. An error compensation method for a vibrating gyroscope used in DR is presented. Gyroscope errors are characterized as deterministic and random errors; each error term is mathematically modeled, and an indirect feedback Kalman filter is used for error compensation. Through laboratory experiment and field-tests, it is shown that the error of a vibrating gyroscope can be successfully compensated for by the proposed method. As an alternative method for GPS/DR integration in a case where the number of visible GPS satellites is insufficient for the correct determination of a vehicle position, a mixed-measurement algorithm is proposed by means of which, even if the number of visible GPS satellites is 2 or 3, the position error becomes smaller than by using only DR. (Author)

  12. System identification of a farm vehicle using carrier-phase differential GPS

    Elkaim, Gabriel; O'Connor, Michael; Bell, Thomas; Parkinson, Bradford

    PROC ION GPS, INST OF NAVIGATION, ALEXANDRIA, VA, (USA), 1996, vol. 1, pp. 485-494,

    The automatic operation of farm vehicles can have great benefits both in farm productivity and hazardous or impossible operations. Automatic control offers many potential improvements over human control; however, previous efforts have failed largely due to sensor limitations. Carrier Phase Differential GPS (CDGPS) is an enabling technology that provides a high-bandwidth, low-noise measurement of multiple vehicle states. System identification techniques can then be used to generate a mathematical model for automatic control system design and implementation. In this work, previous controls research on a large tractor test bed is extended to demonstrate two different methods of system identification. Using a priori knowledge of the tractor dynamics, an extended Kalman filter is implemented and demonstrates model parameter identification. A Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR) controller, based on these parameters, performs closed loop line tracking with a demonstrated error of better than 1.8 cm standard deviation. The same data is used with the Observer/Kalman Filter Identification (OKID) method, which assumes no a priori information about the system dynamics. It is shown that the estimator/controller designed with this system demonstrates equivalent experimental performance. The OKID methodology differs from the extended Kalman filter by utilizing solely the input and output streams to determine the structure and order of the plant model.

  13. In search of cybernautics

    Crow, Steven; Et Al

    In Arizona Univ., Transportation Beyond 2000: Technologies Needed for Engineering Design p 59-82 (SEE N96-26302 09-01)

    This is a talk about the future of aviation in the information age. Ages come and go. Certainly the atomic age came and went, but the information age looks different. This talk reviews some recent experiments on navigation and control with the Global Positioning System. Vertical position accuracies within 1 foot have been demonstrated in the most recent experiments, and research emphases have shifted to issues of integrity, continuity, and availability. Inertial navigation systems (INS) contribute much to the reliability of GPS-based autoland systems. The GPS data stream can cease, and INS can still complete a precision landing from an altitude of 200 feet. The future of aviation looks like automatic airplanes communicating among each other to schedule ground assets and to avoid collisions and wake hazards. The business of the FAA will be to assure integrity of global navigation systems, to develop and maintain the software rules of the air, and to provide expert pilots to handle emergencies from the ground via radio control. The future of aviation is democratic and lends itself to personal airplanes. Some data analyses reveal that personal airplanes are just as efficient as large turbofan transports and just as fast over distances up to 1,000 miles, thanks to the decelerative influence of the hub and spoke system. Maybe by the year 2020, the airplane will rank with the automobile and computer as an agent of personal freedom. (Author (revised))

  14. GPS Moving Vehicle Experiment

    Oaks, O J; Reid, Wilson; Wright, James; Duffey, Christopher; Williams, Charles; Warren, Hugh; Zeh, Tom; Buisson, James

    In Naval Research Lab., 27th Annual Precise Time and Time Interval (PTTI) Applications and Planning Meeting p 397-408 (SEE N96-31579 12-70)

    The Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) in the development of timing systems for remote locations, had a technical requirement for a Y code (SA/AS) Global Positioning System (GPS) precise time transfer receiver (TTR) which could be used both in a stationary mode or mobile mode. A contract was awarded to the Stanford Telecommunication Corporation (STEL) to build such a device. The Eastern Range (ER) als had a requirement for such a receiver and entered into the contract with NRL for the procurement of additional receivers. The Moving Vehicle Experiment (MVE) described in this paper is the first in situ test of the STEL Model 5401C Time Transfer System in both stationary and mobile operations. The primary objective of the MVE was to test the timing accuracy of the newly developed GPS TTR aboard a moving vessel. To accomplish this objective, a joint experiment was performed with personnel from NRL and the er at the Atlantic Undersea Test and Evaluation Center (AUTEC) test range at Andros Island. Results and discussion of the test are presented in this paper. (Author)

  15. Precursor Systems Analyses of Automated Highway Systems. Carrier Phase GPS for AHS Vehicle Control: Resource Materials

    Galijan, R C

    NASA no. 19980015370

    This report describs the results of a PSA contract awarded to SRI International to analyze applications of advanced Global Positioning System (GPS) measurement techniques to provide data for lateral and longitudinal control of AHS vehicles. The report includes: (1) a review of control sensor requirements suggested by other PSA contractors and AHS researchers; (2) an indepth discussion of GPS principles of operation, advanced techniques for achieving extremely accurate GPS positioning and velocity data, and techniques for augmenting GPS to provide continuous high-accuracy data; (3) current and expected GPS capabilities and performance; (4) a review of other proposed sensor types for providing lateral and longitudinal control data; (5) a description of a notional architecture and operation of an AHS incorporating GPS; and (6) a preliminary evaluation by SRI of GPS operation in a typical AHS roadway environment.

  16. NAVSTAR Global Positioning System. (Latest citations from the INSPEC Database)

    NASA no. 19980003961

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the global system of navigation satellites developed to provide immediate and accurate worldwide three-dimensional positioning by air, land, and sea vehicles equipped with appropriate receiving equipment. The citations examine developments, accuracy, and applications of the NAVSTAR system, including uses for marine navigation, truck fleet management, aircraft navigation, weapon delivery systems, and automobile navigation.

  17. Making the best with GPS in car applications

    Moussa, Ralph

    ION GPS-95; Proceedings of the 8th International Technical Meeting of the Satellite Division of the Institute of Navigation, Palm Springs, CA, Sept. 12-15, 1995. Pt. 2 (A96-15026 02-17), Alexandria, VA, Institute of Navigation, 1995, p. 1819-1823

    Since several years, European car manufacturers have done common work in order to improve safety and efficiency of transports. This was the goal of the Program for an European Traffic with Highest Efficiency and Unprecedented Safety. First steps consisted in examining existing localization systems like Loran-C, Syledis, and map-matching technique. As GPS became reasonable for car applications from the economic point of view, some projects have been launched to evaluate the ability to satisfy the technical requirements. RENAULT and PSA have been involved in two studies with French electronic suppliers, with the following goals: to develop the algorithms taking the best advantage of GPS (natural or differential), hybridized with low cost dead-reckoning sensors (magnetic heading or gyrometer), in order to meet the levels of precision and fix availability required by car applications, like guidance systems or fleet management, and to realize prototypes and the measurement methodology to analyze the performances in various environments (city center, urban area, etc.) and to perform experiments on the Paris area. The results of these experiments show a significant improvement of the precision and the fix availability, compared to stand-alone GPS or DGPS. Hence the fix availability may be permanent and the fix precision may reach the few meters level, even in a very difficult environment. (Author)

  18. Mobile mapping technology for GIS data collection

    Novak, Kurt

    PE&RS - Photogrammetric Engineering & Remote Sensing (0099-1112), vol. 61, no. 5, May 1995, p. 493-501

    In 1989 the Center for Mapping of The Ohio State University (OSU) established a major research program that focuses on the development of mobile mapping systems. These devices capture a comprehensive set of land-related data from airplanes, cars, or trains. Spatial positions and attributes of objects are extracted automatically on the mobile platform or during post-processing, and are immediately transferred to a multimedia geographic database. The motivation for the development of mobile mapping technologies was fostered by the need of current and accurate spatial data for geographic information systems. This article investigates different concepts of mobile data acquisition systems which were designed and implemented at OSU. (Author)

  19. GPS modeling for designing aerospace vehicle navigation systems

    Dougherty, John J; El-Sherief, Hossny; Simon, Daniel J; Whitmer, Gary A

    IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic Systems (0018-9251), vol. 31, no. 2, Apr. 1995, p. 695-705

    The complexity of the design of a GPS user segment, as well as the performance demanded of the components, depends on user requirements such as total navigation accuracy. Other factors, such as the expected satellite/vehicle geometry or the accuracy of an accompanying inertial navigation system, can also affect the user segment design. Models of GPS measurements are used to predict user segment performance at various levels. Design curves are developed which illustrate the relationship between user requirements, the user segment design, and component performance. (Author)

  20. Accurate global positioning via fuzzy logic Kalman filter-based sensor fusion technique

    Kobayashi, Kazuyuki; Cheok, KaC; Watanabe, Kajiro; Munekata, Fumio

    IECON PROC, IEEE, LOS ALAMITOS, CA, (USA), 1995, vol. 2, pp. 1136-1141,

    The ability to determine accurate global position of a vehicle has many useful commercial and military applications. Differential Global Positioning System (DGPS) is one of the practical navigation tools used for this purpose. However, DGPS has limitations arising from slow updates, signal interference and limited accuracy. This paper describes how vehicle rate sensor can be used to help a DGPS overcome these limitations. The theoretical background for the sensor fusion is based on the principle of Kalman filtering and a Fuzzy Logic scheme. Validity of the method was examined by using experimental data from an actual automobile navigating around an urban area. The results demonstrated that the path of the automobile can be continuously traced with high accuracy and repeatability.

  21. Integrated GPS and dead reckoning for low-cost vehicle navigation and tracking

    Mattos, Philip G

    VEH NAVIG INF SYST CONF, IEEE, PISCATAWAY, NJ, (USA), 1994, pp. 569-574,

    GPS for the private car, which spends most of its time in cities, requires augmentation by DR sensors. Comparative results are given for GPS alone, loosely coupled with DR, and tightly coupled, based on tests in Paris and England. An implementation is described where GPS, DR, route planning algorithms and map display can all run on a single CPU at minimal cost.

  22. GPS aided dead reckoning navigation

    Zickel, Robert; Nahemia, Nahum

    Navigating the earth and beyond; Proceedings of the 1994 National Technical Meeting, San Diego, CA, Jan. 24-26, 1994 (A95-22921 05-32), Alexandria, VA, Institute of Navigation, 1994, p. 577-586

    The paper describes a simple low-cost navigation system for the automotive industry. The position accuracy is obtained by merging the position of dead reckoning (DR) algorithm with GPS measurements via a Kalman filter. The approach used for land navigation may be applied to maritime and aerial navigation, taking into account sea streams and wind effects. In wide open spaces GPS positioning will dominate, while in urban zones where GPS signals are obstructed, dead reckoning will be used between GPS position fixes. Simulation studies and covariance analysis show that the proposed method gives better performance than stand-alone GPS or DR. The heading accuracy is improved, the odometer's scale factor estimate is improved, and thus the ability to navigate while losing GPS signals is much better. There is also an improvement in the navigation accuracy while using GPS. (Author)

  23. Positioning and communication systems.

    Drane, C R

    PROC 93 IEEE INT SYMP INF THEOR., IEEE, IEEE SERVICE CENTER, PISCATAWAY, NJ (USA), 1993, p. 157,

    Positioning systems are devices that measure the position of remote objects. Examples include radars, sonars, the Global Positioning Systems (GPS) and vehicle tracking systems. This paper shows how a multilink and multidimensional positioning system can be partitioned into its various component parts, so allowing the results from conventional communication theory to be directly applied to positioning systems.

  24. Integration of GPS with dead reckoning for vehicle tracking applications

    Geier, Jeffrey G; Heshmati, Ardalan; McLain, Patricia; Johnson, Kelly; Murphy, Michael

    PROC ANNU MEET INST NAVIG, INST OF NAVIGATION, ALEXANDRIA, VA, (USA), 1993, pp. 75-82,

    An introductory section of the paper will briefly review the navigation requirements to support vehicle tracking; this introduction will serve to motivate the sensors selected for the navigation system which is the subject of the paper. This system integrates a low cost gyro with a low cost GPS receiver and an interface to the vehicle's odometer. Since the gyro is the critical component of the dead reckoning subsystem, the source selection process for the gyro will be briefly reviewed. Following this, a description of the algorithms which were used in integrating the GPS and dead reckoning information will be described. Test experiences with the system in major urban areas will then be presented.

  25. National Telesystems Conference, Atlanta, GA, June 16, 17, 1993, Proceedings

    Piscataway, NJ, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc., 1993

    The present volume discusses optical communications, intelligent vehicle highway systems, personal communications/cellular telephone systems, and satellite communications. Attention is given to aircraft navigation/enhanced vision systems, data/video /audio compression and digital satellite transmission, space navigation/GPS, and radar. Other topics addressed include sensor signal processing, antennas, and telemetry and remote sensing. (AIAA)

  26. Low cost dead reckoning sensors.

    Phillips, Alan C

    PROC NATL TECH MEET INST NAVIG., INST OF NAVIGATION, ALEXANDRIA, VA (USA), 1993, pp. 145-150,

    The objective of the work reported in this paper was to develop low cost sensors for consumer automobile navigation. This paper describes the electronic and the mechanical design of the sensors. Some aspects of the designs are covered by three Etak patents. A fluxgate compass an inclinometer and a two axes rate gyro were developed with an objective to reduce manufacturing cost enabling their use in a low cost consumer product. Very practical sensors having low cost were successfully developed. The fluxgate compass is compact, low powered, and requires no adjustment during manufacturing. A two axes inclinometer and a two axes rate gyro sharing the capabilities of a combined analog/digital CMOS ASIC provide performance equal to other available sensors of similar performance at a fraction of the cost. The ASIC provides the gyro output in digital form eliminating the customary requirement for a high resolution A/D converter. Low power and ruggedness are also features of the gyro. A high performance vehicle navigation system using dead-reckoning and map-matching can be made with sensors costing less than $50. This dead-reckoning capability is also a cost effective addition to systems using GPS to fill in for times when GPS is inaccurate due to signal disturbances caused by shielding of satellites by buildings, trees, etc.

  27. Automatic vehicle location (AVL) communication methods for DGPS based systems.

    Sushko, Michael S K

    PROC NATL TECH MEET INST NAVIG., INST OF NAVIGATION, ALEXANDRIA, VA (USA), 1993, pp. 179-194,

    Automatic Vehicle Location (AVL) systems are now becoming feasible using GPS as the primary positioning/location system. To make AVL useful for vehicle tracking, it will be necessary to get vehicle position updates on a timely basis to a central site. To maintain the necessary DGPS correction and the vehicle position rates, it is going to place a load on the data communication system. In AVL systems, the data communication links are most important part and will determine if the AVL system successfully works. Traditional forms of VHF and UHF data communication methods using mobile radio and packet data modems are reviewed in this paper. The paper also reviews using existing cellular networks with a cellular modem product as a possible data communication link. The promising new radio-packet services such as Motorola's ARDIS network and RAM Mobile Data's MOBITEX service will be examined in detail. These services offer radio-packet data services in all major cities and are designed to handle large amounts of data message traffic. However, some of issues with these services is the cost and the real-time message delays.

  28. The NavTrax fleet management system.

    McLellan, James F; Krakiwsky, Edward J; Schleppe, John B; Knapp, Paul L

    REC IEEE PLANS POSITION LOCAT NAVIG SYMP., IEEE, IEEE SERVICE CENTER, PISCATAWAY, NJ (USA), 1992, pp. 509-515,

    The NavTrax System, a dispatch-type automatic vehicle location and navigation system, is discussed. Attention is given to its positioning, communication, digital mapping, and dispatch center components. The positioning module is a robust GPS (Global Positioning System)-based system integrated with dead reckoning devices by a decentralized-federated filter, making the module fault tolerant. The error behavior and characteristics of GPS, rate gyro, compass, and odometer sensors are discussed. The communications module, as presently configured, utilizes UHF radio technology, and plans are being made to employ a digital cellular telephone system. Polling and automatic smart vehicle reporting are also discussed. The digital mapping component is an intelligent digital single line road network database stored in vector form with full connectivity and address ranges. A limited form of map matching is performed for the purposes of positioning, but its main purpose is to define location once position is determined.

  29. The first GPS satellite radio optimized for automatic vehicle location.

    Rothblatt, Martin

    REC IEEE PLANS POSITION LOCAT NAVIG SYMP., IEEE, IEEE SERVICE CENTER, PISCATAWAY, NJ (USA), 1992, pp. 524-527,

    A GPS (Global Positioning System) radio designed to serve the needs of the automatic vehicle location (AVL) market is discussed. Market research revealed several key demands for an AVL GPS radio: (i) minimization of urban building blockage; (ii) easy programmability to minimize mobile data transmission costs; (iii) high accuracy for streetmap level coordination; (iv) interface capability with nondigital specialized mobile radios; and (v) selling price close to that of alternatives such as Signposts and Loran-C. The developed system operates at high accuracy in an urban environment and is plug-compatible with nearly all vehicle radios. Among the engineering and productization breakthroughs described are a unique approach to satellite tracking, enabling up to 8 GPS satellites to be used for position determination with a two-channel receiver, and a receiver-in-a-microdome design. A powerful application-specific integrated circuit has enabled MARCO to bring GPS within the easy reach of millions of AVL users such as bus, taxi, and delivery vehicle fleets.

  30. Differential GPS control of Starcar 2

    Crow, Steven C; Manning, Frank L

    In: Institute of Navigation, National Technical Meeting, San Diego, CA, Jan. 27-29, 1992, Proceedings (A93-21176 06-04)

    This paper assesses the ability of the Navstar Global Positioning System to guide a robotic vehicle with precision. To secure accurate positional estimates, we use differential GPS positions and Doppler velocities, combined in a filter that exploits the high accuracy of velocity data. A model of vehicle dynamics overcomes a time lag of GPS fixes, which amounts to 1.5 sec even for an advanced six-channel sensor. The system attains positional accuracies around 1 m along each horizontal axis with no changes of satellites and 2 m over long periods. The system is able to steer a car around a 400-m track so accurately that the laps merge into common pixels on a video display. (Author)

  31. An integrated car navigation system using a single processor for GPS signal processing, positioning, map display, and reporting

    Mattos, Philip G

    In ESA, Environment Observation and Climate Modelling Through International Space Projects. Navigation and Mobile Communications. Image Processing, GIS, and Space-Assisted Mapping p 141-145 (SEE N93-23507 08-43)

    GPS (Global Positioning Systems) engines are now available at around 400 dollars. This is both too high for the car manufacturer, and too low to entice new players into the marine market. Integrating the application work into the GPS processor reduces costs by a very large margin, saving processor, ROM's (Read Only Memories), RAM (Random Access Memory) and interfacing. Novel map handling techniques, and low cost LCD (Liquid Crystal Displays), mean that the entire map display and GPS sensor can execute on the same CPU (Central Processing Unit). The position reporting role, where the driver has no display, is even simpler, as much of the work can be delegated to the central base station, allowing a single 16 bit transputer, with only a single ROM and no external RAM to fulfil the task. (ESA)

  32. Conceptual design of a Starcar

    CROW, S T E V E N C

    SAE, General, Corporate, and Regional Aviation Meeting and Exposition, Wichita, KS, Apr. 9-11, 1991. 27 p.

    Design concepts for Starcars, transformer vehicles that function as automobiles or airplanes, are reported. A Starcar is a composition of three components: passenger module, road module, and sky module. The Starcar examples considered include a radio-controlled GPS platform about 30 inches long and a Dodge Caravan equipped with a GPS sensor, central processor, radio modem data link, and step-motor controls. Conceptual design details including engine type, materials, performance and weight are enumerated. (V.I.)

  33. The use of GPS for automatic vehicle location and fleet management - A reliable and economic system for the 90's [Utilisation du GPS pour la localisation automatique des vehicules et la gestion des flottes - Un systeme sur et economique pour les annees 90]

    DENARO, R O B E R T P

    (Royal Institute of Navigation, Colloquium on Land Navigation and Information Systems, Warwick, England, Sept. 18-20, 1990) Navigation (Paris) , vol. 39, Jan. 1991, p. 33-52.

    This paper offers an approach to an integrated automatic vehicle location (AVL) system that integrates GPS with communications links, auxiliary dead reckoning sensors, and modern workstation implementation of a control and location monitoring center. The actual implementation of this AVL system in a municipal bus operation is described, along with other fleet management applications. Then, further details are provided on Trimble's development of the AVL system that uses a deep integration where the dead reckoning subsystem is continually calibrated by the GPS measurements when GPS is available; then the dead reckoning continues alone with newly calibrated drift parameters when the GPS signal is interrupted. (R.E.P.)

  34. A dual-mode Kalman filter for vehicle tracking with translated GPS

    Kanyuck, Allen J

    ION GPS-90; Proceedings of the 3rd International Technical Meeting of the Satellite Division of the Institute of Navigation, Colorado Springs, CO, Sept. 19-21, 1990 (A92-16926 04-17). Washington, DC, Institute of Navigation, 1990, p. 335-344.

    The design and tuning of the Kalman filter installed in the Translator Processing System deployed at the USAKA installation in the Marshall Islands, and currently tracking a variety of target vehicles, is described. This filter is unique in that it has two modes of operation: a special mode for tracking ballistic vehicles, and a mode for tracking dynamic vehicles. A survey of tracking data from recent missions is presented to define the exceptional tracking accuracies being achieved with this dual-mode filter. (R.E.P.)

  35. Institute of Navigation, Annual Meeting, 46th, Atlantic City, NJ, June 26- 28, 1990, Proceedings.

    Conference supported by Institute of Navigation, Canadian Marconi Co., Delco Electronics Corp., et al. Washington, DC, Institute of Navigation, 1990, 229 p.

    Topics presented include test results of GPS integration with Carrier Aircraft Inertial Navigation System, the Decimeter Positioning System, safety implications of automobile navigation systems, and precision electronic navigation in restricted waterways. Also presented are marine inertial navigation into the 21st century, some environmental effects on the differential GPS, the effect of geometry on integrity monitoring performance, and production development of small fiber optic gyros. (R.E.P.)

  36. Integration of a GPS-receiver and a stereo-vision system in a vehicle.

    Novak, K

    CLOSE-RANGE PHOTOGRAMMETRY MEETS MACHINE VISION., 1990, vol. 1395, pp. 16-23

    The US Federal Highway Administration and the Center for Mapping of The Ohio State University are developing a prototype mapping vehicle that integrates a stereo-vision system, a GPS receiver, and some other sensors, to automatically collect data of the environment of roads at highway speeds and store this information in a GIS. Thirty eight states and one Canadian province are sponsoring this effort together with NASA. The author discusses the integration of the stereo-vision system with a GPS-receiver and an inertial system in a mobile workstation.

  37. Performance and operation of selected aspects of GPS/Host Vehicle integration schemes

    Barckley, K; Dedoes, D; Sinha, P

    Institute of Navigation, Technical Meeting, 1st, Colorado Springs, CO, Sept. 21-25, 1987, Proceedings (A88-37376 15-04). Washington, DC, Institute of Navigation, 1987, p. 36-43.

    During the Phase III Program, Global Positioning System (GPS) User Equipment (UE) will be produced and integrated into various Host Vehicle (HV) platforms to enhance navigation performance. In particular, the synergistic benefits of integrating GPS with other sensors, e.g., inertial navigation systems (INS) will be exploited to achieve precise navigation and to provide augmented capabilities for each system viz., in-flight alignment for the INS, and improved anti-jam margin and rapid signal acquisition for GPS. This paper outlines several possible schemes for integrating GPS with other on-board systems under the constraints of the available Phase III User Equipment interfaces and examines selected aspects of the integrations. These include: Operation of dual Kalman filter configurations; effects of GPS position and (or) velocity data incorporation rates on HV navigation performance including INS ground and air alignments; use of covariance versus Expected Position Error (EPE) and Expected Vertical Error (EVE) to characterize GPS measurements; and effects of INS resets on GPS. (Author)

  38. On estimating map model errors and GPS position errors: Applying more science to the art of navigation

    Kielland, P; Tubman, T

    Navigation, vol. 41, no. 4, pp. 479-499, 1994

    To decide whether a desired maneuver can or cannot be undertaken safely, a prudent navigator must be aware of both the current spatial uncertainty of the vehicle's positioning system and the spatial uncertainty of the navigational map model being used to depict the theater of operations. This paper discusses the electronic chart (EC) implications of both GPS vessel positioning errors and the relatively large data modeling errors specific to bathymetric map models (charts). It proposes and demonstrates software solutions that statistically evaluate both of these spatial uncertainties and graphically integrates the two stochastic models within an EC environment. The depicted estimates of bathymetric map model errors were computed using a modified kriging algorithm that interpolates both a gridded seafloor model and a stochastic surface that describes the fidelity of this model. This algorithm is being developed as part of an international effort to define quality standards for digital bathymetric data. The paper also describes how GPS real-time position error estimates were validated experimentally, and how enhancements to the estimation algorithm were devised.

  39. Constructing the algorithms of functioning and the research results of integrated strapdown INS of the automobile

    Plotnikov, P K; Andrijanov, V A; Nikishin, V B; Ponomarev, V G; Ramzaev, A P

    Saint Petersburg International Conference on Integrated Navigation Systems, 4th, St. Petersburg, Russia, May 26-28, 1997 (A97-30869 07-35), St. Petersburg, Russia, State Research Center of Russia Elektropribor, 1997, p. 81-95

    The theory and operation of an integrated automobile navigating system is investigated. Its inertial module is built according to the usual SISON scheme, but with low-accuracy sensors. They are fitted with noninertial nature sensors - a three-component magnetometer and a way and traveling speed sensor - as well as with GPS/GLONASS. (Author)

  40. System identification of a farm vehicle using carrier-phase differential GPS

    Elkaim, Gabriel; O'Connor, Michael; Bell, Thomas; Parkinson, Bradford

    PROC ION GPS, INST OF NAVIGATION, ALEXANDRIA, VA, (USA), 1996, vol. 1, pp. 485-494,

    The automatic operation of farm vehicles can have great benefits both in farm productivity and hazardous or impossible operations. Automatic control offers many potential improvements over human control; however, previous efforts have failed largely due to sensor limitations. Carrier Phase Differential GPS (CDGPS) is an enabling technology that provides a high-bandwidth, low-noise measurement of multiple vehicle states. System identification techniques can then be used to generate a mathematical model for automatic control system design and implementation. In this work, previous controls research on a large tractor test bed is extended to demonstrate two different methods of system identification. Using a priori knowledge of the tractor dynamics, an extended Kalman filter is implemented and demonstrates model parameter identification. A Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR) controller, based on these parameters, performs closed loop line tracking with a demonstrated error of better than 1.8 cm standard deviation. The same data is used with the Observer/Kalman Filter Identification (OKID) method, which assumes no a priori information about the system dynamics. It is shown that the estimator/controller designed with this system demonstrates equivalent experimental performance. The OKID methodology differs from the extended Kalman filter by utilizing solely the input and output streams to determine the structure and order of the plant model.

  41. Integration of GPS with dead reckoning for vehicle tracking applications

    Geier, Jeffrey G; Heshmati, Ardalan; McLain, Patricia; Johnson, Kelly; Murphy, Michael

    PROC ANNU MEET INST NAVIG, INST OF NAVIGATION, ALEXANDRIA, VA, (USA), 1993, pp. 75-82,

    An introductory section of the paper will briefly review the navigation requirements to support vehicle tracking; this introduction will serve to motivate the sensors selected for the navigation system which is the subject of the paper. This system integrates a low cost gyro with a low cost GPS receiver and an interface to the vehicle's odometer. Since the gyro is the critical component of the dead reckoning subsystem, the source selection process for the gyro will be briefly reviewed. Following this, a description of the algorithms which were used in integrating the GPS and dead reckoning information will be described. Test experiences with the system in major urban areas will then be presented.

  42. Integration of a GPS-receiver and a stereo-vision system in a vehicle.

    Novak, K

    CLOSE-RANGE PHOTOGRAMMETRY MEETS MACHINE VISION., 1990, vol. 1395, pp. 16-23

    The US Federal Highway Administration and the Center for Mapping of The Ohio State University are developing a prototype mapping vehicle that integrates a stereo-vision system, a GPS receiver, and some other sensors, to automatically collect data of the environment of roads at highway speeds and store this information in a GIS. Thirty eight states and one Canadian province are sponsoring this effort together with NASA. The author discusses the integration of the stereo-vision system with a GPS-receiver and an inertial system in a mobile workstation.