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The Environmental Impact of Meat
(Released January 2012)

  by Ethan Goffman  


Key Citations



Key Citations Short Format Full Format
  1. Determination of environmental impacts of antimicrobial usage for US Northern Great Plains swine-production facilities: a life-cycle assessment approach

    James J. Stone, Katherine R. Aurand, Christopher R. Dollarhide, et al.

    The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, Vol. 16, No. 1, Jan 2011, pp. 27-39.

    This study used life-cycle assessment (LCA) methodology to examine the environmental effects associated with sub-therapeutic tylosin and chlortetracycline (CTC) antimicrobial use within US Northern Great Plains (NGP) swine-production facilities. Antimicrobial feed-additive use is widespread within this industry and is expected to play an integral role within future carbon-management strategies due to its ability to increase feed efficiency and control disease. The LCA model system boundaries for this study were: (1) antimicrobial manufacturing; (2) feed manufacturing; (3) transport of antimicrobials to the feed-mill and completed feed to the swine-production facility; (4) electricity and propane use associated with swine-production operations; and (5) swine enteric and manure-storage and handling emissions. The functional unit is the growth life cycle of one head of swine from starter (7 kg) to finisher (111 kg market weight; "wean-to-finish") production stages. Environmental impacts considered include global warming, acidification and eutrophication, ecotoxicity, and fossil-fuel use following EcoIndicator 99 assessment methodology. High-estimated energy requirements associated with CTC and tylosin manufacturing, coupled with the large transportation distances to the feed manufacturing and swine-production facilities increased climate change and ecotoxicity impacts compared with a no antimicrobial-use scenario. However, feeding CTC resulted in several local positive changes including increased feed utilization, lower producer costs due to shortened production times, and reduced manure greenhouse gas emissions. These positive changes in the local environment however did not offset negative global impacts associated with material manufacturing and transport for the specific scenarios analyzed. Increased use of renewable-energy sources for both swine and antimicrobial production resulted in net environmental enhancement. This study demonstrates both the beneficial and negative environmental aspects associated with sub-therapeutic antimicrobial within the swine-production industry, and provides swine producers and environmental practitioners with tangible alternatives for meeting both livestock-health management and future carbon-management constraints within a reduced-carbon-emission consumer and regulatory marketplace. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT]

  2. Entomophagy and human food security

    R. T. Gahukar.

    International Journal of Tropical Insect Science, Vol. 31, No. 3, Sep 2011, pp. 129-144.

    Food security is a problem in many developing and less developed countries due to increase in human population and decrease in crop productivity and food availability. Edible insects are a natural renewable resource of food providing carbohydrates, proteins, fats, minerals and vitamins. As such, entomophagy is common in ethnic groups in South America, Mexico, Africa and Asia, where indigenous insects are easily available and are consumed in various forms (raw/processed) or used as an ingredient or supplement in modern recipes. Entomophagy therefore offers an opportunity to bridge the protein gap of human foods irrespective of a few constraints that are discussed. Concerning food security, more attention is needed to assess and revalidate entomophagy in the context of modern life. Further research would be necessary to exploit insect biodiversity and ethno-entomophagy, stop overexploitation of these insects, and initiate actions for insect conservation. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT]

  3. Environmental impacts of changes to healthier diets in Europe

    Arnold Tukker, RAlexandra Goldbohm, Arjan De Koning, et al.

    Ecological Economics, Vol. 70, No. 10, Aug 15, 2011, pp. 1776-1788.

    Food consumption causes, together with mobility, shelter and the use of electrical products, most life cycle impacts of consumption. Meat and dairy are among the highest contributors to environmental impacts from food consumption. A healthier diet might have less environmental impacts. Using the E3IOT environmentally extended input output database developed in an EU study on Environmental Impacts of Products (EIPRO), this paper estimates the difference in impacts between the European status quo and three simulated diet baskets, i.e. a pattern according to universal dietary recommendations, the same pattern with reduced meat consumption, and a 'Mediterranean' pattern with reduced meat consumption. Production technologies, protein and energy intake were kept constant. Though this implies just moderate dietary shifts, impact reductions of up to 8% were possible in reduced meat scenarios. The slightly changed food costs do not lead to significant first order rebound effects. Second order rebounds were estimated by applying the CAPRI partial equilibrium model. This analysis showed that European meat production sector will most likely respond by higher exports to compensate for losses on the domestic meat market. Higher impact reductions probably would need more drastic diet changes.

  4. Environmental Impacts of Cultured Meat Production

    Hanna L. Tuomisto and de Mattos, M Joost Teixeira.

    Environmental Science & Technology, Vol. 45, No. 14, Jul 15, 2011, pp. 6117.

    Cultured meat (i.e., meat produced in vitro using tissue engineering techniques) is being developed as a potentially healthier and more efficient alternative to conventional meat. Life cycle assessment (LCA) research method was used for assessing environmental impacts of large-scale cultured meat production. Cyanobacteria hydrolysate was assumed to be used as the nutrient and energy source for muscle cell growth. The results showed that production of 1000 kg cultured meat requires 26-33 GJ energy, 367-521 m... water, 190-230 m... land, and emits 1900-2240 kg CO...-eq GHG emissions. In comparison to conventionally produced European meat, cultured meat involves approximately 7-45% lower energy use (only poultry has lower energy use), 78-96% lower GHG emissions, 99% lower land use, and 82-96% lower water use depending on the product compared. Despite high uncertainty, it is concluded that the overall environmental impacts of cultured meat production are substantially lower than those of conventionally produced meat. (ProQuest: ... denotes formulae/symbols omitted.)

  5. Grassland systems of red meat production: integration between biodiversity, plant nutrient utilisation, greenhouse gas emissions and meat nutritional quality

    L. E. R. Dawson, P. O'Kiely, A. P. Moloney, et al.

    Animal: an International Journal of Animal Bioscience, Vol. 5, No. 9, Sep 2011, pp. 1432-1441.

    Government policies relating to red meat production take account of the carbon footprint, environmental impact, and contributions to human health and nutrition, biodiversity and food security. This paper reviews the impact of grazing on these parameters and their interactions, identifying those practices that best meet governments' strategic goals. The recent focus of research on livestock grazing and biodiversity has been on reducing grazing intensity on hill and upland areas. Although this produces rapid increases in sward height and herbage mass, changes in structural diversity and plant species are slower, with no appreciable short-term increases in biodiversity so that environmental policies that simply involve reductions in numbers of livestock may not result in increased biodiversity. Furthermore, upland areas rely heavily on nutrient inputs to pastures so that withdrawal of these inputs can threaten food security. Differences in grazing patterns among breeds increase our ability to manage biodiversity if they are matched appropriately to different conservation grazing goals. Lowland grassland systems differ from upland pastures in that additional nutrients in the form of organic and inorganic fertilisers are more frequently applied to lowland pastures. Appropriate management of these nutrient applications is required, to reduce the associated environmental impact. New slurry-spreading techniques and technologies (e.g. the trailing shoe) help reduce nutrient losses but high nitrogen losses from urine deposition remain a key issue for lowland grassland systems. Nitrification inhibitors have the greatest potential to successfully tackle this problem. Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are lower from indoor-based systems that use concentrates to shorten finishing periods. The challenge is to achieve the same level of performance from grass-based systems. Research has shown potential solutions through the use of forages containing condensed tannins or establishing swards with a high proportion of clover and high-sugar grasses. Relative to feeding conserved forage or concentrates, grazing fresh grass not only reduces GHG emissions but also enhances the fatty acid composition of meat in terms of consumer health. It is possible to influence biodiversity, nutrient utilisation, GHG emissions and the nutritional quality of meat in grass-based systems, but each of these parameters is intrinsically linked and should not be considered in isolation. Interactions between these parameters must be considered carefully when policies are being developed, in order to ensure that strategies designed to achieve positive gains in one category do not lead to a negative impact in another. Some win-win outcomes are identified. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT]

  6. How does co-product handling affect the carbon footprint of milk? Case study of milk production in New Zealand and Sweden

    Anna Flysjö, Christel Cederberg, Maria Henriksson and Stewart Ledgard.

    The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, Vol. 16, No. 5, Jun 2011, pp. 420-430.

    This paper investigates different methodologies of handling co-products in life cycle assessment (LCA) or carbon footprint (CF) studies. Co-product handling can have a significant effect on final LCA/CF results, and although there are guidelines on the preferred order for different methods for handling co-products, no agreed understanding on applicable methods is available. In the present study, the greenhouse gases (GHG) associated with the production of 1 kg of energy-corrected milk (ECM) at farm gate is investigated considering co-product handling. Two different milk production systems were used as case studies in the investigation of the effect of applying different methodologies in co-product handling: (1) outdoor grazing system in New Zealand and (2) mainly indoor housing system with a pronounced share of concentrate feed in Sweden. Since the cows produce milk, meat (when slaughtered), calves, manure, hides, etc., the environmental burden (here GHG emissions) must be distributed between these outputs (in the present study no emissions are attributed to hides specifically, or to manure which is recycled on-farm). Different methodologically approaches, (1) system expansion (two cases), (2) physical causality allocation, (3) economic allocation, (4) protein allocation and (5) mass allocation, are applied in the study. The results show large differences in the final CF number depending on which methodology has been used for accounting co-products. Most evident is that system expansion gives a lower CF for milk than allocation methods. System expansion resulted in 63-76% of GHG emissions attributed directly to milk, while allocation resulted in 85-98%. It is stressed that meat is an important by-product from milk production and that milk and beef production is closely interlinked and therefore needs to be considered in an integrated approach. To obtain valid LCA/CF numbers for milk, it is crucial to account for by-products. Moreover, if CF numbers for milk need to be compared, the same allocation procedure should be applied.[PUBLICATION ABSTRACT]

  7. Livestock and the Environment

    Paul Karaimu.

    Issues, Vol. 94, Mar 2011, pp. 44-45.

    The authors say that even though livestock production is already harming some environments, with such damage likely to increase in some regions in coming years due to an increasing demand from rapidly expanding populations in the developing world, new research-based options for livestock production can help improve both the livelihoods and environments of hundreds of millions of very poor people who raise farm animals or sell or consume their milk, meat and eggs.

  8. Prospectus of cultured meat—advancing meat alternatives

    Zuhaib Fayaz Bhat and Hina Fayaz.

    Journal of Food Science and Technology, Vol. 48, No. 2, Apr 2011, pp. 125-140.

    The in vitro production of meat is probably feasible with existing tissue engineering techniques and may offer health and environmental advantages by reducing environmental pollution and land use associated with current meat production systems. By culturing loose myosatellite cells on a substrate, it is probably possible to produce cultured meat by harvesting mature muscle cells after differentiation and processing them into various meat products. Besides reducing the animal suffering significantly, it will also ensure sustainable production of designer, chemically safe and disease free meat with favourable nutritional profile as the conditions in an in vitro meat production system are controlled and manipulatable. However, the production of highly-structured, unprocessed meat faces considerably greater technical challenges and a great deal of research is still needed to establish a sustainable in vitro meat culturing system on an industrial scale. This review discusses the requirements that need to be met to increase the feasibility of meat production in vitro, which include finding an appropriate stem cell source and being able to grow them in a three dimensional environment inside a bioreactor, providing essential cues for proliferation and differentiation. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT]

  9. Accounting for water use in Australian red meat production

    Greg M. Peters, Stephen G. Wiedemann, Hazel V. Rowley and Robyn W. Tucker.

    The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, Vol. 15, No. 3, Mar 2010, pp. 311-320.

    Life cycle assessment (LCA) and life cycle inventory (LCI) practice needs to engage with the debate on water use in agriculture and industry. In the case of the red meat sector, some of the methodologies proposed or in use cannot easily inform the debate because either the results are not denominated in units that are meaningful to the public or the results do not reflect environmental outcomes. This study aims to solve these problems by classifying water use LCI data in the Australian red meat sector in a manner consistent with contemporary definitions of sustainability. We intend to quantify water that is removed from the course it would take in the absence of production or degraded in quality by the production system. The water used by three red meat supply systems in southern Australia was estimated using hybrid LCA. Detailed process data incorporating actual growth rates and productivity achieved in two calendar years were complemented by an input-output analysis of goods and services purchased by the properties. Detailed hydrological modelling using a standard agricultural software package was carried out using actual weather data. The model results demonstrated that the major hydrological flows in the system are rainfall and evapotranspiration. Transferred water flows and funds represent small components of the total water inputs to the agricultural enterprise, and the proportion of water degraded is also small relative to the water returned pure to the atmosphere. The results of this study indicate that water used to produce red meat in southern Australia is 18-540 L/kg HSCW, depending on the system, reference year and whether we focus on source or discharge characteristics. Two key factors cause the considerable differences between the water use data presented by different authors: the treatment of rain and the feed production process. Including rain and evapotranspiration in LCI data used in simple environmental discussions is the main cause of disagreement between authors and is questionable from an environmental impact perspective because in the case of some native pastoral systems, these flows may not have changed substantially since the arrival of Europeans. Regarding the second factor, most of the grain and fodder crops used in the three red meat supply chains we studied in Australia are produced by dryland cropping. In other locations where surface water supplies are more readily available, such as the USA, irrigation of cattle fodder is more common. So whereas the treatment of rain is a methodological issue relevant to all studies relating water use to the production of red meat, the availability of irrigation water can be characterised as a fundamental difference between the infrastructure of red meat production systems in different locations. Our results are consistent with other published work when the methodological diversity of their work and the approaches we have used are taken into account. We show that for media claims that tens or hundreds of thousands of litres of water are used in the production of red meat to be true, analysts have to ignore the environmental consequences of water use. Such results may nevertheless be interesting if the purpose of their calculations is to focus on calorific or financial gain rather than environmental optimisation. Our approach can be applied to other agricultural systems. We would not suggest that our results can be used as industry averages. In particular, we have not examined primary data for northern Australian beef production systems, where the majority of Australia's export beef is produced.[PUBLICATION ABSTRACT]

  10. Agriculture and the Environment; Researchers from Democritus University describe findings in agriculture and the environment


    Food Weekly Focus, No. 1944-1738, Jul 29, 2010, pp. 314.

    According to recent research from Greece, European Union is an important world player in sheep meat production and trade.

  11. Comparing environmental impacts for livestock products: A review of life cycle assessments

    M. de Vries.

    Livestock science., Vol. 128, No. 1-3, Mar 2010, pp. 1-11.

    Livestock production has a major impact on the environment. Choosing a more environmentally-friendly livestock product in a diet can mitigate environmental impact. The objective of this research was to compare assessments of the environmental impact of livestock products. Twenty-five peer-reviewed studies were found that assessed the impact of production of pork, chicken, beef, milk, and eggs using life cycle analysis (LCA). Only 16 of these studies were reviewed, based on five criteria: study from an OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development) country, non-organic production, type of LCA methodology, allocation method used, and definition of system boundary. LCA results of these 16 studies were expressed in three ways: per kg product, per kg protein, and per kg of average daily intake of each product for an OECD country. The review yielded a consistent ranging of results for use of land and energy, and for climate change. No clear pattern was found, however, for eutrophication and acidification. Production of 1kg of beef used most land and energy, and had highest global warming potential (GWP), followed by production of 1kg of pork, chicken, eggs, and milk. Differences in environmental impact among pork, chicken, and beef can be explained mainly by 3 factors: differences in feed efficiency, differences in enteric CH4 emission between monogastric animals and ruminants, and differences in reproduction rates. The impact of production of 1kg of meat (pork, chicken, beef) was high compared with production of 1kg of milk and eggs because of the relatively high water content of milk and eggs. Production of 1kg of beef protein also had the highest impact, followed by pork protein, whereas chicken protein had the lowest impact. This result also explained why consumption of beef was responsible for the largest part of the land use and GWP in an average OECD diet. This review did not show consistent differences in environmental impact per kg protein in milk, pork, chicken and eggs. Only one study compared environmental impact of meat versus milk and eggs. Conclusions regarding impact of pork or chicken versus impact of milk or eggs require additional comparative studies and further harmonization of LCA methodology. Interpretation of current LCA results for livestock products, moreover, is hindered because results do not include environmental consequences of competition for land between humans and animals, and consequences of land-use changes. We recommend, therefore, to include these consequences in future LCAs of livestock products.

  12. Environmental impact evaluation of conventional, organic and organic-plus poultry production systems using life cycle assessment


    World's poultry science journal, Vol. 66, No. 1, Mar 2010, pp. 95-114.

    The concept of environmental sustainability is crucial for the development of human actions, and it is one of the most important concerns of the European Union that requires attention in all of the economic sectors. In particular, the potential environmental impact of livestock is well known and has been one of the most important constraints on the development of animal breeding in certain areas. The main aim of this paper is to compare the environmental impact of different poultry production systems: conventional, organic and organic-plus. Organic-plus has more restrictive requirements than the organic system for improving animal welfare (i.e., use of slow-growing strains and 10 m2 pasture/bird), and the quality of the product. For environmental evaluation, life cycle assessment (LCA) has been used in this review, which is a method to evaluate the environmental impact of products, activities and services, based on a 'cradle-to-grave' approach. This article provides information for improving the environmental impacts in a process of assessing the sustainability that is specific for poultry production. An important recommendation can be drawn from this study: great attention has to be paid to the feed production phase, since it contributes more to the systems than animal rearing does to the environmental impact of the overall system. With reference to the comparison among the systems, our results show that the organic system has the best environmental performance because it not only has the lowest impact values for two of the most important impact categories (i.e., respiratory inorganics and fossil fuels), but it also has the lowest values for most of the remaining categories. LCA provides important data and specific indicators that can be used in a wider process for the analysis of sustainability, and to adapt and improve production systems. Taking into account the entire life cycle, the organic system has shown a better environmental performance than the organic-plus system. On the other hand, the organic-plus system improves animal welfare and meat quality, which are not considered by LCA. Therefore, to reach an equilibrium among all of these factors (namely environment protection, animal welfare and meat quality), it would be necessary to find a production system that conciliates them into one coherent scheme. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT]

  13. Feed people, not cattle, UN panel urges; Growing population and agriculture's environmental impact create the potential for 'disaster'

    Margaret Munro.

    The Vancouver Sun, No. 08321299, Jun 2, 2010, pp. B.4.

    "In the case of food, rising affluence is triggering a shift in diets towards meat and diary products — livestock now consumes much of the world's crops and by inference a great deal of freshwater, fertilizers and pesticides linked with that crop production in the first place," German scientist Ernst von Weizsaecker, cochairman of the International Panel for Sustainable Resource Management said.

  14. Genotype-environment interactions for growth and carcass traits in different pig breeds kept under conventional and organic production systems

    H. Brandt, D. N. Werner, U. Baulain, W. Brade and F. Weissmann.

    Animal: an International Journal of Animal Bioscience, Vol. 4, No. 4, Apr 2010, pp. 535-544.

    The demand for special breeding programmes for organic pig meat production is based on the assumption that pigs kept under organic conditions need different biological properties compared with conventionally kept pigs in order to achieve a good performance. This would mean that genotype-environment interactions exist. Therefore, 682 pigs of seven different genotypes were tested for growth performance and carcass quality under conventional and organic environments at two testing stations to verify genotype-environment interactions. All genotypes achieved significantly better results within the conventional environment and there were significant interactions between genotype and environment for all the criteria of growth performance and carcass quality. The interactions are mainly caused by varying differences between organic and conventional systems within genotypes, but for all traits, except weight gain, no major shift of the ranking order within environment between genotypes. Although statistically significant genotype-environment interactions exist, the modern genotypes selected under conventional conditions are also superior to indigenous breeds under organic conditions in economically important traits. Hence, it can be concluded from these results that no special breeding programme is necessary for organic production systems. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT]

  15. Impact of organic pig production systems on CO sub(2) emission, C sequestration and nitrate pollution

    Niels Halberg, John E. Hermansen, Ib Sillebak Kristensen, Joergen Eriksen, Niels Tvedegaard and Bjoern Molt Petersen.

    Agronomy for Sustainable Development, Vol. 30, No. 4, Mar 31, 2010, pp. 721-731.

    Organic rules for grazing and access to outdoor areas in pig production may be met in different ways, which express compromises between considerations for animal welfare, feed self-reliance and negative environmental impact such as greenhouse gas emissions and nitrate pollution. This article compares the environmental impact of the main organic pig systems in Denmark. Normally, sows are kept in huts on grassland and finishing pigs are raised in stables with access to an outdoor run. One alternative practice is also rearing the fattening pigs on grassland all year round. The third method investigated was a one-unit pen system mainly consisting of a deep litter area under a climate tent and with restricted access to a grazing area. Using life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology, the emissions of greenhouse gases of the free range system were estimated to be 3.3 kg CO sub(2)-equivalents kg super(-1) live weight pig, which was significantly higher than the indoor fattening system and the tent system, yielding 2.9 and 2.8 kg CO sub(2)-eq. kg super(-1) pig, respectively. This was 7-22% higher compared with Danish conventional pig production but, due to the integration of grass-clover in the organic crop rotations these had an estimated net soil carbon sequestration. When carbon sequestration was included in the LCA then the organic systems had lower greenhouse gas emissions compared with conventional pig production. Eutrophication in nitrate equivalents per kg pig was 21-65% higher in the organic pig systems and acidification was 35-45% higher per kg organic pig compared with the conventional system. We conclude that, even though the free range system theoretically has agro-ecological advantages over the indoor fattening system and the tent system due to a larger grass-clover area, this potential is difficult to implement in practice due to problems with leaching on sandy soil. Only if forage can contribute to a larger proportion of the pigfeed uptake may the free range system be economically and environmentally competitive. Improvement of nitrogen cycling and efficiency is the most important factor for reducing the overall environmental load from organic pig meat. Presently, a system with pig fattening in stables and concrete-covered outdoor runs seems to be the best solution from an environmental point of view.

  16. Meat and Morality: Alternatives to Factory Farming

    Evelyn B. Pluhar.

    Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics, Vol. 23, No. 5, 2010, pp. 455-468.

    Scientists have shown that the practice of factory farming is an increasingly urgent danger to human health, the environment, and nonhuman animal welfare. For all these reasons, moral agents must consider alternatives. Vegetarian food production, humane food animal farming, and in-vitro meat production are all explored from a variety of ethical perspectives, especially utilitarian and rights-based viewpoints, all in the light of current U.S. and European initiatives in the public and private sectors. It is concluded that vegetarianism and potentially in-vitro meat production are the best-justified options.[PUBLICATION ABSTRACT]

  17. The Meat Crisis: Developing More Sustainable Production and Consumption

    Joyce D'Silva and John Webster.

    Earthscan Publications Ltd., 2010.

    Meat and dairy production and consumption are in crisis. Globally 60 billion farm animals are used for food production every year. It is well accepted that methane emissions from cattle and other livestock are major contributors to greenhouse gas levels and to climate change. The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) predicts a rough doubling of meat and milk consumption by 2050, with particularly rapid growth occurring in the developing economies of Asia. This could raise the number of farm animals used annually to nearer 120 billion. This powerful and challenging book explores these issues surrounding the global growth in the production and consumption of meat and dairy animals and products, including cultural and health factors, and the implications of the likely intensification of farming for both small-scale producers and for the animals. Several chapters explore the related environmental issues, from resource use of water, cereals and soya, to the impact of livestock production on global warming and issues concerning biodiversity, land use and the impacts of different farming systems on the environment. A final group of chapters addresses ethical and policy implications for the future of food and livestock production and consumption.

  18. Prolonged expression and production of Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxin A in processed pork meat

    Nina Wallin-Carlquist, Dora Marta, Elisabeth Borch and Peter Raadstroem.

    International journal of food microbiology, Vol. 141, No. 0168-1605, Jul 31, 2010, pp. S69-S74.

    The bacteriophage-encoded staphylococcal enterotoxin A (SEA) is the toxin most frequently reported to be involved in staphylococcal food poisoning. In this study, sea expression and SEA formation were studied in four processed pork products: boiled ham, hot-smoked ham, Serrano ham (dry-cured Spanish ham) and black pepper salami. The products were selected because of their differences in intrinsic factors. As a reference, Staphylococcus aureus was cultivated under favorable planktonic growth conditions. Expression was mainly linked to bacterial growth for both meat products and broth cultures. In liquid broth, however, the relative level of sea mRNA peaked in the late exponential phase and then rapidly declined, while in the meat products allowing immediate growth, i.e. boiled and smoked ham, active sea expression occurred throughout the incubation period of seven days. Lower levels of sea mRNA and SEA were found in smoked ham compared to boiled ham, although viable counts of S. aureus on the two products were similar. Furthermore, the SEA concentration in the boiled ham reached a maximum after three days of incubation and then unpredictably decreased. In the Serrano ham, no increase in cell number was observed until day seven, and sea expression and extracellular SEA could only be detected on days five and seven. Finally, the black pepper salami with low pH and competing microbiota proved to be a difficult environment for the survival of S. aureus. The molecular mechanism behind the behaviour of S. aureus SEA expression is discussed in connection to the life-cycle of the SEA-encoding bacteriophage and the microbial communities in these pork products.

  19. Brazilian Pig Production: Environmental Licensing


    Revista de Politica Agricola, Vol. 18, No. 4, Oct 2009, pp. 18-28.

    Studies of various international agencies indicate Brazil as the biggest supplier in animal protein to the world. This position will be reach between 2015 & 2020. Nowadays, the country is the biggest in the exportation of beef & poultry, & pig meat will be an important commodity because it is the most consumed around the world. The pig production provides social & economical benefits, but if manage in an incorrect way, has a big environmental impact. One of instruments that society has to regulate the relation between pig production & environment are environmental legislation. Brazil has a recent history about these laws, but should evaluate & analyze them in the present to produce with environmental security. Analyzing the environmental legislation in other countries that regulate the pig production & the cultural, social, & economical Brazilian conditions will allow to delineate tendencies to environmental regulation of this activity. This analyze will enable to food chain subsidies to them take decisions in a pro-active and preventive manner to the environmental future of Brazilian pig production. Adapted from the source document.

  20. Development of an environment-friendly feeding management for pond-reared fish species in the Segara Anakan Lagoon, Java, Indonesia

    Edy Yuwono and Purnama Sukardi.

    Regional Environmental Change, Vol. 9, No. 4, Dec 2009, pp. 329-333.

    Inefficient feeding practices for producing fish in captivity create environmental problems. Therefore, the feed input should be reduced to a level that does not result in negative impacts of fish production. Reducing feed input can be done by periodic feed deprivation which does not necessarily decrease the fish production. This study was designed to investigate the effect of repeated unfed-fed cycles on the growth and feed utilization of the orange-spotted grouper Epinephelus coioides raised in floating net cages in estuarine ponds. The trial was conducted in the north east of Segara Anakan, Java, Indonesia. The fish were purchased from local fishermen and mean fish body weight was 53.2 g. After acclimation in the cages for 2 weeks, 500 fish were randomly assigned to four feeding groups. The groups included: fish fed daily as a control (C); fish not fed every Monday and Thursday and fed on Tuesday and Wednesday, then on Friday, Saturday and Sunday (T1); fish unfed every Sunday, Monday and Thursday and fed on Tuesday and Wednesday, then on Friday and Saturday (T2). The experiment ran for 10 weeks. The results showed that reducing feed input by repeating unfed-fed cycles induced compensatory growth of the fish. Application of this feeding regime provides flexibility in feeding management and may reduce organic discharge into the environment. Reduction of organic pollution should help the sustainable use and conservation of the Segara Anakan ecosystem. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT]

  21. Exponential Growth, Animal Welfare, Environmental and Food Safety Impact: The Case of China's Livestock Production

    Peter J. Li.

    Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics, Vol. 22, No. 3, 2009, pp. 217-240.

    Developmental states are criticized for rapid "industrialization without enlightenment." In the last 30 years, China's breathtaking growth has been achieved at a high environmental and food safety cost. This article, utilizing a recent survey of China's livestock industry, illustrates the initiating role of China's developmental state in the exponential expansion of the country's livestock production. The enthusiastic response of the livestock industry to the many state policy incentives has made China the world's biggest animal farming nation. Shortage of meat and dairy supply is history. Yet, the Chinese government is facing new challenges of no less a threat to political stability. Production intensification has created a welfare crisis impacting the world's biggest number of farm animals. The resulting food safety incidents are affecting consumer confidence and health. Untreated waste contributes to the nation's environmental degradation. Developmental states may have a proud record of growth in the initial stage of industrialization. Their prospects for sustained development have long been questioned. China has come to an important juncture to march towards a sustained development. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT]

  22. Land use and cover change in Japan and Tokyo's appetite for meat

    Tatiana Gadda and Alexandros Gasparatos.

    Sustainability Science, Vol. 4, No. 2, Oct 2009, pp. 165-177.

    Urban consumption of ecosystems services such as food generates environmental impacts at different geographical scales. In the last few decades Tokyoites have shown an increasing appetite for meat. This study examines the environmental implications of Tokyo's increasing meat consumption by analyzing how this trend has affected land use and cover change in areas near and far away. Historical databases (1970-2005) are employed in order to explore meat consumption patterns in Tokyo and to relate it with beef and pork production in areas within the country and abroad. It also integrates the historical analysis of production and consumption patterns with a discussion of the drivers (e.g., wealth, price, policies and seafood availability) behind these trends. We identified that meat production in Japan followed three distinct phases between 1877 and 2005. In the first period it took 50 years for production to increase by 50%, while during the next phase production showed the same growth in just half the time. Major changes in land use/cover change because of domestic meat production occurred mainly during the second phase and, thereafter, when domestic production declined and was substituted to a great extent by imports. Despite the increasing consumption of imported meat, Tokyo relies greatly on domestic meat produced in its neighboring prefectures. The paper concludes that regional planning can be used as an effective instrument to protect the environment and secure protein for the population of mega-urban areas such as Tokyo. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT]

  23. Water and its role in food and health security – the importance of water to food production

    Åsa K. Wahlquist BAgSc.

    Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 18, No. 4, Dec 2009, pp. 501-6.

    Water is vital to food production: every calorie of plant food requires at least one litre of water, while one calorie of meat or dairy product can require up to 10 litres of water. Water is supplied either through rainfall or through irrigation. Irrigated agriculture uses 18 per cent of agricultural land, and produces 40 per cent of agricultural products. But urbanisation, agricultural land degradation, the mandating of biofuels, drought and climate change are reducing the amount of water available to agriculture. The green revolution of last century doubled cereal production with only a very small increase in land. This century we need a blue revolution, a dramatic increase in the amount of food produced from irrigation or blue water. The blue revolution must be based on knowledge, with that knowledge accessible, and useful, to farmers in both the developed and developing world.

  24. Antibiotic resistance genes and identification of staphylococci collected from the production chain of swine meat commodities

    D. Simeoni, L. Rizzotti, P. Cocconcelli, S. Gazzola, F. Dellaglio and S. Torriani.

    Food microbiology., Vol. 25, No. 0740-0020, February 2008, pp. 196-201.

    Staphylococci harbouring antibiotic resistance (AR) genes may represent a hazard for human health and, as other resistant food-related bacteria, they contribute to the spread of AR. In this study, we isolated resistant staphylococci from an entire swine production chain and investigated the occurrence of 11 genes [aac(6')Ie-aph(2")Ia, blaZ, mecA, vanA, vanB, ermA, ermB, ermC, tet(M), tet(O) and tet(K)] encoding resistance to some antibiotics largely used in clinical practice. The 66 resistant staphylococcal isolates were identified as Staphylococcus epidermidis (27 isolates), Staphylococcus aureus (12), Staphylococcus xylosus (12), Staphylococcus simulans (5), Staphylococcus pasteuri (4), Staphylococcus carnosus (3), Staphylococcus lentus (2) and Staphylococcus sciuri (1). Specific-PCR detection of AR genes showed the prevalence of the tet(K) gene in most of the isolates (89.4%), followed by tet(M) and ermC (about 75%); mecA was detected in more than half of S. aureus and S. epidermidis isolates. The genes vanA and vanB were not retrieved. It was found that a high proportion of coagulase-positive and -negative isolates are multidrug-resistant and some of them carry up to six AR genes. Our findings show that the swine production chain is a source of antibiotic-resistant staphylococci suggesting the importance of resistance surveillance in the food production environment.

  25. Feeding livestock food residue and the consequences for the environmental impact of meat

    E. V. Elferink, S. Nonhebel and H. C. Moll.

    Journal of Cleaner Production, Vol. 16, No. 12, 2008, pp. 1227-1233.

    The environmental impact of meat is high mainly due to the feed required by livestock in combination with the impacts of cultivating, transporting and processing of feed crops such as tapioca and grains. Like regular feed crops, livestock also feed on residue from the food industry, such as pulp, scrap and peels. Both types of raw material have different environmental impacts. Feeding food residue to livestock is an efficient way to upgrade a low quality material into high quality foods. In the Netherlands, food residue represents the majority of the feedstock for feed. Distinguishing crops from food residue has consequences for the ascribed environmental impact of meat. This paper separates these two streams using volume, environmental impact and their relevance in meat production. An assessment is made of three food industries (sugar beet industry, vegetable oil industry and potato product industry) that produce the largest stream of food residue, and of the pork industry, as an example of meat production. The environmental impact of food residue-based feed is allocated in three different ways: mass ratio, economic basis, and no assigned burden. We found that the amount of pork produced from food residue is substantial. The environmental impact of food residue-based feed is also significantly lower than grain-based feed. We discuss changes in vegetable and in animal product consumption that influence the environmental impact of pork. It is concluded that the use of current food residue keeps the environmental impact of livestock foods relatively low. However, a further increase in meat consumption would require more feed grains with a correspondingly larger environmental impact because food residues are used up.

  26. Lowering meat consumption good for health, environment


    Miramichi Leader, May 19, 2008, pp. B.8.

    Food First's Frances Moore Lapp says to imagine sitting down to an eight- ounce steak. "Then imagine the room filled with 45 to 50 people with empty bowls... For the feed cost of your steak, each of their bowls could be filled with a full cup of cooked cereal grains." Harvard nutritionist Jean Mayer says that reducing U.S. meat production 10 per cent would free grain to feed 60 million people. "There is no question that the choice to become a vegetarian or lower meat consumption is one of the most positive lifestyle changes a person could make in terms of reducing one's personal impact on the environment," says Christopher Flavin of the Worldwatch Institute. "The resource requirements and environmental degradation associated with a meat-based diet are very substantial."

  27. Meeting the Demand: An Estimation of Potential Future Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Meat Production

    Nathan Fiala.

    Ecological Economics, Vol. 67, No. 3, Oct 2008, pp. 412-419.

    Current production processes for meat products have been shown to have a significant impact on the environment, accounting for between 15% and 24% of current greenhouse gas emissions. Meat consumption has been increasing at a fantastic rate and is likely to continue to do so into the future. If this demand is to be met, technology used in production in the form of Confined Animal Feeding Operations (CAFOs) will need to be expanded. This paper estimates future meat consumption and discusses the potential aggregate environmental impact of this production if the use of CAFOs is expanded. I first separate meat into beef, chicken and pig products and estimate the elasticities associated with each product in order to forecast the world demand for meat. Using research on the environmental impact of food production in the US, which uses one of the most efficient CAFO processes in the world, I then calculate the total potential greenhouse emissions of this meat production and discuss the impact of these consumption patterns. I find that, under an expanded CAFO system, meat production in the future will still be a large producer of greenhouse gases, accounting for up to 6.3% of current greenhouse gas emissions in 2030.

  28. Agriculture and the Developing World: Intensive Animal Production, a Growing Environmental Problem

    Andrew Manale.

    Georgetown International Environmental Law Review, Vol. 19, No. 4, Summer 2007, pp. 809-816.

    With growing wealth comes a growing appetite for meat and other products of livestock. Meat is what economists call a luxury good; as people in developing countries improve their income, they want more of it. The world demand for meat and meat products comes, however, with unintended environmental cost. Unless mitigating measures are adopted, the environment will suffer with less wildlife habitat and deteriorating air and water quality. In conclusion, the adoption of modern livestock production technologies by the developing world and the global trade in grains to feed the livestock help meet growing consumer demand for meat and livestock products. Trade improves the standard of living. However, increased production of livestock where large amounts of grain must be imported as feed can also bring adverse environmental consequences. New laws or agreements on trade can fix these problems and avoid the creation of waste.

  29. An economic analysis of the human health impacts of antibiotic use in food animal production and the demand for antibiotic-free meat.

    David M. Kennedy.

    Dissertation Abstracts International. Vol. 68, no. 04, suppl. A, 186 p. 2007.

    The potential for antibiotic-resistant bacteria to pass from animals to humans is thought to increase with the aggregate use of antibiotics, and routine feeding of antibiotics is considered by some to be a leading factor in the development of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in food animals and the subsequent transfer of antibiotic resistance to humans. Enough evidence has accumulated that the practice of feeding antibiotics to food animals has been banned in several countries as a precautionary measure, and bans have been seriously considered in the United States. This dissertation develops a framework for evaluating the merits of policy in the United States designed to improve human health by eliminating the nontherapeutic use of antibiotics in food animal production, and further investigates consumer demand for antibiotic-free meat. Following a risk assessment approach, cost of illness estimates are derived for antibiotic-resistant Campylobacter and Salmonella. While antibiotic resistance increases the costs of illness for these two diseases, the increase in costs is shown to be small relative to the overall cost of infection with Salmonella and Campylobacter. Furthermore, differences in both the types of antibiotics used and the manner in which they are used suggest that it is unlikely that banning a particular use will have a substantial effect on antibiotic-resistant infections in humans. A model of differentiated products is developed where consumers are heterogeneous in their aversion to modern food animal production practices and producers are heterogeneous in the savings they achieve from the use of these practices. The model is used to estimate the potential size of the market for antibiotic-free beef and to assess the price, quantity and welfare effects on consumers and producers that would result from banning nontherapeutic antibiotic use in beef production. Results indicate that, even under fairly optimistic assumptions about consumer willingness to pay a premium, the market for antibiotic-free beef will remain relatively small. Furthermore, a ban on the nontherapeutic use of antibiotics in beef production would be costly to producers and consumers, with costs likely greater than the value of the potential human-health benefit.

  30. Microbial challenges of poultry meat production

    N. M. BOLDER.

    World's poultry science journal, Vol. 63, No. 3, Sep 2007, pp. 401-411.

    Food safety and shelf-life are both important microbial concerns in relation to broiler meat production. Focus is mainly placed on the absence or control of potentially pathogenic microbes such as Salmonella and Campylobacter but, from commercial point of view, other spoilage bacteria also play a role. Regarding food safety, the primary target should be the production of pathogen-free live animals, thereby allowing slaughter plants to keep the processing line free of those micro-organisms. Pathogen-free feed is fundamental in obtaining such conditions, as is the Good Hygienic Practice in farming, including grand parent stock (GPS), parent stock (PS) and hatcheries. Interventions in the slaughter plant cannot always completely remove pathogens. However there are some measures of control available, including separation of flocks, carcass decontamination and implementing a balanced and operational HACCP system. Shelf-life is closely linked to food safety during processing. The developments towards in-line processing, including chilling, portioning and deboning, allows optimal control. It minimizes processing time and product to product contact, and thus increases shelf-life and limits cross contamination. Refrigeration conditions are very important and an interruption of the refrigeration chain can accelerate microbial growth. Modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) may contribute in controlling the undesired growth of spoilage organisms, and can play a role in food safety as well. The consumer needs to be educated in how to deal with food of animal origin that cannot be produced in an entirely sterile environment, in order to ensure shelf-life and correct preparation and use. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT]

  31. Socioeconomic Consequences of Mercury Use and Pollution

    Edward B. Swain, Paul M. Jakus, Glenn Rice and Frank Lupi.

    Ambio, Vol. 36, No. 1, Feb 2007, pp. 45-61.

    In the past, human activities often resulted in mercury releases to the biosphere with little consideration of undesirable consequences for the health of humans and wildlife. This paper outlines the pathways through which humans and wildlife are exposed to mercury. Fish consumption is the major route of exposure to methylmercury. Humans can also receive toxic doses of mercury through inhalation of elevated concentrations of gaseous elemental mercury. We propose that any effective strategy for reducing mercury exposures requires an examination of the complete life cycle of mercury. This paper examines the life cycle of mercury from a global perspective and then identifies several approaches to measuring the benefits of reducing mercury exposure, policy options for reducing Hg emissions, possible exposure reduction mechanisms, and issues associated with mercury risk assessment and communication for different populations. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT]

  32. Impacts of Novel Protein Foods on Sustainable Food Production and Consumption: Lifestyle Change and Environmental Policy

    Xueqin Zhu and Ekko C. van Ierland.

    Environmental and Resource Economics, Vol. 35, No. 1, Sep 2006, pp. 59-59.

    We analyse the impacts of a change in consumers' preference for Novel Protein Foods (NPFs), i.e. a lifestyle change with respect to meat consumption, and the impacts of environmental policies e.g. tradable emission permits for greenhouse gases (GHGs) or an EU ammonia (NH 3) emission bound per hectare. For our analysis we use a global applied general equilibrium (AGE) model that includes consumers' lifestyle change, different production systems, emissions from agricultural sectors, and an emission permits system. Our study leads to the following conclusions. Firstly, more consumption of NPFs assists in reducing global agricultural emissions of methane (CH 4), nitrous oxides (N2O) and NH 3. However, because of international trade, emission reduction does not necessarily occur in the regions where more NPFs are consumed. Secondly, through lifestyle change of the 'rich', the emission reduction is not substantial because more 'intermediate' consumers will increase their meat consumption. Finally, for the same environmental target the production structure changes towards less intensive technologies and more grazing under environmental policy than under lifestyle change. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT]

  33. Environmental Assessment of Plant Protection Strategies Using Scenarios for Pig Feed Production

    Christel Cederberg, Maria Wivstad, Peter Bergkvist, Berit Mattsson and Kjell Ivarsson.

    Ambio, Vol. 34, No. 4/5, Jun 2005, pp. 408-13.

    Two scenarios for future pig meat production were constructed. The first was a "business as usual" scenario, where the pig feed was based on domestic grain and imported soy-meal, and no efforts were made to reduce pesticide use. The second scenario had a strong environmental focus, and both peas and rapeseed were grown at pig-farm level to produce grain and protein feed. Preventive measures, such as a more diverse crop rotation and mechanical weed control, were combined to reduce pesticide use. The two scenarios were environmentally assessed by Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) and a pesticide risk indicator model (PRI-Farm). The results showed environmentally sound possibilities to reduce pesticide dependency and risks by using altered plant protection strategies in pig-feed production. Organizing on-farm feed production so that protein feed crops are integrated with grain crops contributes to a more diverse crop rotation. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT]

  34. Environmental Systems Analysis of Pig Production – The Impact of Feed Choice (12 pp)

    Ingrid Strid Eriksson, Helena Elmquist, Susanne Stern and Thomas Nybrant.

    The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, Vol. 10, No. 2, Mar 2005, pp. 143-154.

    The purpose of this environmental system analysis was to investigate the impact of feed choice in three pig production scenarios using substance flow models complemented by life cycle assessment methodology. The function of the system studied was to grow piglets of 29 kg to finished pigs of 115 kg. Three alternative scenarios of protein supply were designed, one based on imported soybean meal (scenario SOY); one based on locally grown peas and rapeseed cake (scenario PEA) and one based on Swedish peas and rapeseed meal complemented by synthetic amino acids (scenario SAA). The environmental impact of both feed production as such and the subsequent environmental impact of the feed in the pig production sub-system were analysed. The analysed feed ingredients were barley, wheat, peas, rapeseed meal, rapeseed cake, soybean meal and synthetic amino acids. The crude protein level of the feed affected the nitrogen content in the manure, which in turn affected nitrogen emissions throughout the system and the fertilising value of the manure, ultimately affecting the need for mineral fertiliser application for feed production. The results showed that feed production contributed more than animal husbandry to the environmental burden of the system for the impact categories energy use, global warming potential and eutrophication, whereas the opposite situation was the case for acidification. The environmental impacts of scenarios SOY, PEA and SAA were 6.8, 5.3 and 6.3 MJ/kg pig growth; 1.5, 1.3 and 1.4 kg CO2-eq/kg pig growth; 0.55, 0.55 and 0.45 kg O2-eq/kg pig growth; and 24, 25 and 20 g SO2-eq/kg pig growth, respectively. The results suggested that scenario SAA was environmentally preferable, and that the reason for this was a low crude protein level of the feed and exclusion of soybean meal from the feed. Feed choice had an impact on the environmental performance of pig meat production, not only via the features of the feed as fed to the pigs, such as the crude protein content, but also via the raw materials used, since the environmental impact from the production of these differs and since feed production had a large impact on the system as a whole.[PUBLICATION ABSTRACT]

  35. Cross-National Meat and Fish Consumption: Exploring the Effects of Modernization and Ecological Context

    Richard York and Marcia Hill Gossard.

    Ecological Economics, Vol. 48, No. 3, Mar 2004, pp. 293-302.

    Production and consumption of meat and fish have serious consequences for global food security and the environment. An understanding of the factors that influence meat and fish consumption is important for developing a sustainable food production and distribution system. For a sample of 132 nations, we use ordinary-least-squares (OLS) regression to assess the effects of modernization and ecological context on per capita meat and fish consumption. We find that ecological conditions in a nation, such as resource availability and climate, influence meat and fish consumption. Additionally, indicators of modernization, particularly economic development, influence the consumption of both meat and fish. However, the effect of economic development on consumption patterns is distinctly different among geographic regions. We conclude that in order to understand national dietary patterns, researchers need to take into account not only ecological context and economic development, but also regional/cultural factors.

  36. Impact of Microbial Ecology of Meat and Poultry Products on Predictions from Exposure Assessment Scenarios for Refrigerated Storage

    ME Coleman, S. Sandberg and SA Anderson.

    Risk Analysis, Vol. 23, No. 1, Feb 2003, pp. 215-228.

    A novel extension of traditional growth models for exposure assessment of food-borne microbial pathogens was developed to address the complex interactions of competing microbial populations in foods. Scenarios were designed for baseline refrigeration and mild abuse of servings of chicken broiler and ground beef. Our approach employed high-quality data for microbiology of foods at production, refrigerated storage temperatures, and growth kinetics of microbial populations in culture media. Simple parallel models were developed for exponential growth of multiple pathogens and the abundant and ubiquitous nonpathogenic indigenous microbiota. Monte Carlo simulations were run for unconstrained growth and growth with the density-dependent constraint based on the "Jameson effect," inhibition of pathogen growth when the indigenous microbiota reached 10 super(9) counts per serving. The modes for unconstrained growth of the indigenous microbiota were 10 super(8), 10 super(10), and 10 super(11) counts per serving for chicken broilers, and 10 super(7), 10 super(9), and 10 super(11) counts per serving for ground beef at respective sites for backroom, meat case, and home refrigeration. Contamination rates and likelihoods of reaching temperatures supporting growth of the pathogens in the baseline refrigeration scenario were rare events. The unconstrained exponential growth models appeared to overestimate L. monocytogenes growth maxima for the baseline refrigeration scenario by 1500-7233% (10 super(6)-10 super(7) counts/serving) when the inhibitory effects of the indigenous microbiota are ignored. The extreme tails of the distributions for the constrained models appeared to overestimate growth maxima 110% (10 super(4)-10 super(5) counts/serving) for Salmonella spp. and 108% (6 x 10 super(3) counts/serving) for E. coli O157:H7 relative to the extremes of the unconstrained models. The approach of incorporating parallel models for pathogens and the indigenous microbiota into exposure assessment modeling motivates the design of validation studies to test the modeling assumptions, consistent with the analytical-deliberative process of risk analysis.

  37. Sustainability of meat-based and plant-based diets and the environment

    David Pimentel and Marcia Pimentel.

    The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 78, No. 3S, Sep 2003, pp. S660-S663.

    Worldwide, an estimated 2 billion people live primarily on a meat-based diet, while an estimated 4 billion live primarily on a plant-based diet. The US food production system uses about 50% of the total US land area, 80% of the fresh water, and 17% of the fossil energy used in the country. The heavy dependence on fossil energy suggests that the US food system, whether meat-based or plant-based, is not sustainable. The use of land and energy resources devoted to an average meat-based diet compared with a lactoovovegetarian (plant-based) diet is analyzed in this report. In both diets, the daily quantity of calories consumed are kept constant at about 3533 kcal per person. The meat-based food system requires more energy, land, and water resources than the lactoovovegetarian diet. In this limited sense, the lactoovovegetarian diet is more sustainable than the average American meat-based diet. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT]

  38. Toward sustainable production of protein-rich foods: Appraisal of eight crops for Western Europe. Part I. Analysis of the primary links of the production chain

    Anita R. Linnemann.

    Critical reviews in food science and nutrition, Vol. 42, No. 4, 2002, pp. 377-401.

    Increased production of plant protein is required to support the production of protein-rich foods that can replace meat in the human diet to reduce the strain that intensive animal husbandry poses to the environment. The suitability of lupin (Lupinus spp.), pea (Pisum sativum), quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.), triticale (x Triticosecale), lucerne (Medicago sativa), grasses (Lolium and Festuca spp.), rapeseed/canola (Brassica napus), and potato (Solanum tuberosum) for protein production in Western Europe was studied on the basis of a chain approach. The aspects considered are the familiarity of farmers with the cultivation of the crop, prospects for rapid crop improvement, protein production (kg/ha), protein quality (absence of unwanted substances) and familiarity with the usage for human food in Western Europe. Pea, lucerne, and grasses are the most promising, fair prospects are foreseen for lupin, triticale, rapeseed, and potato, whereas the possibilities for quinoa are judged to lag far behind. Estimated protein production for pea, lucerne, and grasses is 1250, 2500, and 2500 kg/ha, respectively.

  39. The environment and pork production: the Oklahoma industry at a crossroads.

    C. Lyford and T. Hicks.

    Review of agricultural economics., Vol. 23, No. 1, April 2001, pp. 265-274.

    Few current debates in agriculture are as contentious as those that surround pork production and the environment. Large amounts of pork production now take place on huge pork production megafarms, often located in nontraditional pork producing states. Initially environmental regulations of these facilities are usually not stringent, but these facilities are increasingly being regulated by costly and stringent legislative requirements. However, these facilities provide increased employment, incomes, and tax base for local communities. Common concerns are how these facilities should be regulated environmentally and appropriate industry responses. While this case study focuses on the Oklahoma pork industry, the general lessons of agricultural industrialization and environmental regulation have wide relevance.

  40. Production of antifreeze glycoproteins in cultured and wild juvenile Atlantic cod (Gadus morhus L.) in a common laboratory environment

    C. F. Purchase, S. V. Goddard and J. A. Brown.

    Canadian journal of zoology, Vol. 79, No. 4, Apr 2001, pp. 610-615.

    Many fishes accumulate antifreeze proteins or antifreeze glycoproteins (AFGPs) in the blood to increase their chances of survival in cold seawater. Cod (Gadus morhua L.) from colder environments have been found to produce more AFGPs than those from warmer areas, but the genetic and environmental contributions to this variation have not been determined.

  41. Trends in food production and consumption: Swedish experiences from environmental and cultural impacts

    Annika Carlsson-Kanyama and Anna-Lisa Linden.

    International Journal of Sustainable Development, Vol. 4, No. 4, 2001, pp. 392-406.

    Changes in Swedish food consumption patterns during recent decades are studied, together with some possible future changes of importance of increasing resource efficiency. The increased consumption of meat and a more global food supply have contributed negatively. An increased interface with foreign food cultures through travelling and immigration are the main causes of these consumption changes. Meat consumption may decline while the consumption of organic and convenience foods may increase in the future. Environmental and health reasons will be the main causes, together with an increased acceptance among younger people of food cultures with vegetarian ingredients. Lack of time and skills for cooking and an increased supply of convenience foods are other causes. The environmental consequences of changes in food cultures may be beneficial.

  42. What are the livestock industries doing, and what do they need from us?

    David L. Meeker.

    Journal of Animal Science, Vol. 77, No. 2, Feb 1999, pp. 361-6.

    Livestock industries are facing global competition and revolutionary changes. While facing this global competition, the similarities of many animal meat products require that they compete on a cost-of-production basis. Additional issues include the environmental impact of animal agriculture, the role of animal products in human nutrition, food safety and quality, biotechnology, animal welfare, and market access. Progressive producers are becoming more aware of the needs of their customers and are striving to improve product quality. Checkoff funds are used to finance promotion, research, and consumer information programs and are increasingly used to finance producer education. Industrialization trends in the livestock industries are changing the needs of constituencies, delivery mechanisms, and relationships with the people involved. Characteristics of closed operations include high production cost, outdated technology, smaller size, older operators, and lack of management focus. Successful operations tend to be growing in capacity, are system-oriented, maintain high throughput, keep accurate records, use outside consultants, and control production costs. Modern livestock production has lowered the cost of production by integrating new production and management technologies. In order for producers to be successful in the future, access to technology, capital, and timely information will be critical. Animal scientists have many common objectives with livestock industries. Their work in research, teaching, and extension is critical for continued progress. However, people in the industries sometimes have the perception that academic arrogance, discipline myopia, uncoordinated research, slow technology transfer, increasing research costs, and counter-productive tenure systems prevent animal scientists from being as relevant and responsive as they could be. Support from the industries is essential as animal scientists and academic departments seek political and funding support. This support can be attained by including integrated systems research, improving communication skills, achieving more efficient research budgets, rapidly publishing results, reducing the cost of information distribution, developing flexible research agendas, retraining scientists, acquiring modern methods, and emphasizing critical thinking, communication, and teamwork when teaching.

  43. The combined effects of environmental conditions related to meat fermentation on growth and lipase production by the starter culture Staphylococcus xylosus.

    B. B. Sorensen and M. Jakobsen.

    Food microbiology., Vol. 13, No. 3, June 1996, pp. 265-274.

    The ability of the meat starter culture Staphylococcus xylosus to grow and produce lipase at the environmental conditions relevant to fermented meat production was examined. The combined effect of temperature (10-30 degrees C), pH (5.1-6.0), salt concentration (1-9% w/v) and glucose (0 and 1% w/v) on the maximum specific growth rate of S. xylosus was studied in a microbiological medium. Growth was estimated by optical density measurements and growth curves were generated by fitting a modified Gompertz equation to the growth data using non-linear regression analysis. Maximum specific growth rates were derived and submitted to response surface analysis to generate a quadratic model to predict the maximum specific growth rate of S. xylosus at any combination of the variables. Results from the combined effects of temperature, pH, salt concentration and age of culture on the lipase production of S. xylosus according to a similar statistical analysis showed that lipase production was influenced by pH, salt concentration and age of the culture, whereas it was not significantly affected by the temperature. Generally, in cases with vigorous growth, the level of lipase production was high, and it was limited to a more narrow range of environmental combinations than growth.

  44. Aquaculture: the Blue Revolution: the Green Revolution has led to remarkable increases in grain production during the past 30 years, will the Blue Revolution do the same for world fish production?

    Jack A. Mathias.

    Ecodecision, No. 18, Fall 1995, pp. 66-70.

    After finfish, the second most important aquaculture product are the molluscs, which make up about a quarter of total aquaculture production and about 13 per cent of the US$28 – billion value of world aquaculture. Particularly notable for world food security are the filter – feeders: oysters, mussels, clams and cockles. These groups feed on phytoplankton and detritus suspended in coastal seas; they make up about 80 per cent of total mollusc farming production and are raised exclusively in the coastal marine environment. They grow very efficiently and are consumed locally; most important, the whole animal is eaten. Other members of the mollusc family — scallops, pectens, conches and the like — are more highly valued species, where only the shell muscle or muscular foot is consumed. They are largely exported. The Chinese practice of integrated fish farming is a model of the efficient use of water and organic wastes. It is based on fish culture in ponds that are deeply integrated into the energy and nutrient pathways of conventional farming. The ponds can accept many forms of agricultural waste, including livestock and human manures. According to Dr. Li Sifa, professor of aquaculture at Shanghai Fisheries University, "It is not uncommon for a one – hectare pond to accept 300 tonnes of manure, 20 tonnes of grass and 10 tonnes of feeds over a 10 – month growing season and produce 8 tonnes of fish." The pond sediment, which accumulates at a rate of about 10 centimetres per year, acts as a trap for excess nutrients. It can be used to fertilize vegetable crops or grasses fed to livestock. Because of the dominance of the non – carnivorous finfish in world aquaculture, the fastest growth in fish farming has come from inland freshwater farms (see Figure 5). Production in this sector doubled in the period from 1984 to 1992, and inland waters now contribute 60 per cent of total aquaculture output. However, the trend toward freshwater dominance cannot hold forever, simply because of the limits to freshwater productivity and to the area available for freshwater development. In contrast, coastal areas — especially the near offshore — have considerable scope for expansion.

  45. Poultry production's environmental impact on water quality.

    C. W. Pope.

    Poultry science, Vol. 70, No. 5, May 1991, pp. 1123-1125.

    Poultry meat and eggs are rapidly becoming the major source of animal protein in the diets of American consumers. Such expansion has resulted in a similar increase in waste management problems. The national production of broilers and mature chickens was 5.68 billion, 242 million turkeys, 31 million ducks, and 69 trillion table eggs in 1989 based on the USDA National Statistics Survey. Annual production of fecal waste from poultry flocks was 8.8 million tons on a dry weight basis plus more than 106,000 metric tons of broiler hatchery waste. Add to this 37 million dead birds and condemnations at processing plants (figures are also from USDA for 1989 based on USDA National Statistics Survey). When all this waste is added together, the task of keeping the environment clean becomes monumental. The following waste management practices can and must take care of these poultry industry waste products: sanitary land fills, rendering facilities, extrusion machinery, compost plants, lagoons or holding tanks, and land application techniques.

  46. On insect species used as human food.

    J-P Aeschlimann.

    MITT.ENTOMOL.GES., BASEL., Vol. 32, No. 4, 1982, pp. 99-103.

    The various insect species are listed that are being or have been used by man in his search for food. Three examples known from the Australian aborigines are particularly worth mentioning, i.e. honeypot ants, the wood boring "widgety grub" larvae, and aestivating "bogong" moths.