Discovery Guides Areas


Adelard's Questions and Ockham's Razor:
Connections between Medieval Philosophy and Modern Science

(Released November 2008)

  by Carolyn Scearce  


Key Citations

Visual Resources



Visual Resources eLibrary Resources
eLibrary Resources
  1. The Roman Empire & Germanic Migrations c.400 CE

    -- Europe,Asia,Middle East,Africa,Spain,Gaul,Britain,Sardinia,Corsica,Italy,Roman Empire,Greece,Balkans,Hungary,Egypt,Russia,Sicily,Crete,Cyprus,Syria World History Maps 01-01-1999
  2. The Spread of Islam World History Maps 01-01-1999
  3. St. Augustine, Bishop of Hippo

    illustration from 'Science and Literature of the Middle Ages and the Renaissance', written and engraved by Paul Lacroix, 1878; English School, (19th century)
    Bridgeman Art 10-01-2004
  4. Roger Bacon; Henry Guttmann

    Circa 1250, English scientist, Franciscan friar and philosopher Roger Bacon (c 1214 - 1294) also known as Doctor Mirabilis. He wrote his Opus Majus, which called for reformation of the sciences, for Pope Clement IV but was later imprisoned for holding heretical views
    Getty Historical Image Collection 01-02-1754
Resources taken from Proquest's eLibrary


map of Italy
(Italian Republic)


Much of the West's civilization and culture stems from the Italian Peninsula. The area's history dates back several thousand years; one of the first civilizations to flourish was that of the Etruscans between the eighth and second centuries BC. The Etruscans influenced mostly central Italy and later the Roman Empire. Before the Romans became prominent, Greek civilization dominated the south. Rome later adopted much of the Greek culture and became a major power after 300 BC, as it expanded throughout the Mediterranean region. By the fifth century AD, the western Roman Empire had fallen to a number of invasions. The peninsula was then divided into several separate political regions. In addition to local rulers, French, Spanish, and Austrian leaders governed various parts of Italy. The Italian Peninsula was the center of many artistic, cultural, and architectural revolutions. . . .

map of COUNTRY
(French Republic)


By 51 BC, the Romans had conquered the area's Celtic inhabitants, the Gauls, who then adopted the Romans' customs, language, and laws. Clovis I, king of the Franks, defeated the last Roman governor in AD 486. The French consider his conversion to Catholicism in 496 the founding act of the nation; the move won him the support of the Catholic Church and Gallo-Roman people, who helped him defeat surrounding Arian kingdoms. In the late eighth century, France was part of Charlemagne's vast empire. After the empire's disintegration, France emerged as one of the successor kingdoms in 987. The following centuries brought intermittent conflict, particularly with the English, including the Hundred Years' War, from 1337 to 1453. In 1429, after 80 years of war, Joan of Arc led the French in victory over the English. Later burned to death by the English (1431), she remains a French heroine.

By the late 1600s, France dominated Europe. . . .

map of Tunisia
(Tunisian Republic)


Throughout its history, Tunisia was a crossroads of many civilizations. Tunisia's indigenous inhabitants are known collectively as Berbers, but a more accurate indigenous term for them is Imazighen (Amazigh, singular). Phoenicians founded Carthage in 814 BC. The Romans fought Carthage in three Punic Wars, eventually destroying it in 146 BC.

The two major influences shaping modern Tunisian society are Islam and the remnants of French colonialism. Islam came with invading Arabs in the seventh century AD. Indigenous groups gradually adopted the Arabic language and customs, and Tunisia became a center of Islamic culture. . . .

Taken from ProQuest's CultureGrams.