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STD Protection With or Without Contraception

(Released January 2002)

  by Robert Lessick  


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  Attitudes & Behavior Nonoxynol-9
  1. Viricidal effect of Lactobacillus acidophilus on human immunodeficiency virus type 1: Possible role in heterosexual transmission.
    Journal of Experimental Medicine [J. EXP. MED.], vol. 174, no. 1, pp. 289-292, 1991

  2. The vagina as an ecologic system. Current understanding and clinical applications.
    J Nurse Midwifery, 1993 May-Jun, 38(3):146-51

  3. HIV-1 infection associated with abnormal vaginal flora morphology and bacterial vaginosis
    Lancet, vol. 350, no. 9077, pp. 546-550, Aug 1997

  4. Bacterial vaginosis and disturbances of vaginal flora: association with increased acquisition of HIV
    AIDS, vol. 12, no. 13, pp. 1699-1706, 10 Sep 1998

  5. The vaginal microbial ecosystem and resistance to HIV
    AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses [AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses], vol. 14, no. suppl. 1, pp. S17-S21, Apr 1998

  6. Effect on normal vaginal flora of three intravaginal microbicidal agents potentially active against human immunodeficiency virus type 1
    Journal of Infectious Diseases [J. Infect. Dis.], vol. 177, no. 5, pp. 1386-1390, May 1998

  7. Lactobacilli and Vaginal Host Defense: Activation of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Long Terminal Repeat, Cytokine Production, and NF- Kappa B
    Journal of Infectious Diseases [J. Infect. Dis.], vol. 179, no. 3, pp. 653-60, Mar 1999

  8. Vaginal Lactobacilli, Microbial Flora, and Risk of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 and Sexually Transmitted Disease Acquisition
    Journal of Infectious Diseases [J. Infect. Dis.], vol. 180, no. 6, pp. 1863-1868, Dec 1999

  9. Use of intravaginal microbicides to prevent acquisition of Trichomonas vaginalis infection in Lactobacillus-pretreated, estrogenized young mice
    American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene [Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg.], vol. 63, no. 5, pp. 284-289, 2001