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Penguins: Promoting Polar Awareness While Melting Our Hearts
(Released August 2012)

  by Natalie Abram  


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  1. A research strategy for biodiversity conservation on New Zealand's offshore islands

    David R. Towns, Peter J. Bellingham, Christa P. H. Mulder and Phil O'B Lyver.

    New Zealand Journal of Ecology, Vol. 36, No. 1, 2012, pp. 1-20.

    New Zealand's offshore islands are refuges for many threatened species, a high proportion of vertebrate diversity, and the world's most diverse fauna of seabirds. We present key issues and questions that can be used to guide research on the conservation of biodiversity on these islands. Four global reviews formed a basis from which we identified research questions of potential relevance to the management of these islands. The research questions were assigned in the context of nine objectives proposed as a means of achieving ecological integrity. For each of the nine objectives, we then asked what has been achieved in terms of island research and management, and what needs to be achieved in order to meet long-term goals. We used local examples to identify issues and questions specific to the islands of New Zealand. Our analyses revealed two research areas in which current understanding is poor. One is the need to understand ecosystem processes and their resilience to long-term environmental change. The second is the need to define and better understand the consequences of direct involvement by the public in the management of islands, including partnerships between government agencies, tangata whenua (original people of the land – Maori) and non-government organisations such as community groups. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT]

  2. A Review of the World's Active Seabird Restoration Projects

    Holly P. Jones and Stephen W. Kress.

    Journal of Wildlife Management, Vol. 76, No. 1, 2012, pp. 2-9.

    Because adults are not moved with chicks (adults would readily abandon the restoration site), chicks must be fed with dietary supplements until they fledge. [...] chick translocation is limited to species that feed their chicks whole fish or those that depend on regurgitated meals (e.g., albatross and petrels). [...] there must be a thorough site selection process that assesses both biological constraints to breeding success (e.g., risks from predators, food limitation, and human disturbance) and logistic constraints (e.g., costs and practicality of establishing a field camp for managers and a business plan for long-term stewardship).


    Zach Jones.

    Science World, Vol. 68, No. 11, Mar 26, 2012, pp. 5.

    Every January, workers at the London Zoo in England tally all the animals-from tigers to toads-under their care. Last year, zookeepers counted 18,499 animals. "It can take up to several weeks for zookeepers to complete the final count in the bug house and aquarium," says zoo manager Mark Habben.

  4. Reliability of flipper-banded penguins as indicators of climate change

    Claire Saraux, Céline Le Bohec, Joël M. Durant, et al.

    Nature, Vol. 469, No. 7329, Jan 13, 2011, pp. 203-6.

    In 2007, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change highlighted an urgent need to assess the responses of marine ecosystems to climate change. Because they lie in a high-latitude region, the Southern Ocean ecosystems are expected to be strongly affected by global warming. Using top predators of this highly productive ocean (such as penguins) as integrative indicators may help us assess the impacts of climate change on marine ecosystems. Yet most available information on penguin population dynamics is based on the controversial use of flipper banding. Although some reports have found the effects of flipper bands to be deleterious, some short-term (one-year) studies have concluded otherwise, resulting in the continuation of extensive banding schemes and the use of data sets thus collected to predict climate impact on natural populations. Here we show that banding of free-ranging king penguins (Aptenodytes patagonicus) impairs both survival and reproduction, ultimately affecting population growth rate. Over the course of a 10-year longitudinal study, banded birds produced 39% fewer chicks and had a survival rate 16% lower than non-banded birds, demonstrating a massive long-term impact of banding and thus refuting the assumption that birds will ultimately adapt to being banded. Indeed, banded birds still arrived later for breeding at the study site and had longer foraging trips even after 10 years. One of our major findings is that responses of flipper-banded penguins to climate variability (that is, changes in sea surface temperature and in the Southern Oscillation index) differ from those of non-banded birds. We show that only long-term investigations may allow an evaluation of the impact of flipper bands and that every major life-history trait can be affected, calling into question the banding schemes still going on. In addition, our understanding of the effects of climate change on marine ecosystems based on flipper-band data should be reconsidered. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT]

  5. Wildlife Conservation Society; 'Naked' penguins baffle experts


    Ecology, Environment & Conservation, Apr 29, 2011, pp. 64.

    Featherless chicks were also smaller in size and weight than feathered chicks; both disparities were due to the increased energy spent in thermoregulation in the absence of an insulating coat of feathers and/or down.

  6. An assessment of rehabilitation as a tool to increase population size of an endangered seabird, the yellow-eyed penguin (Megadyptes antipodes)

    Hiltrun {a} Ratz and Chris Lalas.

    Journal of Wildlife Rehabilitation, Vol. 30, No. 1, 2010, pp. 13-20.

    We investigated the effectiveness of rehabilitation for injured or sick resident breeders as a tool to increase population size of endangered yellow-eyed penguins (Megadyptes antipodes). Recent modelling of conservation measures showed that population growth for this species is achievable only through intensive management, including rehabilitation, with a predicted increase of 9% after 15 years. We tested this by monitoring resident breeders treated since 1997 at the rehabilitation facility of an eco-tourism venture, Penguin Place, near Dunedin, southern New Zealand. Males outnumber females in the wild breeding population; thus, annual nest numbers are derived from the number of females. Of 28 rehabilitations of resident female breeders, 24 (83%) were released, 16 (67%) of which bred again. Our results indicate that rehabilitation increased the average annual survival for adult females by 7%, an increase not statistically significant. Subsequent breeding generated 10% increases in cumulative totals for nests and for chicks ledged. We conclude that rehabilitation of this species can enhance population size, but is applicable only at locations already managed to mitigate anthropogenic threats to this species.

  7. Climate Change; New climate change research

    Ballard, G., et al.

    Ecology, Environment & Conservation, Sep 3, 2010, pp. 24.

    Over a three-year period, which included winters of both extensive and reduced sea ice, we investigated characteristics of migratory routes and wintering locations of Adelie Penguins from two colonies of very different size on Ross Island, Ross Sea, the southernmost colonies for any penguin.

  8. Identification of Plasmodium relictum causing mortality in penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus) from Sao Paulo Zoo, Brazil

    Marina Galvao Bueno, Rodrigo Pinho Gomez Lopez, Regiane Maria Tironi De Menezes, et al.

    Veterinary parasitology, Vol. 173, No. 1-2, Oct 11, 2010, pp. 123-127.

    This study reports avian malaria caused by Plasmodium relictum in Magellanic Penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus) from Sao Paulo Zoo. The disease was highly infective among the birds and was clinically characterized by its acute course and high mortality. The penguins of Sao Paulo Zoo were housed for at least 2 years without malaria; however, they had always been maintained in an enclosure protected from mosquito exposure during the night period. When they presented pododermatitis, they were freed at night for a short period. Sao Paulo Zoo is located in one of the last forest remnants of the city, an area of original Atlantic forest. In the winter, the space destined for Zoo birds is shared with migratory species. Hence the possibility exists that the disease was transmitted to the penguins by mosquitoes that had previously bitten infected wild birds. Avian malaria parasites are transmitted mainly by mosquitoes of the genera Aedes and Culex, common vectors in the Atlantic forest. In this study, one Culex (Cux.) sp. was found, infected with P. relictum. There are diverse problems in housing distinct species of animals in captivity, principally when occupying the same enclosure, since it facilitates the transmission of diseases with indirect cycles, as is the case of Plasmodium spp., because certain species that cause discrete infections in some bird species can become a serious danger for others, especially penguins, which do not possess natural resistance. Thus, serious implications exist for periodically testing and administrating malaria therapy in captive penguins potentially exposed to mosquitoes during the night period, as well as other captive birds from Sao Paulo Zoo.

  9. Marine no-take zone rapidly benefits endangered penguin

    L. Pichegru, D. Gremillet, RJM Crawford and P. G. Ryan.

    Biology Letters, Vol. 6, No. 4, Aug 23, 2010, pp. 498-501.

    No-take zones may protect populations of targeted marine species and restore the integrity of marine ecosystems, but it is unclear whether they benefit top predators that rely on mobile pelagic fishes. In South Africa, foraging effort of breeding African penguins decreased by 30 per cent within three months of closing a 20 km zone to the competing purse-seine fisheries around their largest colony. After the fishing ban, most of the penguins from this island had shifted their feeding effort inside the closed area. Birds breeding at another colony situated 50 km away, whose fishing grounds remained open to fishing, increased their foraging effort during the same period. This demonstrates the immediate benefit of a relatively small no-take zone for a marine top predator relying on pelagic prey. Selecting such small protected areas may be an important first conservation step, minimizing stakeholder conflicts and easing compliance, while ensuring benefit for the ecosystems within these habitats.

  10. Q&A: Sylvia Earle on protecting our seas

    Jascha Hoffman.

    Nature, Vol. 465, No. 7295, May 13, 2010, pp. 165.

    Yes. Since I started exploring oceans in the 1950s, we have seen the collapse of many populations of ocean wildlife – fish, oysters, clams, lobsters – and the extinction of some species, notably the Caribbean monk seal.

  11. Corticosterone responses to capture and restraint in emperor and Adelie penguins in Antarctica

    John F. JF Cockrem, Murray A. MA Potter, D. Paul DP Barrett and E. Jane EJ Candy.

    Zoological Science, Vol. 25, No. 3, March 2008, pp. 291-298.

    Birds respond to capture, handling and restraint with increased secretion of corticosterone, a glucocorticoid hormone that helps birds adjust to stressful situations. Hoods are reported to calm birds, but possible effects of hoods on corticosterone responses have not been reported for any bird. Corticosterone responses to restraint in Adelie penguins held by their legs with their head covered by a hood were markedly lower than responses of penguins restrained in a mesh bag inside a cardboard box (corticosterone at 30 min 15.69+/-1.72 cf. 28.32+/-2.75 ng/ml). The birds restrained by the two methods were sampled at the same location but in different years, so the differences in corticosterone responses cannot unequivocally be ascribed to an effect of hoods to reduce corticosterone responses. Corticosterone responses have been measured in some penguins, but not in the largest, the emperor penguin (Aptenodytes forsteri). The relationship between body mass and corticosterone responses to capture and restraint in penguins was examined in emperor penguins captured on sea ice in McMurdo Sound and Adelie penguins (Pygoscelis adeliae) captured at Cape Bird, Ross Island, Antarctica. Total integrated corticosterone responses were higher in the emperor than the Adelie penguins, but corrected integrated corticosterone responses, which represent the increase in corticosterone from initial concentrations and hence the corticosterone response to restraint, were the same. The results for the emperor and Adelie penguins, together with data from other penguin species, suggest that there is no relationship between the size of corticosterone responses and body mass in penguins.

  12. WASHINGTON – Seven penguin species have reason to have happy feet: The [Derived Headline]

    Dina Cappiello.

    Times News, Dec 17, 2008, pp. n/a.

    The Fish and Wildlife Service is proposing to list six species of penguin as threatened species and one – the African penguin – as an endangered species. The penguins live far from the U.S., in places like Antarctica, South Africa, Peru, Argentina and New Zealand so the protections of U.S. endangered species law are limited, officials said. But listing the penguins under the act will raise awareness about the species and could give the U.S. leverage in international negotiations to protect them from fishing, habitat loss, development and other threats. Environmentalists hailed the [Bush] administration's proposal to fully list six penguin species, but criticized its decision not to protect three others, including the emperor penguin, the largest penguin in the world and one that depends on sea ice for breeding and feeding.

  13. How do different data logger sizes and attachment positions affect the diving behaviour of little penguins?

    Y. Ropert-Coudert, N. Knott, A. Chiaradia and A. Kato.

    Deep Sea Research (Part II, Topical Studies in Oceanography), Vol. 54, No. 3-4, Feb 2007, pp. 415-423.

    It is crucial in any bio-logging study to establish the potential effect that attachment of loggers may have on the animal. This ensures that the behaviour monitored by the loggers has a biological relevance, as well as for ethical reasons. Evaluation of the effects of externally attached loggers shows that they increase the drag of swimming animals and increase their energy expenditure. Nevertheless, little research has been done on the effects of size or position of such loggers. In this study, we tested whether the size (i.e. large: 4.9% versus small: 3.4% of the bird's frontal area) or the place of attachment (middle versus lower back) affected the diving behaviour of male and female little penguins (Eudyptula minor). The positioning of the data logger on the middle or lower section of little penguins' back had little, if no effect, on the diving variables measured in this study. Size of the loggers, however, had strong effects. Birds with large loggers made shorter dives and reached shallower depths than those with small loggers. In addition, birds with large loggers made more dives probably to compensate for the extra cost of carrying a large logger. The measured variables also differed between the sexes, with males diving deeper and longer than females. Logger size had a sex-specific effect on the trip duration and descent speed, with males equipped with large loggers staying longer at sea than those with small loggers, and females with large loggers descending faster than those with small loggers. From our results, it appears that effects of logger position do not exist or are very small in comparison with the effects of logger size. The results of the current study indicate that the effects of size of loggers be evaluated more commonly in bio-logging research into the diving activity of free-ranging birds.

  14. Marine ecology and conservation of the Galapagos penguin, Spheniscus mendiculus

    A. Steinfurth.

    Ph.D. Thesis, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Fakultaet der Christian-Albrechts-Universitaet zu Kiel, 2007.

    The presented thesis outlines several aspects of the marine ecology and conservation of the Galapagos penguin (Spheniscus mendiculus). This project was realised between July 2003 and September 2005 in the Galapagos islands as a collaborative project between the Charles Darwin Foundation, the Galapagos National Park Service and the University of Kiel in Germany. In two concurrent years, 2004 and 2005, breeding activities of the Galapagos penguin were investigated. The majority of all the breeding sites was found on Isabela Island, the largest island in the archipelago, with the highest aggregations of active nests concentrated in the southwest of the island. The study showed that the distribution of the breeding sites is strongly related to nutrient-rich upwelling areas within the archipelago, caused by the Equatorial Undercurrent (EUC; also known as the Cromwell Current). Considering penguin breeding sites in light of the Galapagos Marine Reserve (GMR) zoning system however, raises interesting concerns. While only a few nests (25.2 %) are afforded the highest protection level, the large majority of nests (74.8 %) were found in areas designated for extractive uses (e. g., fisheries). The implications for penguin conservation may be significant. Even though nesting penguins may not feed in this adjacent coastal area, they need to pass through this zone on their way to their foraging sites. Although active nests could be discovered virtually throughout the year, the results showed generally two welldefined breeding peaks within the year: March to May, and from July to September. The region in the western part of the archipelago undergoes (except in El Nino years) a seasonal increase in phytoplankton biomass in the second part of the year (from June to December) which coincides well with the second period of egg-laying. The first egg-laying peak corresponds with the strengthening and shoaling of the EUC in April. An inter-annual and regional comparison in breeding patterns indicated that egg-laying was variable on both a temporal and spatial scale. Thus, the breeding biology of the Galapagos penguin seems to be well adapted to the highly variable oceanographic environment surrounding the Galapagos islands.

  15. Effects of Flipper Bands on Foraging Behavior and Survival of Adélie Penguins (Pygoscelis Adeliae)

    Katie M. Dugger, Grant Ballard, David G. Ainley and Kerry J. Barton.

    The Auk, Vol. 123, No. 3, 2006, pp. 858-869.

    Since the 1950s, flipper bands have been used widely to mark penguins (Spheniscidae), but not without concerns regarding possible negative effects on survival and fitness. As part of a demographic study of Adelie Penguins (Pygoscelis adeliae) in the western Ross Sea, Antarctica, we investigated effects of flipper bands on foraging-trip duration and food loads, as well as apparent survival, during four breeding seasons (2000-2003), using mark-recapture and radio-frequency identification (RFID) technology. Foraging-trip durations were ∼8% (3.5 h) longer, on average, for banded compared with unhanded birds, but the effect varied among years. Food loads did not differ between banded and unhanded birds, but males carried heavier food loads than females. Flipper bands decreased apparent annual survival by 11-13% during 2000-2003, but over a longer time period (1996-2003) we observed high annual variability, including years of high survival for banded birds. Males had slightly higher survival than females in both banded and unbanded birds. Mechanisms resulting in band effects on foraging behavior and survival, the variable effect of bands by season, and the potential ameliorating effect of age or experience on the effects of bands need further investigation in Adelie and other penguin species. We recognize a need to understand and balance the negative consequences of flipper bands for penguins against the beneficial gains in information associated with their use. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)(journal abstract)

  16. African penguin rescue project


    Bulletin.South African Association for Marine Biological Research, Vol. 27, Mar 2005, pp. 10-11.

    On 23rd June 2000, tragedy struck the Western Cape coast when the bulk ore carrier, MV Treasure, sank just off Cape Town. The fuel oil that subsequently leaked into the sea threatened the estimated 41 000 penguins that have their rookeries on nearby Dassen and Robben islands. Following this catastrophe, a huge rescue mission was initiated, involving not only the rehabilitation of oiled birds, but also the removal of nearly 20 000 non-oiled birds as a strategy to prevent their becoming oiled. These birds were re-located to a site 800 kms eastward, leaving them to swim back to their nesting sites and thus giving time for the oil to have dispersed. Three of the birds were satellite-tagged, and their homeward progress was tracked by TV audiences worldwide. However, an additional problem emerged, in that removal of the adults, left many penguin chicks unattended in their nests, threatening a significant future cohort of this endangered species.


    Department of Commerce, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration.


    PURPOSE: The revision of regulations to implement conservation and management measures adopted by the Commission for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources is proposed. This draft programmatic environmental impact statement describes activities related to the management, monitoring, and conduct of Antarctic fisheries; the ecological relationships between harvest, dependent and related populations of Antarctic marine living organisms, the potential impacts to protected species, non-target species, and fish habitat. In addition, an amendment to the U.S. regulations implementing conservation and management mesures adopted by the Commission and issued under the authority of the Antarctic Marine Living Resources Convention Act of 1984 are considered. The EIS focuses on four groups of actions, harvesting, grad, research, and enforcement. A No Action Alternative, which would perpetuate the currently regulatory status quo, is also considered for each group of actions. Preferred alternatives are identified for each group category. Harvest limits would range from zero to issuing seasonally based annual permits allowing harvest up to the level two times the largest amount of annual international harvest during the period extending from 1993 to 2003. The other two alternatives consider intermediate levels, either issuing permits annually by season and within the Committee catch limits or issuing seasonal permits annually limiting harvest to half the largest amount of annual international harvest during the period from 1994 to 2003. Trade control alternatives would involve, inter alia, a catch documentation system and the use of dissostichus catch documents. Research control alternatives would include revising the U.S> permit system for research within Committee Ecosystem Monitoring Program sites and implementing the Committee scheme of international scientific observation. Enforcement alternatives would employ a vessel monitory system (VMS), with additional regulations to support implementation of the VMS, and enhanced enforcement capability through participation in the Committee's centralized VMS program. POSITIVE IMPACTS: The ecosystem approach to management supported by the Committee's international scheme for managing the Antarctic resource would enhance conservation efforts via rational use via harvest restrictions. NEGATIVE IMPACTS: Fishing, research facility construction and operation, and other management activities would inevitably damage Antarctica resources and degrade the pristine nature of the area, and fishing could begin to deplete fish stocks. LEGAL MANDATES: Magnuson Fishery Conservation and Management Act of 1976 (16 U.S.C. 1801 et seq.).

  18. Field Endocrinology and Conservation Biology

    B. G. Walker, P. D. Boersma and J. C. Wingfield.

    Integrative and Comparative Biology, Vol. 45, No. 1, Jan 2005, pp. 12-18.

    Field endocrinology techniques allow the collection of samples (i.e., blood, urine, feces, tissues) from free-living animals for analysis of hormones, receptors, enzymes, etc. These data reveal mechanisms by which individuals respond to environmental challenges, breed, migrate and regulate all aspects of their life cycles. Field endocrinology techniques can also be used to address many issues in conservation biology. We briefly review past and current ways in which endocrine methods are used to monitor threatened species, identify potential stressors and record responses to environmental disturbance. We then focus on one important aspect of conservation: how free-living populations respond to human disturbance, particularly in relation to ecotourism. Breeding adult Magellanic penguins, Spheniscus magellanicus, appear to habituate well to tourists, and breed in an area where about 70,000 people visit during the season. Baseline levels of corticosterone return to normal after exposure of naive birds to humans. However, penguin chicks appear to show a heightened adrenocortical response to handling stress in nests exposed to tourists, compared to chicks living in areas isolated from human intrusions. Given that developmental exposure to stress can have profound influences on how individuals cope with stress as adults, this potential effect of tourists on chicks could have long-term consequences. This field endocrine approach identified a stressor not observed through monitoring behavior alone.

  19. A new application for transponders in studying penguins

    J. Gendner, M. Gauthier-Clerc, C. Le Bohec, S. Descamps and Y. Le Maho.

    Journal of Field Ornithology, Vol. 76, No. 2, Apr 2005, pp. 138-142.

    We developed an identification setup enabling automatic detection of the passage of free-living King Penguins implanted with small radio frequency transponders at Possession Island, Crozet Archipelago. An unique feature of the system is the use of antennas allowing automatic detection and identification on pathways up to 8-m wide without the use of flipper bands. We present results on demographic parameters of the King Penguin, and we found an unexpectedly survival rate of immature penguins. Such an identification system can be used for other birds, mammals, or reptiles that use regular pathways.Original Abstract: Un nuevo uso de equipo electronico (transponders) para estudiar pingueinosDesarrollamos un escenario de identificacion, que automaticamente detecta el paso de Pingueinos Emperadores (Aptenodytes patagonicus) a los cuales se le implanto un pequeno radiotransmisor (transponder). El trabajo se llevo a cabo en la isla Posesion, del archipielago Crozet. Un aspecto unico del sistema es el uso antenas que permiten la deteccion e identificacion automatica en un area de unos 8 m. de ancho sin el uso de anillas. Presentamos los resultados de parametros demograficos del ave. Encontramos, sin esperarlo, una tasa alta de sobrevivencia de los pingueinos inmaduros. Dicho sistema de identificacion puede ser utilizado para otras aves, mamiferos o reptiles que utilicen un trayecto o ruta regular para moverse.

  20. THE DEBATE: Zoos

    Miranda Stevenson and Daniel Turner.

    The Ecologist, Vol. 34, No. 1, Feb 2004, pp. 20-23.

    Responses on the debate between Dr Miranda Stevenson and Daniel Turner on the significance of zoos as a tool in preserving biodiversity in the 21st century are presented. A pro-Daniel argues that a perfect world would mean no zoos or any other conservation organizations; and that zoos are rising to the challenges and are becoming a united and potent force for conservation. Meanwhile, a pro-Miranda also argues that even in an imperfect world, there should be no zoos, thus, opposing the unnatural and unjustified confinement of million of wild animals, whose life in the wild are filled with complexities.

  21. The penguin and puffin coast: Application of a micro-perforated membrane stretch ceiling

    J. B. Pride and J. T. Weissenburger.

    Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, Vol. 116, No. 4, Oct 2004, pp. 2500.

    The St. Louis Zoo has been undergoing major renovations that make it one of the premier zoos in the world. The Penguin and Puffin Coast, a walk through exhibit, is as near to a perfect habitat reproduction as is technologically feasible. Reproduced are a rugged coastline with craggy rock outcroppings, frigid water and a barrel vault ceiling that has theatrical lighting that can be used to simulate a colorful sunrise, a sunset over the horizon or the reversed seasons. Sounds of crashing waves and a sea lion's bark can be heard in the distance. A micro-perforated membrane stretch ceiling was chosen for its ability to easily conform to the undulations required for the sky, its durability in the moist confines of the exhibit and, last but not least, its ability to provide much needed acoustical absorption, all with the same product. This talk will discuss experiences with the micro-perforated material, review the acoustical efficacy of the installation and show photographs of the construction from essential beginning to final product. A photo or two of the penguins and puffins will also be shown.

  22. A great diversity of rocky decorations created by Alter Ego (Coutant Auariums) at Oceanopolis – Brest, France

    P. (de) Lacaze.

    Fifth International Aquarium Congress. Proceedings. Vol. 2: — Module 2: Aquarium, Identity or identities?, Discussion on Conservation, on commercial activities, on Education and Research, Module 3: Tomorrow's Aquarium. Cinquieme congres international des aquariums. Actes. Vol. 2 — Module 2: l' aquarium, identite ou identites? Debat sur la conservation, sur les activites commerciales, sur l'education et la recherche, Module 3: l'Aquarium de demain

    Coutant Aqualiums S.A., top builder of Public Aquariums in Europe, diversified its activity 5 years ago in creating Alter Ego, a company specializing in artificial reconstruction of natural landscapes. Today Alter Ego is positioned among the very best creators of both terrestrial and underwater decoration. Alter Ego built the artificial settings in Oceanopolis, Brest, grouping under one roof techniques of artificial reconstruction of underwater and terrestrial tropical environments: Indo-Pacific and Calibbean tanks, Penguin exhibit, Polar seal exhibit, Temperate seal exhibit, Mangrove swamp and Tropical greenhouse. Alter Ego worked with Oceanopolis staff to adapt to the different techniques and constraints of each artificial environment. The variety of scenographic decoration built by Alter Ego allows exhaustive presentation of all the different techniques used to meet this challenge.

  23. Oceanopolis 2000: the ocean discovery park

    E. Hussenot, J. P. Alayse and C. Le Milinaire.

    Fifth International Aquarium Congress. Proceedings. Vol. 2: — Module 2: Aquarium, Identity or identities?, Discussion on Conservation, on commercial activities, on Education and Research, Module 3: Tomorrow's Aquarium. Cinquieme congres international des aquariums. Actes. Vol. 2 — Module 2: l' aquarium, identite ou identites? Debat sur la conservation, sur les activites commerciales, sur l'education et la recherche, Module 3: l'Aquarium de demain

    After a nine-month closure, Oceanopolis metamorphosed and became an Ocean Discovery Park, which reopened on 29 May, 2000. As a whole, this new facility represents 3,700 m3 of aquariums, and over 8,000 m2 of exhibit areas. The highlights of the visit are undoubtedly: 1. In the temperate pavilion: reinforced scenography, the creation of a 3D theater and a new 300 m3 tank to display the seals of the Iroise Sea. 2. In the polar pavilion: attractive interactive scenography, with notably a multimedia spectacle, as well as an area dedicated to glaciology, a penguin exhibit, combined with a 300 m3 tank displaying a sub-Antarctic island ecosystem and a 1,000 m3 tank with pack-ice scenery showing Arctic seals. 3. In the tropical pavilion: an original museography for the presentation of sharks, together with a 1000 m3 tank and an exhibit area dedicated to coral reef ecosystems (building, biodiversity, man influences, etc...), as well as many exhibits displaying fish and invertebrates from the Indo-Pacific, an area dedicated to endemism, concerning more particularly the Caribbean, and a mangrove tank preceding a 400 m2 tropical rain forest. Moreover, each of the three pavilions has a "learn-more" area with multimedia terminals

  24. Blood parasites in penguins, and their potential impact on conservation

    H. I. Jones and G. R. Shellam.

    Marine Ornithology, Vol. 27, Mar 1999, pp. 181-184.

    This paper reviews the reported blood parasites from wild and captive penguins, discusses the dynamics of haematozoan infection, considers factors which could alter the present equilibrium, draws attention to potential risks from exposure to intensified or introduced infection, and suggests standardized methodologies to increase understanding and facilitate timely detection of any changes in infection dynamics.

  25. The contribution made by cleaning oiled African Penguins Spheniscus demersus to population dynamics and conservation of the species

    P. A. Whittington.

    Marine Ornithology, Vol. 27, Mar 1999, pp. 177-180.

    Since 1968, the Southern African Foundation for the Conservation of Coastal Birds (SANCCOB) based in Cape Town has cleaned, on average, between 200 and 2000 African Penguins Spheniscus demersus per year. Most of these were banded prior to release, so that the success of the cleaning procedures could be monitored. Survival of cleaned and non-oiled African Penguins was compared from an analysis of recoveries of banded individuals. Over a period of 10 years, time elapsed between banding and recovery did not differ significantly between cleaned and non-oiled penguins, as shown by a randomisation test. Results from this study were compared with banding recovery data for certain North American seabirds. Some rehabilitated African Penguins were shown to be amongst the oldest known individuals of this species in the wild. Cleaning oiled African Penguins is considered to make a worthwhile contribution to the conservation of a vulnerable, endemic species.

  26. The design and use of a nest box for Yellow-eyed Penguins Megadyptes antipodes – a response to a conservation need

    C. Lalas, PR Jones and J. Jones.

    Marine Ornithology, Vol. 27, Mar 1999, pp. 199-204.

    Yellow-eyed Penguins Megadyptes antipodes are surface nesters which prefer dense vegetation. The clearance of coastal forest and its replacement with farmland has virtually eliminated natural breeding habitat at North Otago, South Island, New Zealand. At two localities on grazed farmland the vegetation associated with nests was divided into six categories. Only two categories provided the optimal concealment considered necessary for successful nesting. Domestic sheep destroyed most bush remnants during a drought in 1984. This loss was compensated by nest boxes that replicated the microhabitat of optimal sites. These nest boxes have a timber frame 1.2 m long, 0.6 m deep and 0.6 m high, cladded with plywood sides, back and roof. A wooden bar across the open front excludes domestic stock. Nest boxes have been in use for over 10 years and are preferred to natural sites by penguins on farmland. They also are suitable for temporary deployment in revegetation programmes.

  27. "Developing a long term monitoring programme for birds and mammals in the Indian Ocean and Antarctica"

    Fifteenth Indian Expedition to Antarctica. Scientific Report.

    Y. V. Bhatnagar and Sathyakumar.

    New Delhi: African Seabird Group, 1999, 131-164

    The Wildlife Institute of India participated for the second consecutive year, in the 15th Indian Antarctic expedition, 1995-96 with the objective of continuing monitoring of birds and mammals in the Indian Ocean and in Antarctica. Daily watch was maintained en-route from the ship for wildlife and on sighting a bird or mammal, the position, species and their numbers were recorded. The entire route was divided into latitudinal climatic zones viz. tropical (north), tropical (south), sub-tropical, temperature, sub-Antarctic and Antarctic. During the voyage, fifty bird species and fourteen mammal species were recorded of which 41 and 9 were identified, respectively. Among the birds, members of Diomedidae, Spheniscidae, Stercorariidae, and some Procellariidae dominated in the cold temperate to Antarctic waters, while members of Sulidae, Sternidae, Phaethotidae and some Procellariidae dominated in the tropical and sub-tropical regions. During the onward journey, the temperate zone was the most species-rich zone (14 species) while during the return journey, the Antarctic zone had the highest richness (14). Shannon's diversity was highest in the sub-Antarctic zone (1.676) during the onward journey while during the return journey, it was highest in the Antarctic zone (1.728). The species richness and H' was lowest in the sub-tropical zone during the onward (5 and 0.728, respectively) and return journeys (5 and 0.833, respectively). Bird abundance was highest in the Antarctic zone during both journeys - 0.83 birds/km during the onward and 1.62/km during the return, while they were lowest in the tropical (S) during the onward (0.32/km) and the tropical (N) zone during the return journey (0.16/km). The data clearly shows that the diversity as well as abundance of species was highest in the cold waters beyond ca. 25 degree S with the sub-tropical convergence, Antarctic convergence and Antarctic divergence. The Soresen's similarity index between neighbouring zones was high for the temperate to Antarctic latitudes while the warm water zones had lesser similarity. (DBO)

  28. Diseases acquired by captive penguins: What happens when they are released into the wild?

    J-J Brossy, AL Ploes, J. M. Blackbeard and A. Kline.

    Marine Ornithology, Vol. 27, Mar 1999, pp. 185-186.

    The possibility of diseases being picked up by penguins and other birds during captivity and the effects which could follow if such birds are released into the wild are discussed. Ways of mitigating such problems are suggested for the African Penguin Spheniscus demersus.

  29. Management of penguin populations in North American zoos and aquariums

    EN Diebold, S. Branch and L. Henry.

    Marine Ornithology, Vol. 27, Mar 1999, pp. 171-176.

    The North American zoo community has made great strides towards collaborating in the management of captive penguins on the subcontinent. Organized captive management programmes such as that of the American Zoo and Aquarium Association Species Survival Plan (SSP) and Penguin Taxonomic Advisory Group (TAG) have enhanced the zoo community's ability to contribute to penguin conservation through captive breeding, population management and education. These advances are summarized, including improvements in captive husbandry, development of a penguin husbandry manual, enhanced space utilization for captive penguin management, and development of a Penguin Regional Collection Plan.

  30. Management of the African Penguin Spheniscus demersus – insights from modelling

    L. J. Shannon and RJM Crawford.

    Marine Ornithology, Vol. 27, Mar 1999, pp. 119-128.

    The African Penguin Spheniscus demersus has decreased markedly in numbers through the 20th Century. In the first half of the century its eggs were harvested commercially, probably at a rate of 48% of total eggs produced. In 1910, the number of birds aged two or older at Dassen Island was estimated to be 1.45 million. This decreased to 0.22 million in 1956, 0.14 million in 1967 and just 0.03 million in 1990 – a loss of 98%. A colony may take more than 50 years to recover from a catastrophic oiling event, even with rehabilitation. In the long term, low-level chronic oiling can have a greater impact than a once-off catastrophic event, especially if disturbance results in substantial losses of clutches. The actual disturbance caused in searching for and collecting oiled birds requires further research, and techniques need to be developed to minimize this disturbance. The proportion of first-year birds that survive is probably about 0.5.

  31. Penguin banding: Time for reappraisal?

    B. Stonehouse.

    Marine Ornithology, Vol. 27, Mar 1999, pp. 115-118.

    This paper reviews the history of penguin banding from 1908, when L. Gain first applied tarsus bands to Antarctic penguins. Though later workers also used tarsus bands, W.J.L. Sladen's method of applying metal flipper bands, first used in 1947, is now in general practice. Several thousand flipper bands are currently applied every year in national and international programmes. However, their use raises many problems and misgivings among researchers: metal flipper bands are perceived to inflict damage, fall off at unpredictable rates, and reduce viability of their wearers. A 1993 workshop of avian biologists concluded that, in studies requiring permanent identification, flipper bands remain the most effective technique available; however, significant design improvements may be possible. This review points the need for field research on plastic alternatives, which conceptually offer many advantages over traditional metal bands.

  32. "The Penguin Conservation Assessment and Management Plan: A description of the process"

    Fifteenth Indian Expedition to Antarctica. Scientific Report.

    S. Ellis.

    New Delhi : African Seabird Group, 1999, 163-169

    In conjunction with the Third International Penguin Conference, a Penguin Conservation Assessment and Management Plan (CAMP) workshop was conducted in September 1996. Facilitated by the Conservation Breeding Specialist Group of the IUCN, this process involved more than 75 experts from 40 institutions working together to review the current information on distribution, threats and status of 20 penguin taxa. Based on the compiled data, IUCN Red List Categories of Threat were assigned; 12 of the 20 taxa were listed as threatened, an increase from the five taxa assessed as threatened in the 1996 IUCN Red Data Book. This paper outlines the causes for concern for the various penguin taxa and describes the criteria used to make these assessments. It also summarises urgent research and management recommendations made by the workshop participants. It is the responsibility of these participants, as well as all penguin researchers, to call attention to the grave situation facing penguins through the media and public education. By aiding the pooling of expertise and information, and helping to set new directions for future conservation efforts, the CAMP process assists these efforts.

  33. Semen Collection, Characterization, and Cryopreservation in a Magellanic Penguin (Spheniscus magellanicus)

    J. K. O'Brien, DA Oehler, S. P. Malowski and T. L. Roth.

    Zoo biology, Vol. 18, No. 3, 1999, pp. 199-214.

    A cooperative method was developed for collecting semen from a Magellanic penguin. Ejaculate parameters and semen production during a breeding season were characterized. Experiments were performed to study the effect on penguin spermatozoa of two temperatures (4 degree C and 21 degree C) for short-term storage, and two cryoprotectants (dimethylsulfoxide [DMSO] and ethylene glycol [EG]) for long-term storage (cryopreservation). All dilutions were made using modified Beltsville Poultry Semen Extender. Sperm quality was assessed by evaluating motility and forward progression (sperm motility index [SMI]), viability, and morphology. A total of 39 ejaculates was collected over the 40-day study period. Thirty-eight ejaculates contained spermatozoa, but semen quality decreased toward the end of the study period. Varying levels of urate contamination were present in all ejaculates. Sperm quality parameters were similar for diluted samples held at 4 degree C and 21 degree C, and samples maintained high numbers of viable (77.8 plus or minus 5.4%) and morphologically normal (67.9 plus or minus 2.5%) spermatozoa at 3 hr. SMI and percentage of viable sperm decreased (P 0.05). Both SMI and viability of frozen-thawed spermatozoa were higher (P < 0.05) for clean than for contaminated ejaculates. This is the first report on penguin ejaculate parameters, semen production, and preliminary methods for short- and long-term semen storage.

  34. Where breeding Magellanic Penguins Spheniscus magellanicus forage: Satellite telemetry results and their implications for penguin conservation

    D. L. Stokes and P. D. Boersma.

    Marine Ornithology, Vol. 27, Mar 1999, pp. 59-65.

    We used satellite telemetry to determine foraging locations and behaviours of two male Magellanic Penguins Spheniscus magellanicus breeding at Punta Tombo, Argentina during the incubation and early chick-rearing periods of the 1995/96 breeding season. Both birds travelled far from the colony and far from shore, even on foraging trips of short duration. During their longest trips, Males One and Two travelled at least 521 km and 236 km from Punta Tombo and at least 152 km and 139 km from shore, respectively. The farthest points of all but two of the birds' 10 trips were more than 60 km from Punta Tombo. The two birds travelled in significantly different directions to forage and foraged in different locations. Temporal pattern of foraging trips and dive pattern also differed between birds. Male Two took more trips and made proportionally fewer dives of intermediate depth (10-40 m) than did Male One. These results raise the possibility that foraging behaviour may differ among individuals of the same class (e.g. experienced breeding males). Although more study is needed, these results demonstrate that the foraging range of a temperate penguin can be large. This and other recent satellite results for Antarctic and sub-Antarctic species, as well as geolocation results for Magellanic Penguins, indicate that extensive foraging ranges during the breeding season may be more common among penguins than previously recognized. This suggests that coastal marine reserves alone are unlikely to protect Magellanic Penguins and several other penguin species, and that conservation measures that regulate human uses over large areas of the marine environment should also be pursued.

  35. Plight of the penguins

    P. Dee Boersma.

    Wildlife Conservation, Vol. 101, No. 1, 1998, pp. 20-27.

    Satellite telemetry is being used to track Magellanic penguins at sea and learn where species go and how they use marine environment. Hopes to reduce some risks arising from human activities

  36. Observations on science and management

    J. R. Schubel.

    Integrative and Comparative Biology, Vol. 37, No. 6, Dec 1997, pp. 563-574.

    Since scientists usually neither understand nor track the management and policy-making processes, they need mechanisms to involve them efficiently and effectively. The holding environment has proved to be a useful institutional model to promote adaptive work by scholars and environmental managers and policy makers.

  37. The penguin environment at Steinhart Aquarium: A model for successful captive rearing

    C. J. Slager.

    CORMORANT., Vol. 16, 1988, pp. 134.

    Since 1983, the Penguin Environment has functioned as a cost-effective, reproductively successful display of Jackass Penguins Spheniscus demersus . Constructed with minimal financial expenditure and exhibit space, this display is a self-sustaining breeding colony of 20 birds, including five mated pairs. By creating a habitat designed to enhance behavioural complexity, in conjunction with intensive keeper/bird interaction, colony health has been maximized. The Environment has never experienced an adult mortality. Utilizing a programme of hand-rearing, parent-rearing, and triple and quadruple clutching, 17 fertile eggs were produced in the most recent 1987/1988 breeding season, with a hatch to fledge success rate of 76%.

  38. Plasmodium relictum as a cause of avian malaria in wild-caught Magellanic penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus )

    A. S. Fix, C. Waterhouse, E. C. Greiner and M. K. Stoskopf.

    Journal of wildlife diseases, Vol. 24, No. 4, 1988, pp. 610-619.

    Avian malaria (Plasmodium relictum ) caused significant mortality in wild-caught Magellanic penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus ) in 1986 at the Blank Park Zoo in Des Moines, Iowa (USA). In early winter, wild birds were captured off the southern coast of Chile and flown to Detroit, Michigan for a 38 day quarantine. After quarantine, 18 birds were dispersed to Lansing, Michigan, six to a facility in Maine, and 46 to Des Moines, Iowa. Upon arrival in Des Moines, several penguins became weak and inactive, had to be force-fed, and died after 2 days. Gross lesions at postmortem included splenomegaly, hepatomegaly, and pulmonary edema. Histopathological examination revealed numerous intraendothelial schizonts in spleen, lung, liver, heart and kidney.

  39. Shedd's Oceanarium


    Oceans, Vol. 21, No. 1, Jan 1988, pp. 63.

    The John G. Shedd Aquarium's Oceanarium allows residents of Chicago to observe whales, seals, penguins and other cold-seawater mammals in a natural setting—without leaving town.

  40. Hand-rearing rock-hopper penguin, Eudyptes crestatus

    T. Nakai.

    Biennial report of the Keikyu Aburatsubo Marine Park Aquarium.Miura, No. 14, 1987, pp. 13-16.

    A baby rock-hopper penguin was hatched under intact condition on May 8, 1987. Judging from the mother's distress with her single care, the baby (110 g in weight) was removed to an incubator (kept at 35 degree C) for hand-rearing on the 5th day from birth. The temperature was gradually decreased to 26 degree C (at 13 days). Pasty food of ground fish-meat/Esbilac mixture was initially given by means of a remodeled syringe, and the body weight doubled by 12 days, and increased 2000 g by 8 weeks. By 62 days vocalization of adult-like sound took place and the animal showed a tendency to follow the feet of the keeper. By 75 days it tried to swim in the pond, and joined in Penguin's Islanders.

  41. Validation of the stomach-flushing technique for obtaining stomach contents of penguins

    R. P. Gales.

    Ibis, Vol. 129, No. 3, 1987, pp. 335-343.

    The efficiency of the stomach flushing technique in obtaining complete stomach contents was tested on Little, Gentoo and Rockhopper Penguins. This technique was validated by feeding the penguins known amounts of fish and subsequently flushing their stomachs after specified time intervals. Examination of the contents showed that the method is effective and offers an alternative to killing penguins in order to obtain stomach contents. The effects of different states of stomach fullness on food recovery rates highlighted the necessity for multiple flushing.

  42. (The Penguin Project in the San Diego's Sea World, California.)

    S. F. Todd and M. B. Araya.

    Boletin antartico chileno.Santiago, Vol. 5, No. 1, 1985, pp. 15-19.

    In 1972 the San Diego Hubbs-Sea World Research Institute began to develop a controlled environment chamber to keep Antarctic penguins and has established a colony which since 1983 serves both for scientific research and public exhibition. Tropical penguins and alcids are also displayed. This paper explains the characteristics of the initial chamber and the exhibition installations (measurements, temperatures, water filtration methods, aeration, ice production, photoperiod, etc.) needed to simulate their environment. Presently a program for collecting and transporting eggs instead of birds is being carried out.

  43. Wounds due to flipper bands on penguins

    A. M. Sallaberry and D. Valencia.

    Journal of Field Ornithology, Vol. 56, No. 3, 1985, pp. 275-277.

    Penguin population studies require flipper banding to obtain information on known-age birds. With the increasing interest in research on antarctic penguins, more scientists will initiate banding programs. Sladen (1952) designed adequate flipper bands without safety fasteners and today these can be obtained commercially. However, at least in one large penguin colony, a different type of flipper band has been used extensively. These metal rings have safety fasteners that flatten to form a projection anterior or posterior to the flipper and fit the flipper close to the humeral articulation. This type of flipper band frequently causes severe injury to the birds regardless of how it is applied and can attract predators or result in death of the banded individual.

  44. Antarctic biological research programs of Chile

    D. J. Valencia.

    Serie cientifica. Instituto Antarctico chileno. Santiago, No. 30, 1983, pp. 145.

    In Chile, the coordinatioon of Antarctic research is carried out by the Instituto Antarctico Chileno (Chilean Antarctic Institute). The researchers belong to universities or governmental agencies for natural resources research. The majority of the projects are ecological (conservation and management of living resources) such as benthic community analysis, primary production in lakes, predator-prey relationships and behaviour in fish, population dynamics of Arctocephalus gazella , lichen communities and penguin reproduction and diet. The development of the BIOMASS Project was directed towards biological oceanographic research. The FIBEX surveys on ecology and krill (Euphausia superba ) behaviour have also made relevant contributions.

  45. Oil pollution and penguins — is cleaning justified?

    R. M. Randall, B. M. Randall and J. Bevan.

    Mar. Pollut. Bull., Vol. 11, No. 8, Mar 1980, pp. 234-237.

    Oil pollution has been the main mortality factor of adult jackass penguins Spheniscus demersus found dead on St. Croix I., South Africa, over a 32 yr period. In July 1979, 150 oiled penguins found on the island were sent to the South African Foundation for the Conservation of Coastal Birds (SANCCOB) to assess the effectiveness of cleaning and rehabilitation attempts. Oil was removed with a detergent and in severe cases with liquid paraffin. The mortality rate before and during treatment was 32%. Once waterproof, the penguins were released at sea near Cape Town. By Feb 1980, 87% of those released had returned to St. Croix I. They appeared healthy, moulted normally, returned to former nests and mates and 6 had produced clutches. SANCCOB has treated 6551 oiled penguins since 1968, and, based on these release and rehabilitation rates, attempts to clean and rehabilitate oiled penguins are justified.

  46. Kinematics of swimming of penguins at the Detroit Zoo

    B. D. Clark and W. Bemis.

    J. Zool., Vol. 188, No. 3, 1979, pp. 411-428.

    Kinematic parameters were examined in a study of the swimming abilities of seven species of penguins housed at the Detroit Zoo. Penguins produce thrust over both halves of the wing stroke cycle, as observed in fishes using the caudal or pectoral fins for locomotion, but not in other birds in level forward flight. Unpowered gliding phases between wing strokes were observed in all species at swimming speeds less than 1.25 m/sec, while Emperor, King and Adelie penguins interpose gliding phases over a broad range of speeds. Videotape records reveal that length-specific speed is correlated with increases in wingbeat frequency and, for most of the species examined, stride length. These findings are in contrast to those reported for other, flying birds, which maintain a relatively constant wingbeat frequency but vary stride length with forward speed, and for most fishes, which vary speed with tailbeat frequency but maintain a constant stride length. The results are somewhat comparable to those reported for Cymatogaster , a fish which uses the pectoral fins for locomotion. Drag coefficients of three gliding Emperor penguins were 2.1, 3.0 and 3.0 x 10SUP—3 at Reynolds numbers of 1.25, 1.62 and 1.76 x 10SUP-6 , respectively.