Discovery Guides Areas


Penguins: Promoting Polar Awareness While Melting Our Hearts
(Released August 2012)

  by Natalie Abram  


Key Citations




Key Citations Short Format Full Format
Choose a Category Biology & Ecology Conservation Ecotourism
  Popular Culture Threats
  1. Hollywood at the tipping point: Blockbuster cinema, globalization, and the cultural logic of ecology

    Stephen A. Rust.

    Ph.D. Thesis, University of Oregon, 2011.

    Twenty-first century American cinema is permeated by images of globalization and environmental change. Responding to what Yale researchers have described as a "sea change" in public perceptions of global warming occurring between 2004 and 2007, this dissertation provides the first extended examination of Hollywood's response to the planet's most pressing social and environmental challenge - global climate change. Among the most widely distributed and consumed forms of popular culture, Hollywood blockbuster films provide a unique textual window into the cultural logic of ecology during this important turning point in Americans' perceptions of environmental risk. The term "cultural logic of ecology" is defined as the collective cultural expression of a society's dominant perceptions and enactments of its relationships with other organisms and their shared bio-physical environments. Surveying the history of climate cinema, my second chapter examines the production and reception contexts of the two films most responsible for renewing public interest in global warming: The Day After Tomorrow (2004) and An Inconvenient Truth (2006). Despite their generic differences, both films combine the formal techniques of melodrama and realism to translate the science of global warming into a moral vernacular. In subsequent chapters, I further intertwine textual and historical analysis to examine other films released during the period that portray aspects of global warming. Considered a children's film, Happy Feet (2006) employs digital animation to illustrate the ecological impacts of globalization on Antarctica, thus presenting viewers with a more accurate picture of the threats facing emperor penguins than did the documentary March of the Penguins (2005). I next analyze There Will Be Blood (2007) as a critique of patriarchy and natural resource exploitation that resonated with American filmgoers as oil prices were skyrocketing and President George W. Bush admitted "America is addicted to oil." Consumed on Imax screens and iPods, and as toys, t-shirts, and video games, blockbusters leave massive cultural and carbon footprints. I conclude by arguing that ecocritical scholarship offers the most effective scholarly toolkit for understanding contemporary cinema as a cultural, textual, and material phenomenon.

  2. Returning penguin to Antarctica 'illegal'; Happy Feet passes muster

    Michelle DUFF.

    Dominion Post, Jun 29, 2011, pp. A.5.

    Massey University penguin expert John Cockrem will be recommending that Happy Feet be released off New Zealand's south coast when the penguin advisory committee, a panel of experts set up to determine his future, has its first meeting at Wellington Zoo today.

  3. Silver Screen to Green Screen: Hollywood Blockbusters as Communication and Education Tools on Environmental Issues

    Amanda Komar.

    M.A. Thesis, The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 2011.

    Using content analysis, this study will examine how the use of feature-length fictional films with environmental themes can be used as a communication and education tool for environmental issues currently present in the world today. A total of 14 films were viewed for this study. Two films were removed from analysis because their plots revolving mainly around political themes, rather than environmental themes. In total, 11 major environmental themes were identified, the most prevalent being protection/treatment of animals, pollution/dumping, and natural resource exploitation. The films were all framed in a pro-environment fashion in which the protagonist is fighting for the environment and the environment is portrayed as the fragile and innocent victim. Each film had poignant take home messages that could be used to communicate important environmental issues to the public.

  4. Wayward penguin 'Happy Feet' released into Antarctic


    The Herald, Sep 4, 2011, pp. n/a.

    WELLINGTON, New Zealand — He needed a little push before speeding backward down a makeshift slide. Once in the water, he popped his head up for one last look. And then he was gone. The wayward emperor penguin known as "Happy Feet" was back home in Antarctic waters after an extended sojourn spent capturing hearts in New Zealand. "I was really happy to see him go," [Lisa Argilla] said. "The best part of my job is when you get to release animals back into the wild where they are supposed to be." AP "Happy Feet," the wayward emperor penguin, looks out of his temporary pen before he is released into the Southern Ocean south of New Zealand from the research vessel Tangaroa on Sunday.

  5. Hockey fans don't have to cool their heels until the Classic


    Tribune – Review / Pittsburgh Tribune – Review, Dec 29, 2010, pp. n/a.

    Penguins Hall of Fame broadcaster Mike Lange, Stanley Cup champion Phil Bourque and WDVE Morning Show host Val Porter will join Pens mascot Iceburgh and members of the Ice Crew to help cheer on the Pens.

  6. Q&A: Prime-time dissection with Joy Reidenberg

    John Gilbey.

    Nature, Vol. 465, No. 7301, Jun 24, 2010, pp. 1013.

    Each programme centres on the dissection of a large animal - in this series, we look at a great white shark, big cats and a giant squid. [...] huge discoveries are still happening. [...] in my own research area, fossils are being reconstructed on the basis of anatomical relationships derived from images of live animals – these show how soft tissues and bone interact under varying controlled conditions.

  7. Life & Fish: It's a tough world out there!

    Jerry Fraser.

    National Fisherman, Vol. 89, No. 12, Apr 2009, pp. 26-28.

    There's more to it than that – but just how much more isn't clear. Endless Ocean was released in Japan in 2007 to what the Herald called "mild acclaim," which suggests that a handful of scuba geeks were enthralled but most people couldn't be bothered.

  8. Nature's Avant-Garde

    Scott MacDonald.

    Natural History, Vol. 118, No. 8, Oct 2009, pp. 24-29.

    To my amazement, they maintained a rapt silence throughout the film – as did I. In the United States, nature films have become a staple of television and ofthe Imax presentations in museums and science centers, but historically, few have made it into commercial theaters. Beginning with Seal Island (1946), Disney's True-Life Adventure films were hits on the big screen before becoming ubiquitous on television and in schoolrooms. [...] the alarmist slant of The Hèllstrom Chronicle, which warned that insects would overtake humanity, helped that film succeed as a commercial release even as it won its directors, Walon Green and Ed Spiegel, the 1971 Academy Award for best documentary feature.

  9. { THE OSCARS }; The board members who loved 'Surf's Up'; The animated flick was a bit of a washout at the box office, but real wave riders gave it a thumbs-up. And now maybe Oscar will too

    Joel Sappell.

    Los Angeles Times, Feb 17, 2008, pp. E.8.

    Veteran watermen brought their experience to play in virtually every facet of the movie, which mimics the documentary style of countless DVDs stacked in surf shops, from Bruce Brown's classic "Endless Summer" to his son's soulful "Step Into Liquid." Sony Entertainment chief Amy Pascal, who calls "Surf's Up" a "love letter to surfing," says the film was swamped by a summer of big movies but did ride a wave of acclaim among one appreciative audience segment — animators, many of whom help pick Oscar nominees.

  10. Aurora World Inc.; Aurora Eco-Plush Animals – the Perfect ''Green'' Gift for Earth Day and Beyond


    Ecology, Environment & Conservation, Apr 28, 2008, pp. 842.

    Aurora will rollout the product nationally this June to thousands of its retail customers including zoos, aquariums, museums, book stores, department stores, toy stores and catalogs.

  11. How science hit the small screen

    Colin Martin.

    Nature, Vol. 453, No. 7194, May 22, 2008, pp. 454-455.

    224 pp. £45.00 (hbk), £16.99 (pbk) "Is it not a scandal, in this day and age, that there seems to be no place for continuing series of programmes about science?" asked veteran natural history broadcaster David Attenborough, lecturing on the future of public service television in London on 30 April. An exhibition opening next week at London's Science Museum, Films of Fact, charts how science was introduced to the UK public in documentary films and on television in the early twentieth century, from the birth of these media to the 1960s.



    Pittsburgh Post – Gazette, Aug 15, 2008, pp. B.1.

    While the ceremonial shovels scooped up a mound of fresh dirt placed at what one day will be center ice of a six-story structure covering eight acres, they also buried a decade of frustrations and acrimony that built up in the quest to replace Mellon Arena, the oldest venue in the National Hockey League. The new arena, which will be accessible on every level to people with disabilities, includes a full-service restaurant, public bars and food court on both the main concourse and an upper level concourse, five retail shops, one concession point of sale for every 158 spectators, 11 escalators, six truck docks and an enclosed bridge connected to a new parking garage.

  13. How I fell for our pet penguin As Club Penguin becomes the fastest- growing internet site for children, Alice Thomson tells how it has benefited her son

    Alice Thomson.

    The Daily Telegraph, Nov 1, 2007, pp. 025.

    The problem was that everyone else in their class was in on the game and going cyber-sledging together after school. So I asked a friend who is a child psychologist whether she'd heard of it and what she thought about it. "Of course my children use it," she said. "I am not a complete kill-joy." My neighbour told me she had convinced herself it was an educational toy. "It is fantastic," she said. "It teaches them the value of working for money. You unload beanbags from a truck and you get paid, so that you can go and buy a new pair of slippers for your penguin." First, we had to decide what to call his penguin. This is harder than naming a child. You cannot use your real name or something that might identify you (part of Club Penguin's rules to keep information confidential) – but, with 12 million players, it is hard to find a unique moniker. Then you have to decide what colour penguin you want – red, pink, green, blue or yellow (black is not allowed). Once christened, your penguin plays games or does work in order to collect "coins" (points) that he can use to buy food and clothes, or he simply chats to other penguins. Parents can choose to let their children use the "standard" chat that filters out inappropriate greetings or "ultimate safe chat", which restricts children to a predefined menu of statements. Instead, you can take your penguin to town, to the ice-rink or on a trip to the seaside. He can go sledging, surfing, play hide-and-seek or join sports teams. There is no lookism – the penguins are exactly the same size, and you can't swear or "use sexist or racist" language such as, "I don't like blue penguins". And there is a stringent privacy policy: the only information Club Penguin holds about its members is one of their parents' email address. Rather than being permanently glued to the screen, as some critics fear, the children only ever seem to play for about half an hour, and whole days go by when my son forgets about it.

  14. Industry Interview: Animated Life – An Interview with Simon Clark

    Monique Hohnberg.

    Screen Education, No. 47, 2007, pp. 46-49.

    In an interview, Simon Clark comments on how he began his career as an animator, working with 3D animation, his collaborative relationship with directors, the difference between feature and commercial work, his unique experience working on the animated film "Happy Feet," the personal qualities needed to pursue a career in animation, the best and worst apsects of being an animator, the differences between the Australian and United Kingdom animation industries, and his plans for the future. A sidebar offering Clarke's credentials and accomplishments is provided.

  15. MOVIES; REVIEW; Hang a 10 on creativity; Clever animation and a feel- good story line in mock-documentary form make 'Surf's Up' a wild ride

    Kevin Crust.

    Los Angeles Times, Jun 8, 2007, pp. E.4.

    "Charlie don't surf!" bellows Robert Duvall in "Apocalypse Now," but apparently penguins do. At least that's the concept of the animated "Surf's Up," a clever, delightfully rendered summer diversion in which a tiny rockhopper penguin named Cody Maverick aspires to be a champion wave rider. Directed by Ash Brannon and Chris Buck from a screenplay by Don Rhymer, Brannon, Buck and Christopher Jenkins, "Surf's Up" rides inventive visuals to mostly winning results. Brannon and Buck parody sports docs in general and television surf coverage in particular, instilling the movie with an X Games vibe. The surfing action replicates and at times surpasses the real thing, and the fabricated "vintage footage" is a wonder to look at. Interviews with [Young Cody] and his family conducted by a comically intrusive documentary crew frame the main story, building toward the flightless little bird's inevitable showdown with emperor penguin Tank "the Shredder" Evans (Diedrich Bader), nine-time winner of the Surf-Off.

  16. My life as a penguin

    Michael Agger.

    National Post, Sep 18, 2007, pp. A.14-A14.

    Creating a penguin is simple, though the entire sign-up process emphasizes safety in such a way that a curious adult can't help feeling like a predator. The site asks you to "Respect Other Penguins" and "Never Reveal Your Personal Information." Establishing a sheltered haven in the Internet maelstrom is Club Penguin's selling point. The site offers "Ultimate Safe Chat," in which a penguin can use only preselected words, and "Standard Safe Chat," in which you can type any word, but all the words are screened by a filter. The first thing you notice is that everyone is really dressed up. When you click on another penguin, their "Player Card" appears. This shows all of the pins, hats, props and accessories that the penguin has acquired by completing various missions and shopping at various stores. The net result is that a lot of penguins end up looking like Elton John. Many initial penguin-to-penguin comments are sartorial in nature, such as "Where did you get that hat?" or "Nice outfit." A common opener, though, is the one that the pink penguin directed my way: "boy or girl?" An enterprising penguin tried this variation: "All girls in the room come to me!" The emphatic "WHO WANTS TO BE A COUPLE?" is also popular.

  17. Penguin charm rides again in 'Surf's Up' ; Beautiful visuals, appealing actors make for frothy fun

    Claudia Puig.

    USA TODAY, Jun 8, 2007, pp. E.5.

    Though it doesn't have the rousing musical numbers of Happy Feet or the fascinating saga and emotion of March of the Penguins, Surf's Up is yet another entertaining film featuring penguins. The interplay between Cody Maverick (Shia LaBeouf), a young penguin who yearns to be a surfing champ, and the gnarly former champ Big Z/Geek ([Jeff Bridges] in a sort of dual role) generally works well, largely because of the chemistry between the two actors. Bridges, particularly, is in his element. He stands out in a part that spins off his slacker Dude character from The Big Lebowski (without the criminal elements). It's not exactly awash in cleverness, but it is good clean fun for the family. Though [Cody]'s character has some rather annoyingly bratty moments, adults will get a kick out of Bridges' recognizable laid-back old surfer.

  18. Penguin Power: 'Surf's Up' Shreds New Water

    Ann Hornaday – Washington Post Staff Writer.

    The Washington Post, Jun 8, 2007, pp. C.1.

    [Cody] is a rockhopper penguin, the kind with yellow plumes sprouting showily out of their heads, and for the first few minutes of "Surf's Up," viewers will no doubt be surprised to hear LaBeouf's adolescent croak instead of Robin Williams, who portrayed the rockhopper in "Happy Feet." But where that overstuffed and overlong film careered into dark, digressive jags, "Surf's Up" keeps it simple, sprightly and visually dazzling. Then there's Jeff Bridges, who's been enlisted to play the washed-up old salt named Geek, a crusty old beach bum who teaches Cody that there's more to surfing than shredding the competition. Fans of "The Big Lebowski" will find it a particularly inspired piece of casting, proving that even as a two-dimensional character, The Dude abides. "Surf's Up" rides its own tube, balancing as it does between too cool and too cute. It's neither, which is a neat trick indeed considering its overexposed avian subjects.

  19. Pleasant 'Surf's Up' rides penguin-craze wave

    Mike Scott.

    Times - Picayune, Jun 8, 2007, pp. 05-LAG.05.

    The toe-tapping "Happy Feet" was a case of National Geographic meets "Moulin Rouge" meets "An Inconvenient Truth," whereas the markedly more cartoonish "Surf's Up" — from Sony Pictures Animation, the studio behind last year's "Open Season" — is more like Chilly Willy meets "Karate Kid" meets "The Office." It's a cute idea — penguins in the tropics — and the lush setting gives the animators a chance to shine. There's nothing so artful as the gorgeous underwater "flyby" sequences from "Happy Feet," but at the same time there's only so much visual bang you can get out of glacial snowscapes. On Pen Gu Island, where [Cody]'s surfing competition is held, there's sand, there are swaying palms, there's dense jungle foliage, there's an unexplainable tribe of Ewok- like penguin natives. And it's all rendered with an expert, and detailed, hand. (Exhibit A: In the credits of "Surf's Up," there are seven people assigned to the "Hair & Feather" crew.) Listen up: Some notable voices to listen for in "Surf's Up": Jon Heder ("Blades of Glory," "Napoleon Dynamite") as the goofy, gangly Michigan-bred Chicken Joe; James Woods ("Be Cool," "Shark") as the Don-King-coiffed surfing promoter Reggie Belafonte; original "Saturday Night Live" cast member Laraine Newman as an unidentified "additional voice"; and real-life champion surfers Rob Machado and Kelly Slater, in penguin form.

  20. Popularizing Antarctic science: impact factors and penguins

    Lloyd S. Davis.

    Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems, Vol. 17, Dec 2007, pp. S148-S164.

    1. Science is the primary way by which we can know the truth about the world in which we live. Yet, as much as we need science, the public has become overwhelmed by it and, paradoxically, excluded from it too. 2. Even scientists cannot cope with the volume of science being produced and, further, the method we use to communicate among ourselves is hopelessly inadequate-indeed, a barrier-for promoting understanding outside our specialty areas. Yet, the use of impact factors and the like, used to assess and reward performance, lock us into communicating principally through the poorly accessed window of peer-reviewed journals. 3. We need means of making science easily digestible while still maintaining its precision. These are, of course, not issues peculiar to Antarctic science, however, as Antarctic scientists the responsibility for popularizing our research falls more squarely on our shoulders given the limited access others have to the Antarctic. This paper sets out what we must do in order to engage the public and popularize science: it is not just what we say, but the way we say it that is important. 4. An example of science from research on penguins is used to demonstrate the various ways it may be popularized. While the need for science communication has never been more pressing, the means at our disposal for communicating Antarctic science have never been more varied or more cost effective.

  21. Radical, DUDE

    Barbara Robertson.

    Computer Graphics World, Vol. 30, No. 6, Jun 2007, pp. 12-17.

    In Sony Pictures' Surf's Up, a documentary film crew follows a young hot-dog surfer named Cody Maverick from Shiverpool, Antarctica, to the Big Z Memorial Surf Off on Pen Gu Island. "It was fun to fake that whole style to create the illusion of reality, the believability of characters, to shoot with a handheld camera, to even have access to archival footage," says Ash Brannon, who directed the film with Chris Buck. During Surf's Up, the documentary crew making the film about Cody often captures the Sports Penguin Entertainment Network (SPEN) crew, which is covering the surfing championship event.


    Renata Marson Teixeira de Andrade-Downs, William Beinart, Michael Bess, Lisa M. Brady and et al.

    Environmental History, Vol. 12, No. 2, Apr 2007, pp. 280-393.

    The Charcoal People portrays carvoeiros' lives through nuanced biographies, focusing on the socially produced identity of the carvoeiro as an inherent part of the destruction of forests, and on their bodies as an anachronistic technology, rooted in mid-nineteenth century charcoal production. The film adds a historical perspective on the anachronism of current charcoal production by connecting the bodies of carvoeiros with those of Brazil Indian and African slaves who produced charcoal during the peak of mid-nineteenthcentury smelting and forging in the states of Rio de Janeiro and Minas Gerais. However, this film also presents an in-depth perspective on what sort of hardships those sixty-thousand carvoeiros face in Brazil, with vulnerable and volatile work contracts, child labor, and worsening living and working conditions, as they migrate and follow multinational steelmakers toward the Amazon forest. Environmental history as a discipline is incorporating the roles of race, gender, and class in environmental transformations by focusing on anachronistic and subaltern histories, borrowing from concepts in political ecology, environmental anthropology, and environmental justice.

  23. Surf's Up


    Boxoffice, Vol. 143, No. 4, Apr 2007, pp. 88.

    This one's more "goofy foot" than Happy Feet-an animated, mock surf doc that reveals the extreme sport was actually invented by penguins.

  24. 'Surf's Up' rides a penguin wave

    Claudia Puig.

    USA TODAY, Mar 6, 2007, pp. D.1.

    Shia LaBeouf is the voice of teenage penguin Cody Maverick, a passionate surfer entering his first competition. A camera crew is following him and filming his experiences as he meets a wacky crew of surf nuts along the way: Chicken Joe (Jon Heder), surf promoter Reggie Belafonte (James Woods) and lifeguard Lani (Zooey Deschanel). Cody is all about winning until he meets Big Z and realizes a winner doesn't necessarily get the top prize. Surf's Up riffs on the Christopher Guest-style of mock documentary. It may be the Spinal Tap of penguin cinema.

  25. Capturing a classic form; Thanks to technology, Savion Glover and Mumble, the adorable penguin in Happy Feet, tap is back on top

    Sarah Kaufman.

    Orlando Sentinel, Dec 30, 2006, pp. D.7-D7.

    WASHINGTON – No one involved in Happy Feet set out to make a blockbuster tribute to tap-dancing. But as it turned out, the movie about a hyper-rhythmic penguin who saves his flock with his dancing feet is the best thing to happen to tap since Fred Astaire. Perhaps it's better. Astaire was big, Astaire was a genius, Astaire was Astaire — but he was no darling, fuzzy little bird, nor the object of pint-size wuv. Misfit penguin Mumble, on the other hand, is all those things and one of the biggest stars at the box office. For fans of tap, humble Mumble is the new messiah.

  26. The dawn of the cute penguin; They're charismatic and quirky and have become stars of both Internet and film

    Nick Divito.

    Toronto Star, Dec 26, 2006, pp. G.6-G6.

    Of course, it's not the first time the tuxedoed bird has enjoyed the spotlight. Willie the Penguin peddled Kool cigarettes from the 1930s to the 1960s, and a penguin-shaped cocktail shaker was the bar accessory to have in the 1930s. Fast forward to 1992, when Danny DeVito personified an evil penguin in Batman Returns. Tux the Penguin became the Linux website mascot in 1996. Lately, penguins are popping up all over the Internet. They're helping spread the word on the dangers of influenza and recently added a single penguin to the top of its website. You can choose a penguin to be your icon when you send instant messages through America Online, while Yahoo's homepage features a penguin that skates around the Yahoo logo. while some have penguin fever simply because the animal is so darn cute, author Sandra Boynton chose to use the flightless waterfowl as the centre her new children's book, My Personal Penguin, because of its alliterative possibilities."Plus, I knew my book was going to come out during the holidays, so it was a pretty obvious choice. There is definitely a penguin zeitgeist right now, so I went with a penguin," she said.

  27. Family values in black and white

    Marlene Zuk.

    Nature, Vol. 439, No. 7079, Feb 23, 2006, pp. 917.

    Zuk comments on why the sexual behavior of penguins, although fascinating, does not offer the moral lessons that some popular commentators would have one believe.

  28. Green activists enlist penguins to save the world

    Katie McGoldrick and Emma Marris.

    Nature, Vol. 444, No. 7122, Dec 21, 2006, pp. 978-9.

    In this winter's hit film, Happy Feet, emperor penguins score a total moratorium on Antarctic fishing thanks to their winsome tap-dancing routines. Environmental groups are using the film, and last yea's equally popular documentary March of the Penguins, to push their messages—especially the dangers of increasing fishing in the Southern Ocean and climate change.

  29. H'wood gets real with doc flock

    Ian Mohr.

    Variety, Vol. 403, No. 4, Jun 12-Jun 18, 2006, pp. 7.

    "If you go up to someone in a mall and ask them how many docs they saw last year, they might say zero," says Ted Mundorff, veep and head film buyer at Landmark Theaters, the largest specialty film chain. Dean Devlin ("Independence Day") produced Sony Pictures Classics' "Who Killed the Electric Car?," while Sydney Pollack directed "Sketches of Frank Gehry."

  30. It's hard out here for a penguin ; 'Happy Feet' taps along the line that separates capering, catastrophe; 'HAPPY FEET' ***

    Tribune movie critic Michael Phillips.

    Chicago Tribune, Nov 17, 2006, pp. 1.

    [Mumble]'s avocation comes in handy late in an increasingly despairing game. The unseen humans' nearby marine harvesting has left the penguins without a food supply, and the village elder (Hugo Weaving), looking for a scapegoat, singles out Mumble for his "pagan display" of tap-dancing. The young hoofer falls in with a group of Adelie penguins, whose vato leader, Ramon, is voiced by Robin Williams. He also provides the voice of Lovelace, a guru penguin slowly being strangled--and not in a funny way—by a plastic six- pack ring. Mumble's special lady penguin friend (Brittany Murphy) follows him across the vast ice universe, but in the end, it is Mumble alone who confronts the alien "annihilators," better known as mankind.

  31. Parade of Penguins before 'Happy Feet'


    Chicago Tribune, Dec 12, 2006, pp. 1.

    (Scene from the movie 'Happy Feet') PENGUIN GROUP LTD (1936): Book publishing house. "MR. POPPER'S PENGUINS" (1938): Written by [Richard] and [Florence Atwater]. Newbery Award-winning book. Mr. [Popper] is a house painter who dreams of Polar expeditions. One day a crate from a famous explorer in Antarctica arrives at the Popper house containing ... a penguin. Trivia: Atwater once taught Greek at the University of Chicago. THE PENGUIN (1941): A master villain and nemesis of Batman, makes his first appearance in Detective Comics. Back story: Oswald Cobblepot was a short, fat rich kid with a beaky nose and an avid interest in birds. School bullies nicknamed him "Penguin"; he grew up to become a criminal mastermind who prides himself on his high-class demeanor — he wears a tuxedo, top hat and carries an umbrella. Portrayed by [Burgess Meredith] on television, [Danny DeVito] on film. Meredith was TV's"Penguin" PINGU (1986): Character created by [Silvio Mazzola] of Switzerland. The Pingu series is classic, stop-frame claymation created by [Omar Gutman] for Swiss TV. The award-winning films are popular around the world, and Pingu, a charming but naughty little penguin, is heavily merchandised. TUX THE PENGUIN (1994): Created by [Larry Ewing] as a logo for the Linux open-source operating system. "MARCH OF THE PENGUINS" (2005): Emperor penguins documentary. "SURF'S UP" (2007): Animated movie (Sony), featuring surfing penguins.

  32. The penguin zeitgeist; Why in the world has this flightless aquatic bird become such a darling of current pop culture?

    Nick DiVito.

    The Record, Dec 28, 2006, pp. D.1-D1.

    Of course, it's not the first time the tuxedoed bird has enjoyed the spotlight. Willie the Penguin peddled Kool cigarettes from the 1930s to the '60s, and a penguin-shaped cocktail shaker was the bar accessory to have in the '30s. Fast forward to 1992, when Danny DeVito personified an evil penguin in Batman Returns. Tux the Penguin became the Linux website mascot in 1996. Lately penguins seem to be popping up all over the Internet. They're helping spread the word on the dangers of influenza; recently added a single penguin to the top of its website. You can choose a penguin to be your icon when you send instant messages through America Online, while Yahoo's homepage features a penguin that skates around the Yahoo logo. Photo: AP PHOTO/ WARNER BROS. PICTURES / Happy Feet, about a penguin who can't stop dancing, was a box-office smash.; Photo: ASSOCIATED PRESS / Author [Sandra Boynton] decided to write about penguins in her latest children's book because of their universal appeal.; Photo: ASSOCIATED PRESS / Club Penguin; Photo: ASSOCIATED PRESS / Launched in March, Club Penguin has become the's most popular site. The game is an interactive time-killer that allows players to assume the identity of a cute little penguin and chat with others, hit the disco floor, decorate a penguin abode, ride bobsleds and throw snowballs at other penguins.

  33. POP GOES THE PENGUIN ; The image of a black and white seabird has adorned ever ything from chocolate biscuits to paperback books. Now 'Happy Feet', a new hit film, has set the seal on the penguin's place in popular culture. By Ed Caesar

    Ed Caesar.

    The Independent, Dec 19, 2006, pp. 12.

    The Penguin – or Oswald Chesterfield Cobblepot as he was named – is perhaps the most complex of Batman's nemeses. Introduced in DC Comics in December 1941 by the artist Bob Kane, the Penguin is a short, deformed pudding of a man who wears a top hat, dinner jacket and monocle. But he is no monster: the Penguin styles himself as the "gentleman of crime". Born to a society family, the Penguin was relentlessly bullied as a child. His love of all things feathered was evident from his earliest days, and he is said to have been tipped into lawlessness by an incident in which his mother's pet shop was attacked by a group of toughs, who murdered all the animals. The Penguin was initially a minor character in the Batman comics and it was Burgess Meredith's performance as the waddling supervillain in the 1960s television series that shot him to prominence. The Penguin's status as a major player in the Batman series was confirmed when Danny Devito (above) played the feathered fiend in the 1992 motion picture Batman Returns. Created in 1932 by McVitie's, the manufacturing arm of United Biscuits, the P-P-P-P-Penguin is one of the Olympian achievements of the British biscuit industry. This milk-chocolate covered biscuit bar has been a mainstay of field trip lunchboxes and picnic hampers. It has been much-imitated – most notably by the Australian Tim Tam – but never bettered. The Penguin was wrapped in foil grease-proof paper featuring a picture of an emperor penguin and a joke or fact. Modern sachets continue the traditions in a more environmentally viable medium. Penguin spin-offs have appeared (Penguin chukkas, Wing Dings, and the Flipper Dipper.). But, has told McVitie's to "leave it out ... This is like getting your granny up to dance to the latest choons [sic] at a wedding disco". Penguin Books revolutionised the reading habits of a generation. Founded in 1935 by Allen Lane, the concept behind the new publishing phenomenon was to provide quality writing for the same price as a packet of cigarettes. Traditionally, paperbacks had been associated with pulp, or low-quality fiction. Penguin changed all that. The early series of Penguin Books have become design classics. Whereas most paperbacks of the 1930s were gaudy items featuring ornate illustrations, Lane's books were simple. Consisting of three horizontal bands - two coloured stripes sandwiching a white band in the middle – the covers simply detailed the name of the title, its author, and iconic Penguin logo. Following the success of the original imprint, Penguin branched into academic literature, with its enormously successful Pelican range. And, having branched out with one imprint, Penguin further extended its wings with a number of other imprints, including Penguin Classics (for classic literature), Allen Lane (for original nonfiction), and Puffin (for children). Perhaps the publisher's greatest moment, though, came in the court case over its decision to sell D H Lawrence's erotic masterpiece Lady Chatterley's Lover, which sparked over 3.5 million sales.

  34. Tooning in, tooning out


    Boxoffice, Vol. 142, No. 11, Nov 2006, pp. 78-81.

    Coming in June 2007 from Sony Pictures Animation is Surfs Up, which Landau calls "a documentary about surfing penguins"–another example of Sony's eclectic approach to animation. "We're very conscious of not having a house style," Landau says. "We want the art and storytelling style to be specific to the filmmakers and the story they wish to tell." For example, Open Season helmer Jill Culton used the book of Christmas cards by renowned Disney background painter Eyvind Earle for inspiration, explaining, "Every card had this old graphic look, with snow and trees and logs and little skewed churches." That "wonkiness," as art director Andy Harkness put it, worked well for the backwoods tale. Another type of card, at least in America's animation deck, is Imax 3-D; Open Season opened on 65 giant screens and pulled about $1.4 million, for a satisfying per-screen average of about $22,000. "It's awesome," Landau says of the technology. "We're really big proponents of 3-D as a continuing factor in theatergoing." But Landau notes a limitation for the third dimension: "There are not that many 3-D screens outside the U.S., so that's a factor. It's a real limitation. And the bulk of our revenues on animated films comes from outside the U.S., so it's a balancing act." Sony's Landau doesn't think so. "There is certainly room in the marketplace for musicals and there's a place for 2D animation, so I think there will be both. I don't think any one type of storytelling and any one type of animation will dominate." Exhibitor Relations' [Paul Dergarabedian] has his own take. "A return to the older-style musical animated film may be just what the industry needs to get audiences excited about animation again," he says. "It may be the sameness of some recent animated releases that might be leaving audiences less than enthusiastic about running to the multiplex. An old-school musical approach using new technology may be just what the doctor ordered."

  35. Bird-brained

    Matt Walker.

    New Scientist, Vol. 188, No. 2519, Oct 1-Oct 7, 2005, pp. 17.

    A new penguin film is getting a lot of controversies after members of the Christian right in the US have suggested that the birds should be held up as role models for human behavior. These musings are dangerously misleading, for there is more to penguin society that is obvious at first sight. Walker discusses.

  36. Docs: Leave It to the Birds to Bring Home B.O. Gold

    Iain Blair.

    Variety, Vol. 401, No. 2, Nov 28, 2005-Dec 4, 2005, pp. 42.

    Although documentaries are noted for usually having little word of mouth and taking in low revenues, "La Marche de l'empereur" ("The March of the Penguins") grossed more than $75 million and is a strong contender in the 2006 Academy Awards race.

  37. Penguins feather Warners' nest

    Alison James and Pamela McClintock.

    Variety, Vol. 399, No. 12, Aug 15-Aug 21, 2005, pp. 7-8.

    Warner Independent prexy Mark Gill and National Geo's Tim Kelly and Adam Leipzig were the only buyers to sit through the screening of "Penguins" at Sundance; everyone else bolted midway through, many of them to chase after "Hustle." Warners and National Geo picked up the U.S. and U.K. theatrical, DVD and TV rights for $1 million.

  38. Scientists on screen

    Adam Rutherford.

    Nature, Vol. 438, No. 7064, Nov 3, 2005, pp. 25-6.

    Rutherford reviews Mad, Bad and Dangerous: The Scientist and the Cinema by Christopher Frayling.

  39. The cool penguins in Japan: images of marine creatures made by aquariums and other media

    R. Akami-Wada, T. Akami, S. Seino and O. Isida.

    Monaco: Musee Oceanographique, 2001, 421-430

    "Is the message of exhibition really communicated to visitors?" To answer this question, taking the example of penguin exhibitions at zoos and aquariums in Japan, we undertook a study to review the history of penguin exhibitions and conducted three surveys: "Exhibition Concepts," "Actual Exhibitions" and "Visitors' Impressions" of these exhibitions. Television and advertising have made extensive use of penguins, creating the image of these birds as animals living only in polar regions. Probably as a reflection of these widespread images, even temperate species have been exhibited on imitation iceberg settings in many zoos and aquariums. Recently, however, these imitation iceberg settings have been repainted in brown or covered with sand and plants to rectify the message to visitors concerning the true situation of penguins in the wild. The visitors' survey indicated that the message was not sufficiently assimilated by visitors. This emphasizes the need to perceive and understand visitors' interests more accurately in order to devise more convincing exhibitions to get these messages across to them.Original Abstract: Les visiteurs recoivent-ils le message que leur adressent les aquariums ? Afin d'y repondre, en prenant dans cette etude l'exemple de l'exposition des pingouins dans les Zoos ou les Aquariums au Japon, nous avons realise une etude afin de donner une vue d'ensemble de l'histoire de l'exposition des pingouins. Nous avons examine les trois points suivants : 1) la conception de l'exposition, 2) l'exposition realisee, 3) les impressions des visiteurs concernant l'exposition actuelle. En raison de l'influence de medias comme la television, la publicite, la presse, le public a l'image de pingouins, animaux des regions froides. Soumis a cette meme influence mediatique, Zoos et Aquariums ont tendance a exposer aussi les especes des zones temperees, dans des decors de banquises. Nous avons note que le message concernant leur habitat n'est pas suffisamment transmis. Zoos et Aquariums doivent comprendre le point de vue et les centres d'interet des visiteurs et rechercher les moyens de transmettre un message educatif convaincant aupres du public.

  40. and TechTV's The Screen Savers Go Penguin Crazy; Special Giveaways Feature "Tux", the Linux Mascot

    Business Editors/High Tech Writers.

    Business Wire, Jun 4, 2001, pp. 1.

    The TechTV web site also features a "find Tux" contest. Web site visitors who can "find Tux" are entered into a drawing. The Screen Savers will award free Tux plush toys to more than 50 prize winners during the week. The grand prize winner will receive a 36-inch tall Tux stuffed toy. Buy the "Tux Family". Everybody needs a little love from Tux! Get a collection of Tux plush toys for a special bundle price. The Tux family bundle consists of four different Tux plush toys, ranging in size from 4 to 18 inches tall. If sold separately the Tux Family would cost more than $70.00. Available until June 30, 2001 for only $34.95. Buy the "Tux Family" from at http:// How about "Formal Tux"? Formal Tux is's 36-inch tall Tux plush toy outfitted with the Penguin Power T-shirt XL, Penguin Power Boxer shorts XL, wonderful Tux tie, and Tux tiepin. If sold separately Formal Tux would cost over $147. Available until June 30, 2001 for only $99.95. (Some assembly required.) Buy "Formal Tux" from at

  41. Penguin on parade: Mascot picks up military honour

    Mark Oliver.

    The Guardian, Aug 18, 2001, pp. 1-1.1.

    Watched by 120 soldiers from the Royal Norwegian Guard, the 30lb bird showed impeccable military decorum throughout the 10-minute ceremony, save a slight flutter of the wings. To the sound of the regimental band, the king penguin held his head high as he was led out of his pool and stood quietly as the guard's commanding officer, Bjarne Nermo, introduced him to 200 onlookers.



    Pittsburgh Post - Gazette, Jan 28, 1998, pp. F.1-1.

    There's a big guy with an industrial strength turkey baster and there's Bob, the engineer, and there are the two Zamboni pilots, and there's the guy in the black blazer who gets stuck in what looks like an upright, bullet-proof box, and there is, of course, Mr. Iceburgh of the Affable Mascots Union. It's backstage at the Penguins, 10 minutes before they drop the puck, and we're all just hanging out in the tunnel behind the Pittsburgh goal wondering if the ice is going to crawl. When you're having about 15,000 people over, you're going to need ice, and you're going to need someone who really knows how to make it, which means somebody who knows how its consistency is affected by the temperature in the building, the temperature outside, the humidity, the number of people in the building, and even the number of goals in the first period, which increases the inside temperature dramatically. You need a guy who knows how to keep it from crawling, which is what happens when ice is too cold and newly introduced water doesn't have a chance to flow before it starts to freeze. Instead, it crawls across the surface like gnarled tree roots.

  43. Gimmicks sometimes fall flat // NHL: From a skating bear to a live penguin for a mascot, hockey promotions have a colorful history

    KAREN CROUSE: The Orange County Register.

    Orange County Register, Apr 11, 1995, pp. D.09.

    Mother of invention or hag? When the subject is hockey promotions, sometimes it all depends on your angle. In the 1930s, a newspaper reporter with the now-defunct Vancouver Star deplored "the reeking cloud of lower Americanism" in the NHL. The odorous billow could have emanated from New York's Madison Square Garden, where in the 1930s Rangers promoter Tom Lockhart was not above enlisting players on the team to help pacify the crowds between periods. Imagine Mighty Ducks forwards Joe Sacco and Paul Kariya racing up and down the ice during the first intermission, miniature airplanes gliding in the air behind them like kites. The modern-day Jumbotron airplane races seem banal by comparison.

  44. Science on ice


    Science News, Vol. 143, No. 15, Apr 10, 1993, pp. 232-235.

    Decades of environmental mismanagement in Antarctica have caused problems that modern polar researchers must address. The extent of pollution in Antarctica and concerns that scientists have over upcoming regulations are discussed.


    From Call news services.

    Morning Call, Aug 10, 1992, pp. A.02-A02.

    Children gather around to get a hug from a big penguin during the Three Rivers Regatta yesterday...