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Bugs in Our Guts—Not All Bacteria Are Bad
How Probiotics Keep Us Healthy

(Released September 2006)

  by Leila Kiani  


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  1. Gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata L.) innate immune response after dietary administration of heat-inactivated potential probiotics

    P. Diaz-Rosales, I. Salinas and A. Rodriguez, et al.

    Fish & shellfish immunology, Vol. 20, No. 4, Apr 2006, pp. 482-492.

    The effects of the dietary administration of two heat-inactivated whole bacteria from the Vibrionaceae family, singly or combined, on innate immune response of the seabream were studied. The two bacteria (Pdp11 and 51M6), which were obtained from the skin of gilthead seabream, showed in vitro characteristics that suggested they could be considered as potential fish probiotics. The fish were fed four different diets: control (non-supplemented), or diets supplemented with heat-inactivated bacteria at 10 super(8)cfug super(-) super(1) Pdp11, 10 super(8)cfug super(-) super(1) 51M6 or with 0.5x10 super(8)cfug super(-) super(1) Pdp11 plus 0.5x10 super(8)cfug super(-) super(1) 51M6 for 4 weeks. Six fish were sampled at weeks 1, 2, 3 and 4, when the main humoral (natural haemolytic complement activity and serum peroxidase content) and cellular innate immune responses (leucocyte peroxidase content, phagocytosis, respiratory burst and cytotoxicity) were evaluated. The serum peroxidase content and the natural haemolytic complement activity increased with time, reaching the highest values in the third and fourth weeks of feeding, respectively. The phagocytic ability of specimens fed the mixture of the two inactivated bacteria was significantly higher than in the controls after 2 and 3 weeks of treatment. The same activity increased significantly in seabream fed the Pdp11 diet for 2 weeks or the 51M6 diet for 3 weeks. Respiratory burst activity was unaffected by all the experimental diets at all times assayed. Cytotoxic activity had significantly increased after 3 weeks in fish fed the 51M6 diet. These results are discussed in terms of the usefulness of incorporating inactivated probiotic bacteria into fish diets.

  2. Nutrition support in acute pancreatitis: a systematic review of the literature

    Stephen A. McClave, Wei-Kuo Chang, Rupinder Dhaliwal and Daren K. Heyland.

    JPEN Journal of parenteral and enteral nutrition, Vol. 30, No. 2, Mar-Apr 2006, pp. 143-156.

    BACKGROUND: Failure to use the gastrointestinal (GI) tract in patients with acute pancreatitis may exacerbate the stress response and disease severity, leading to greater incidence of complications and prolonged hospitalization. The objectives of this study were to determine the optimum route for nutrition support, whether nutrition therapy is better than no artificial nutrition support, whether specific additives to enteral or parenteral therapy can further enhance their efficacy, and whether methodologic differences in delivery of enteral nutrition (EN) influence tolerance. METHODS: A computerized search was performed of MEDLINE, Cochrane database, EMBASE, and reference lists of pertinent review articles for prospective randomized trials in adult patients with acute pancreatitis that evaluated interventions with nutrition therapy. Primary outcome data and surrogate endpoint parameters (for nutrition indices, stress markers, and measures of the inflammatory/immune response) were extracted in duplicate independently. Where appropriate, meta-analysis was performed by random-effects model. RESULTS: From 119 articles screened, 27 randomized controlled trials were included and analyzed. In patients admitted for acute pancreatitis, meta-analysis of 7 trials showed that use of EN was associated with a significant reduction in infectious morbidity (risk ratio [RR] = 0.46; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.29 - 0.74; p = .001) and hospital length of stay (LOS; weighted mean difference [WMD] = -3.94; 95% CI, -5.86 to -2.02; p < .0001), a trend toward reduced organ failure (RR = 0.59; 95% CI, 0.28-1.27; p = .18), with no effect on mortality (RR = 0.88; 95% CI, 0.43-1.79; p = .72) when compared with use of parenteral nutrition (PN). Results from individual studies suggest that EN in comparison to PN reduces oxidative stress, hastens resolution of the disease process, and costs less. Insufficient data exist to determine whether EN improves outcome over standard therapy (no artificial nutrition support) in patients admitted for acute pancreatitis. However, in those patients requiring surgery for complications of acute pancreatitis, meta-analysis of 2 trials indicates that provision of EN postoperatively may reduce mortality (RR = 0.26; 95% CI, 0.06 - 1.09; p = .06) compared with standard therapy. PN provided early within 24 hours of admission was shown to worsen outcome, whereas PN provided later after full-volume resuscitation appeared to improve outcome when compared with standard therapy. In early individual studies, specific supplements added to EN, such as arginine, glutamine, omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, and probiotics, may be associated with a positive impact on patient outcome in acute pancreatitis, compared with EN alone without the supplements, but studies are too few to make strong treatment recommendations. Supplementation of PN with parenteral glutamine was shown to reduce oxidative stress and improve patient outcome (reduced duration of nutrition therapy and decreased hospital LOS) compared with PN alone in patients with acute pancreatis. A wide range of tolerance to EN exists, irrespective of known influences such as mode (continuous vs bolus) and level of infusion within the GI tract (gastric vs postpyloric). CONCLUSIONS: Patients with acute severe pancreatitis should begin EN early because such therapy modulates the stress response, promotes more rapid resolution of the disease process, and results in better outcome. In this sense, EN is the preferred route and has eclipsed PN as the new "gold standard" of nutrition therapy. When PN is used, it should be initiated after 5 days. The favorable effect of both EN and PN on patient outcome may be further enhanced by supplementation with modulators of inflammation and systemic immunity. Individual variability allows for a wide range of tolerance to EN, even in severe pancreatitis.

  3. Probiotics and chronic disease

    Ilse J. Broekaert and W. Allan Walker.

    Journal of clinical gastroenterology, Vol. 40, No. 3, Mar 2006, pp. 270-274.

    In today's climate, changed lifestyles and the increased use of antibiotics are significant factors that affect the preservation of a healthy intestinal microflora. The concept of probiotics is to restore and maintain a microflora advantageous to the human body. Probiotics are found in a number of fermented dairy products, infant formula, and dietary supplements. Basic research on probiotics has suggested several modes of action beneficial for the human body and clinical research has proven its preventive and curative features in different intestinal and extraintestinal diseases. Chronic diseases cause considerable disablement in patients and represent a substantial economic burden on healthcare resources. Research has demonstrated a crucial role of nutrition in the prevention of chronic disease. Thus, positive, strain-specific effects of probiotics have been shown in diarrheal diseases, inflammatory bowel diseases, irritable bowel syndrome, and Helicobacter pylori-induced gastritis, and in atopic diseases and in the prevention of cancer. As the majority of probiotics naturally inhabit the human intestinal microflora, their use has been regarded as very safe. However, in view of the range of potential benefits on health that might be achieved by the use of some probiotic bacteria, major and thorough evaluation is still necessary. In conclusion, probiotics act as an adjuvant in the prevention and treatment of a wide variety of chronic diseases.

  4. Probiotics and neonatal intestinal infection

    Cathy Hammerman and Michael Kaplan.

    Current opinion in.infectious diseases, Vol. 19, No. 3, Jun 2006, pp. 277-282.

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Necrotizing enterocolitis remains an enigmatic and potentially devastating condition with high morbidity and mortality. This review explores ways in which bacterial pathogens, together with gut microflora, influence the pathophysiology of necrotizing enterocolitis. Specifically, it examines the role of gut microbial colonization and its 'normalization' with probiotics vis a vis its contribution to intestinal bacterial invasion. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent studies have demonstrated that prophylactic administration of probiotics to preterm neonates decreases both the incidence and severity of subsequent necrotizing enterocolitis. SUMMARY: Probiotics represent a therapeutic effort to bolster natural host defenses via the 'normalization' of abnormal gut microflora of the premature infant at risk, thereby reducing the subsequent threat of necrotizing enterocolitis. The appeal of probiotics in neonatology is threefold. First, their safety record renders them an attractive alternative to many of the more aggressive therapeutic options; second, they represent a simple, noninvasive attempt to recreate a natural or normal flora rather than a disruption of nature. Third, probiotics are used mainly for disease prevention and are naturally occurring. As such, they are not considered to be drugs, but rather food supplements. To date, very few other strategies have been proven definitively to be efficacious in decreasing the incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis.

  5. Probiotics and their fermented food products are beneficial for health

    S. Parvez, K. A. Malik, S. Ah Kang and H. -Y Kim.

    Journal of applied microbiology, Vol. 100, No. 6, Jun 2006, pp. 1171-1185.

    Probiotics are usually defined as microbial food supplements with beneficial effects on the consumers. Most probiotics fall into the group of organisms' known as lactic acid-producing bacteria and are normally consumed in the form of yogurt, fermented milks or other fermented foods. Some of the beneficial effect of lactic acid bacteria consumption include: (i) improving intestinal tract health; (ii) enhancing the immune system, synthesizing and enhancing the bioavailability of nutrients; (iii) reducing symptoms of lactose intolerance, decreasing the prevalence of allergy in susceptible individuals; and (iv) reducing risk of certain cancers. The mechanisms by which probiotics exert their effects are largely unknown, but may involve modifying gut pH, antagonizing pathogens through production of antimicrobial compounds, competing for pathogen binding and receptor sites as well as for available nutrients and growth factors, stimulating immunomodulatory cells, and producing lactase. Selection criteria, efficacy, food and supplement sources and safety issues around probiotics are reviewed. Recent scientific investigation has supported the important role of probiotics as a part of a healthy diet for human as well as for animals and may be an avenue to provide a safe, cost effective, and 'natural' approach that adds a barrier against microbial infection. This paper presents a review of probiotics in health maintenance and disease prevention.

  6. Probiotics and their potential health claims

    Sylvia Santosa, Edward Farnworth and Peter J. H. Jones.

    Nutrition reviews, Vol. 64, No. 6, Jun 2006, pp. 265-274.

    Many studies have attempted to identify specific positive health effects of probiotics. One of the challenges in generalizing health effects of probiotics is that different strains exert disparate effects on human health. As a result, the efficacy of one strain or species cannot necessarily be inferred from another. The objective of this review is to examine the current scientific literature that could be used as the basis for potential health claims. More specifically, this paper will review existing evidence of different probiotic strains to prevent and treat diarrhea, treat irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), treat inflammatory bowel disease, and prevent colon cancer. The strongest evidence is related to the use of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG in the prevention and treatment of rotavirus-associated diarrhea. Further examination of the literature also shows promise in the treatment of some forms of IBS with probiotics. Future studies that use consistent supplementation regimes will allow more definitive conclusions to be drawn on the effects of probiotics on IBS, inflammatory bowel disease, and colon cancer.

  7. Probiotics as flourishing benefactors for the human body

    I. J. Broekaert and W. A. Walker.

    Nutrition today, Vol. 41, No. 1, Jan-Feb 2006 2006, pp. 6-16.

  8. Recommendations for probiotic use

    Martin H. Floch, Karen K. Madsen and David J. A. Jenkins, et al.

    Journal of clinical gastroenterology, Vol. 40, No. 3, Mar 2006, pp. 275-278.

    Probiotics are live microbial organisms that are administrated as supplements or in foods to benefit the host. It is the recommendation that they may be helpful in the prevention and treatment of acute diarrhea in adults and children, the prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhea in adults and children, and the maintenance of remission and prevention of pouchitis. Although early results indicate that probiotics may also be useful in immunologic modulation to prevent atopy, treatment of radiation intestinal disease, vaginosis, ulcerative colitis, and the irritable bowel syndrome, the studies available are not sufficient to say they are definitely helpful. Even fewer data are available to recommend probiotics for the treatment of H pylori and Crohn disease and for the prevention of cardiovascular risk factors or other degenerative diseases. Clearly, larger and better-designed studies of probiotics are necessary, including comparative and dose-ranging trials.

  9. [Study of the influence of dietary yogurt in an allergic population]

    D. A. de Luis, A. R. Santamaría, M. González Sagrado, O. Izaola, A. Armentía and R. Aller.

    Anales de medicina interna.(Madrid, Spain : 1984), Vol. 22, No. 2, Feb 2005, pp. 55-58.

    BACKGROUND: Prevalence of allergic diseases has been increased in last years; new alternative therapies have been employed. Beneficial effects of probiotics have been described in some pathologies such as tumors, diarrhea, and allergic disease. The aim of our work was to describe nutritional status and influence of probiotic consumption in allergic population. PATIENTS AND METHODS: 44 allergic patients were selected, in all patients were recorded; sex, age, place of residence, anthropometric evaluation, dietary questionnaire and allergic variables (rush, blood levels of Ig E, and number of crisis in a year). RESULTS: 18 patients (40.9%) were females and 26 (59.1%) males with an average age of 24.5 (10.3) years. Most of patients (20.5%) are located in percentile P25-50, showing a good nutritional status. 16 patients consumed probiotics (27.1%), with an average of consumption per week 1.79 (3.16) and an average amount per week (mg-ml) (593.4 (461.9). The number of crisis year was 1.44 (1.8), average value of Ig E was 35.68 (31.93) UI/L and rush 10.09 (2.8) mm. Patients with a consumption of probiotics higher than 593 mg/week showed a IOW rush diameter (10.12(0.8) mm vs 8.85 (1.1) mm; p < 0.05), without statistical differences in other variables. CONCLUSION: Consumption of probiotics in allergic patients could be beneficial. Further studies with more patients and intervention designs will be necessary to analyze this relations.

  10. The beneficial effects of microflora, especially obligate anaerobes, and their products on the colonic environment in inflammatory bowel disease

    Osamu Kanauchi, Yoshiaki Matsumoto, Masae Matsumura, Masamichi Fukuoka and Tadao Bamba.

    Current pharmaceutical design, Vol. 11, No. 8, 2005, pp. 1047-1053.

    Because intestinal microflora play a pivotal role in the development of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), there is currently some interest in alternating the composition of the microflora toward a potentially more remedial community. This paper summarizes the clinical and experimental efficacy of the manipulation of microflora by the use of antibiotics, probiotics, and prebiotics in IBD. Germinated barley foodstuff (GBF) is a prebiotic whose unique characteristics make it highly suitable for applications in IBD. It also helps prolong remission in remissive ulcerative colitis (UC) patients and also attenuates clinical activity in non-remissive UC patients. GBF has shown to be converted into a preferential nutrient, butyrate, for colonocytes through the action of Eubacterium and Bifidobacterium, and this bacterial butyrate can provide anti-inflammatory effects. The probiotic approaches for IBD include VSL#3, Nissle1917, Clostridium butyricum, and Bifidobacterium-fermented milk. In this paper, we summarize the distinctive role of another probiotic, Eubacterium limosum (E. limosum), which is a commensal microorganism that is promoted by GBF administration. The metabolites of E. limosum included butyrate, which can accelerate intestinal epithelial growth and inhibit IL-6 production. This new probiotic approach may be useful as an adjunctive IBD treatment in the future. Although these strategies hold great promise and appear to be useful in some settings, more experimental and clinical studies are needed to firmly establish their relevance.

  11. Colitic scid mice fed Lactobacillus spp. show an ameliorated gut histopathology and an altered cytokine profile by local T cells

    Peter Lange Møller, Anders Paerregaard, Monika Gad, Nanna Ny Kristensen and Mogens Helweg Claesson.

    Inflammatory bowel diseases, Vol. 11, No. 9, Sep 2005, pp. 814-819.

    BACKGROUND: Scid mice transplanted with CD4 T blast cells develop colitis. We investigated if the disease was influenced in colitic mice treated with antibiotic and fed Lactobacillus spp. METHODS: Colitic scid mice were treated for 1 week with antibiotics (vancomycin/meropenem) followed or not followed by a 3-week administration of Lactobacillus reuteri DSM-12246 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus 19070-2 at 2x10 live bacteria/mouse/24 hours. After 12 weeks, the rectums were removed for histology, and CD4 T cells from the mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) were polyclonally activated for cytokine measurements. RESULTS: Irrespective of no treatment or treatments with antibiotics and probiotics, all mice transplanted with T cell blasts lost 10% of their body weight during the 12-week experimental period, whereas the nontransplanted mice had a 10% weight increase (P<0.001). All mice treated with antibiotics but not fed probiotics showed severe gut inflammation, whereas only 2 of the 7 mice fed probiotics showed signs of severe colitis (P<0.05). MLN-derived CD4 T cells from this latter group of mice showed lower levels of interleukin-4 secretion (P<0.05) and a tendency to higher interferon-gamma production than mice not fed probiotics. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that probiotics added to the drinking water may ameliorate local histopathological changes and influence local cytokine levels in colitic mice but not alter the colitis-associated weight loss.

  12. The effects of probiotic and mannanoligosaccharide on some haematological and immunological parameters in turkeys

    N. Cetin, B. K. Güçlü and E. Cetin.

    Journal of veterinary medicine A, Physiology, pathology, clinical medicine, Vol. 52, No. 6, Aug 2005, pp. 263-267.

    The study was conducted to investigate the effects of mannanoligosaccharide (MOS) and probiotic supplementation on haematological and immunological parameters in turkeys. A total of 72, 15-day-old white hybrid converter turkey poults were used in this study. Poults were assigned into three groups, each group consisted of six poults and the trial was repeated four times. The control group was fed a basal diet without supplemented probiotic and MOS, and treatment groups were fed either 1 g/kg MOS or probiotic added diets. At the end of the 15-week treatment period, samples of blood were collected to determine immunological and haematological values. The comparison among the groups showed that both the probiotic and MOS supplementation resulted in significant increases (P 0.05) on these parameters. Total leucocyte and differential leucocyte counts were not affected by dietary MOS and probiotic supplementation. These results show that MOS or probiotic may elevate IgG and IgM levels in turkey. The MOS and probiotic that enhance immunoglobulin levels will have a more positive effect on growth performance, production and turkeys' ability to resist disease.

  13. Evaluation of a diet containing probiotics and zinc for the treatment of mild diarrheal illness in children younger than one year of age

    Raanan Shamir, Imad R. Makhoul, Amos Etzioni and Naim Shehadeh.

    Journal of the American College of Nutrition, Vol. 24, No. 5, Oct 2005, pp. 370-375.

    OBJECTIVES: Supplementation of probiotics and supplementation of zinc during acute gastroenteritis in children have been shown to exert positive effects on diarrhea duration and severity. Our aim was to evaluate a new diet enriched with zinc and probiotic bacteria in the treatment of acute gastroenteritis in young children. METHODS: In a double blind prospective study, 65 children aged 6-12 months were randomized to receive 6 x 10(9) colony forming units of Streptococcus thermophilus, Bifidobacterium lactis, Lactobacillus acidophilus (2 x 10(9) of each strain), 10 mg of zinc/day, and 0.3 grams of fructo-oligosaccharides in the supplemented group (n = 33) or placebo (n = 32), given in a soy protein based rice cereal. For each child, age, sex, weight, degree of dehydration, the presence of fever or vomiting, stool frequency and consistency were recorded daily until diarrhea resolution. RESULTS: Diarrhea resolution occurred after 1.43 +/- 0.71 days in the supplemented group vs. 1.96 +/- 1.24 in the control group (p = 0.017). In the subset of children who presented with vomiting, time to vomiting resolution was 0.27 +/- 0.59 vs. 0.81 +/- 0.91 days in the supplemented and control groups, respectively (p = 0.06). On day 3, there was only 1 child with watery stools in the supplemented group versus 10 children in the control group (p = 0.02). CONCLUSIONS: In our series, the feeding of a cereal containing Streptococcus thermophilus, Bifidobacterium lactis, Lactobacillus acidophilus and zinc, reduced the severity and duration of acute gastroenteritis in young children. However, whether this combination is better than either the addition of probiotics or zinc alone is yet to be determined.

  14. Evaluation of diet and growth in children with and without atopic eczema: follow-up study from birth to 4 years

    Kirsi Laitinen, Marko Kalliomäki, Tuija Poussa, Hanna Lagström and Erika Isolauri.

    The British journal of nutrition, Vol. 94, No. 4, Oct 2005, pp. 565-574.

    Current research into dietary factors contributing to the development of allergic diseases is directed towards new active approaches instead of passive elimination diets. The present study aimed to investigate the explanatory role of the diet in a probiotic intervention study on the appearance of atopic eczema (AE) in childhood and the safety of perinatal supplementation with probiotics (Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain GG; ATCC 53 103). A prospective follow-up study from birth to 48 months of children (n 159) with a family history of allergic disease was carried out. Outcome measures included growth, dietary intake assessed with 4 d food diaries and their association with AE by logistic regression models. Increased intakes of retinol, Ca and Zn, with perinatal administration of probiotics, reduced the risk of AE, whilst an increase in intake of ascorbic acid increased the likelihood of AE. Perinatal administration of probiotics was safe, as it did not influence the height (mean difference 0.04 (95 % CI -0.33, 0.40) sd scores, P=0.852) or the weight-for-height (mean difference -3.35 (95 % CI -7.07, 0.37)%, P=0.077) of the children at 48 months with and without perinatal administration of probiotics. Up to 48 months, AE did not affect height (mean difference -0.05 (95 % CI -0.42, 0.33) sd scores, P=0.815), but mean weight-for-height in children with AE was -5.1 % (95 % CI -8.9, -1.2 %) lower compared with children without (P=0.010). The joint effects of nutrients and probiotics need to be considered in active prevention and management schemes for allergic diseases.

  15. Evaluation of intervention strategies for idiopathic diarrhea in commercial turkey brooding houses

    S. E. Higgins, A. Torres-Rodriguez and J. L. Vicente, et al.

    Journal of applied poultry research, Vol. 14, No. 2, Summer 2005 2005, pp. 345-348.

  16. Fighting food allergy: current approaches

    Natalie E. Nieuwenhuizen and Andreas L. Lopata.

    Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, Vol. 1056, No. , Nov 2005, pp. 30-45.

    Food allergy is defined as an adverse immunologic reaction to allergens present in food and is associated with symptoms ranging from gastrointestinal discomfort to anaphylactic shock and death. The increase in prevalence and potential fatality of disease has led to increased efforts to find effective therapies and prophylaxis. While specific immunotherapy (SIT) is effective in desensitization against inhalant allergens, it is unadvised against food allergy because of the high risk of adverse side effects. A review of the recent literature shows that various approaches have been taken to develop safer and more effective SIT regimens. Here we discuss the use of recombinant allergens, peptides, DNA vaccines, immunostimulatory DNA sequences, and other bacterial products in SIT. In addition, we review nonspecific therapies such as anti-IgE administration and cytokine therapy as well as natural therapies such as probiotics and Chinese herbal medications. In conclusion, anti-IgE treatment and SIT using hypoallergenic recombinant allergens in combination with Th1-inducing adjuvants appear the most promising approaches. New initiatives to increase our understanding of the pathophysiology and immunologic mechanisms of food allergy along with the molecular characterization of food allergens should pave the way towards safer and more effective ways of combating this debilitating and potentially life-threatening disease.

  17. The importance of guidelines in the development and application of probiotics

    Gregor Reid and Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nation and the WHO.

    Current pharmaceutical design, Vol. 11, No. 1, 2005, pp. 11-16.

    Probiotics, defined as "Live microorganisms which when administered in adequate amounts confer a health benefit on the host" have many attributes including the lack of adverse side effects associated with their use. While probiotics have proven benefits, the optimism associated with their use is counterbalanced by the fact that many so-called "probiotic" products are unreliable in content and unproven clinically. Therefore much remains to be done to gain the acceptance of the broader medical community. Recognition of the obvious product inequality and the lack of any regulatory guidelines lead to the development of Operating Standards in 2002 (FAO/WHO), that would ensure product safety, reliability and a level playing field for all companies producing probiotic products. The guidelines constitute a set of parameters required for a product/strain to be termed "probiotic" and also the clinically relevant steps to be followed to move probiotics closer to being embraced by the medical community. These include i) implementation of Guidelines for use of probiotics; ii) phase I, II and III clinical trials to prove health benefits that are as good as or better than standard prevention or treatments for a particular condition or disease; iii) Good Manufacturing Practice and production of high quality products; iv) studies to identify mechanism of action in vivo; v) informative/ precise labelling; vi) development of probiotic organisms that can carry vaccines to hosts and/or anti- viral probiotics; vii) expansion of proven strains to benefit the oral cavity, nasopharynx, respiratory tract, stomach, vagina, bladder and skin as well as for cancer, allergies and recovery from surgery/ injury.

  18. Improved growth rate and disease resistance in farmed Haliotis midae through probiotic treatment

    B. M. Macey and V. E. Coyne.

    Aquaculture, Vol. 245, No. 1-4, 4 Mar 2005 2005, pp. 249-261.

    The use of probiotics in aquaculture is proving to be highly effective in improving disease resistance, nutrition and/or growth of cultured organisms. We have shown that Haliotis midae fed a probiotic-supplemented diet have an improved survival and growth rate compared to animals not fed probiotics. The growth rate of small (20 mm) and large (67mm) abalone was improved by 8% and 34%, respectively, in two separate eight-month farm growth trials. Furthermore, the number, and phagocytic activity, of circulating haemocytes was significantly higher (P<0.05) in probiotic treated animals compared to non-treated animals following challenge with the pathogenic bacterium Vibrio anguillarum. Seven days after challenging with V. anguillarum, the probiotic-fed animals had 62% survival compared to 25% survival for non-treated animals. In situ protease assays showed that probiotic treatment significantly increased (P<0.05) protease activity in the intestinal region of the digestive tract of animals fed the probiotic-supplemented feed. This correlated with a significant increase (P<0.05) in the amount of protein digestion and absorption measured in this region of the abalone gut. Histological analysis showed that the digestive glands of animals receiving probiotics were bacteria-free, whereas the digestive glands of 70% of the animals receiving the non-supplemented feed had a high bacterial load. The microorganisms tested in this study therefore have tremendous potential as probiotics for commercially produced H. midae.

  19. Management of food allergy: vitamins, fatty acids or probiotics?

    Kirsi Laitinen and Erika Isolauri.

    European journal of gastroenterology & hepatology, Vol. 17, No. 12, Dec 2005, pp. 1305-1311.

    The dietary approach to allergic disease in infancy is evolving from passive allergen avoidance to active stimulation of the immature immune system, the aim of which is to support the establishment of tolerance. This may include probiotics providing maturational signals for the gut-associated lymphoid tissue and by balancing the generation of pro and anti-inflammatory cytokines in addition to their capacity to reduce the dietary antigen load by degrading and modifying macromolecules. Probiotics have also been shown to reverse the increased intestinal permeability characteristic of children with food allergy and to enhance specific IgA responses frequently defective in children with food allergy. The promotion of gut barrier functions by probiotics also includes the normalization of the gut microecology, alterations in which have been demonstrated in allergic individuals. Dietary lipids, especially long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, regulate immune function and may modify the adherence of microbes in the mucosa thereby contributing to host-microbe interactions. The properties of specific dietary compounds in optimal combinations and the joint effects of nutrients can be exploited in the development of specific prophylactic and therapeutic interventions. To meet these targets, rigorous scientific effort is required to elucidate how the food matrix and the dietary content impacts on the complex cascade of interrelated immunological mechanisms in food allergy.

  20. Milk whey culture with Propionibacterium freudenreichii ET-3 is effective on the colitis induced by 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid in rats

    Masayuki Uchida and Orie Mogami.

    Journal of pharmacological sciences, Vol. 99, No. 4, Dec 2005, pp. 329-34. Epub: 2005 Nov 26.

    This study aimed to evaluate whether milk whey culture with Propinibacterium freudenreichii ET-3 (milk whey culture), which has been reported to have Bifidogenic activity, is effective on the colitis induced by 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS) in rats. For the induction of colitis, the colon was clamped and 0.1 M TNBS in 35% ethanol was injected into the luminal side of the clamped portion under pentobarbital anesthesia. From the next day of colitis induction, milk whey culture was administered orally at doses of 1 and 3 g/kg, twice a day for 9 days. On the 10th day, rats were sacrificed and ulcer size was measured. Milk whey culture significantly accelerated the healing of the colitis in a dose-dependent manner, but culture medium did not. To clarify the active substance, the effects of propionic acid and acetic acid contained in milk whey culture was tested. Sodium propionate significantly accelerated the healing of TNBS-induced colitis, but sodium acetate did not. The above results show that milk whey culture may become a useful prebiotic for the therapy of inflammatory bowel disease and that propionic acid may be one of the active substances contained in milk whey culture.

  21. Modulation of the microbial ecology of the human colon by probiotics, prebiotics and synbiotics to enhance human health: an overview of enabling science and potential applications

    Robert A. Rastall, Glenn R. Gibson and Harsharnjit S. Gill, et al.

    FEMS microbiology ecology, Vol. 52, No. 2, Apr 1 2005, pp. 145-152.

    The application of probiotics and prebiotics to the manipulation of the microbial ecology of the human colon has recently seen many scientific advances. The sequencing of probiotic genomes is providing a wealth of new information on the biology of these microorganisms. In addition, we are learning more about the interactions of probiotics with human cells and with pathogenic bacteria. An alternative means of modulating the colonic microbial community is by the use of prebiotic oligosaccharides. Increasing knowledge of the metabolism of prebiotics by probiotics is allowing us to consider specifically targeting such dietary intervention tools at specific population groups and specific disease states.

  22. A non-dairy probiotic's (poi) influence on changing the gastrointestinal tract's microflora environment

    Amy C. Brown, Anne Shovic, Salam A. Ibrahim, Peter Holck and Alvin Huang.

    Alternative therapies medicine, Vol. 11, No. 1, Jan-Feb 2005, pp. 58-64.

    JUSTIFICATION: Yogurt has been historically used to restore gut microflora adversely affected by antibiotic treatment. Certain fermented dairy products are probiotics; "live microorganisms which when administered in adequate amounts confer a health benefit to the host." Microorganisms in foods may benefit certain health conditions such as diarrhea, gastroenteritis, irritable bowel syndrome, inflammatory bowel disease, and cancer. A potential new probiotic from a Polynesian traditional food is poi; a starchy paste made from the corm of taro plants. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine if consumption of poi, a potential non-dairy probiotic, altered the microflora in the gastrointestinal tract of healthy adults. METHODS: A cross-over clinical study included 18 subjects (19-64 years of age) divided into a poi group (n = 10) and control group (n = 8). The study duration of 14 weeks consisted of a 2-week washout, 4-week treatment or control, a subsequent 2-week washout, cross-over of 4-week treatment or control, and a final 2-week washout. Subjects thus served as their own controls. While receiving the poi treatment, participants consumed fresh poi (1-2 days old) three times a day (130 g/meal or approximately 1/2 cup/meal); the control group did not. Both groups filled out 3-day dietary records to ensure compliance. Measurable outcomes included pre- and post-treatment microbiological fecal culture analyses. RESULTS: We found no significant differences in total bacterial counts following a poi diet versus following a control diet, nor were significant differences found in counts of specific bacterial species. Lactococcus tends to be higher in poi when it is analyzed for specific bacteria, but the poi consumption in our study did not alter the mean concentration of individual bacterial species (log10 CFU/g wet feces) for Escherichia coli, Enterobacter, Klebsiella, Lactobacillus, Lactococcus, and Bifidobacterium. No significant differences in stool frequency or consistency were observed between the treatment and control group periods. CONCLUSION: Poi consumption did not significantly alter total or individual bacterial counts in the human gastrointestinal tract. Further research might determine if "sour poi" (3-4 days old) has a greater affect than "fresh poi" (1-2 days old) as a potential probiotic, and a larger trial with longer diet durations may detect more subtle effects of poi consumption on bacterial counts.

  23. Oral probiotic bacterial administration suppressed allergic responses in an ovalbumin-induced allergy mouse model

    Hyeyoung Kim, Kubum Kwack, Dae-Young Kim and Geun Eog Ji.

    FEMS immunology and medical microbiology, Vol. 45, No. 2, Aug 1 2005, pp. 259-267.

    This study investigated whether orally administered probiotic bacteria (Bifidobacterium bifidum and Lactobacillus casei) and a gram-negative bacterium (Escherichia coli) function as allergic immune modulators to prevent food allergy, according to the hygiene hypothesis. C3H/HeJ mice were sensitized with ovalbumin (OVA) and cholera toxin for 5 weeks. After sensitization, the OVA-induced mice that were not treated with bacteria had significantly increased levels of OVA-specific IgE, total IgE, and IgG1 in sera, as well as scab-covered tails. In comparison, groups treated with B. bifidum BGN4 (BGN4), L. casei 911 (L. casei), or Escherichia coli MC4100 (E. coli) had decreased levels of OVA-specific IgE, total IgE, and IgG1, and decreased levels of mast cell degranulation and tail scabs. OVA-specific IgA levels were decreased in BGN4- and L. casei-treated groups. In conclusion, administration of E. coli, BGN4, or L. casei decreased the OVA-induced allergy response. However, a normal increase in body weight was inhibited in the E. coli-treated mice and in the montreated mice groups during allergy sensitization. Thus, BGN4 and L. casei appear to be useful probiotic bacteria for the prevention of allergy.

  24. Physiological basis for novel drug therapies used to treat the inflammatory bowel diseases I. Pathophysiological basis and prospects for probiotic therapy in inflammatory bowel disease

    Fergus Shanahan.

    American journal of physiology Gastrointestinal and liver physiology, Vol. 288, No. 3, Mar 2005, pp. G417-21.

    Mechanisms underlying the conditioning influence of the intestinal flora on mucosal homeostasis, including development and function of immune responses, are attracting increasing scientific scrutiny. The intestinal flora is a positive asset to host defense, but some of its components may, in genetically susceptible hosts, become a risk factor for development of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). It follows that strategies to enhance assets or offset microbial liabilities represent a therapeutic option; therein lies the rationale for manipulation of the flora in IBD. In addition, the diversity of regulatory signalling among the flora and host epithelum, lymphoid tissue, and neuromuscular apparatus is an untapped reservoir from which novel therapeutics may be mined. Moreover, the capacity to engineer food-grade or commensal bacteria to deliver therapeutic molecules to the intestinal mucosa promises to extend the scope of microbial manipulation for the benefit of mankind.

  25. Potential future therapies for irritable bowel syndrome: will disease modifying therapy as opposed to symptomatic control become a reality?

    Robin C. Spiller.

    Gastroenterology clinics of North.America, Vol. 34, No. 2, Jun 2005, pp. 337-354.

    Irritable bowel syndrome can remit spontaneously, implying cure is possible. Predictors of good prognosis include a short history, acute onset(possibly postinfective origin), absence of psychological disorders, and resolution of chronic life stressors. Possible-disease modifying treatments with long-lasting effects include diet and anti-inflammatory and psychological treatments. Dietary modifications, which often involve excluding dairy and wheat products, are successful in some patients. Anti-inflammatory treatments have been subjected to one RCT in postinfective IBS without benefit. Probiotics may have benefit in altering bacterial flora and as anti-inflammatory agents, but further trials are needed before they can be recommended. Psychological treatments may produce long-lasting responses. Relaxation therapy appears to have a nonspecific benefit. Psychotherapy has been shown to have long-term benefit and is particularly acceptable to, and effective for, those with overt psychological distress. Hypnotherapy has been shown to be effective in randomized placebo controlled trials and has a sustained effect.

  26. Prebiotics and resistance to gastrointestinal infections

    G. R. Gibson, A. L. McCartney and R. A. Rastall.

    The British journal of nutrition, Vol. 93 Suppl 1, No. , Apr 2005, pp. S31-4.

    Acute gut disorder is a cause for significant medicinal and economic concern. Certain individual pathogens of the gut, often transmitted in food or water, have the ability to cause severe discomfort. There is a need to manage such conditions more effectively. The route of reducing the risk of intestinal infections through diet remains largely unexplored. Antibiotics are effective at inhibiting pathogens; however, these should not be prescribed in the absence of disease and therefore cannot be used prophylactically. Moreover, their indiscriminate use has reduced effectiveness. Evidence has accumulated to suggest that some of the health-promoting bacteria in the gut (probiotics) can elicit a multiplicity of inhibitory effects against pathogens. Hence, an increase in their numbers should prove effective at repressing pathogen colonisation if/when infectious agents enter the gut. As such, fortification of indigenous bifidobacteria/lactobacilli by using prebiotics should improve protection. There are a number of potential mechanisms for lactic acid bacteria to reduce intestinal infections. Firstly, metabolic endproducts such as acids excreted by these micro-organisms may lower the gut pH to levels below those at which pathogens are able to effectively compete. Also, many lactobacilli and bifidobacteria species are able to excrete natural antibiotics, which can have a broad spectrum of activity. Other mechanisms include an improved immune stimulation, competition for nutrients and blocking of pathogen adhesion sites in the gut. Many intestinal pathogens like type 1 fimbriated Escherichia coli, salmonellae and campylobacters utilise oligosaccharide receptor sites in the gut. Once established, they can then cause gastroenteritis through invasive and/or toxin forming properties. One extrapolation of the prebiotic concept is to simulate such receptor sites in the gut lumen. Hence, the pathogen is 'decoyed' into not binding at the host mucosal interface. The combined effects of prebiotics upon the lactic acid flora and anti-adhesive strategies may lead towards new dietary interventions against food safety agents.

  27. Prebiotics and synbiotics in clinical medicine

    Stig Bengmark and Robert Martindale.

    Nutrition in clinical practice : official publication of the American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition, Vol. 20, No. 2, Apr 2005, pp. 244-261.

    Pharmaceutical medicine has thus far been unable to stop the increasing global morbidity and mortality both in acute and chronic diseases. Typically, medical practice has focused on reducing the aggressor with treatments such as antibiotics; little interest has been given to efforts to increase the individual's resistance to disease. The increased morbidity has occurred in parallel to a deviation from a large consumption of fresh fruits, vegetables, and tubers rich in live lactic acid bacteria (LAB), plant fibers, and natural antioxidants to an industry-produced diet rich in fat and refined sugar but containing little fiber, antioxidants, and LAB. Plant fiber/prebiotics, plant-derived antioxidants, and LAB/probiotics are known to have the potential to reinforce the immune system of the body and increase resistance to disease. However, this depends on the type of fiber, antioxidant, and strain or combination of strain used. At this stage, only about 10% of the LAB studied have proven strong immunosupportive effects. Similarly, only a few plants contain what has been called superantioxidants, antioxidants 10 or more times stronger than vitamin C and E. Increasing evidence suggests that combining several probiotic bacteria into multistrain probiotics will achieve stronger effects than single-strain probiotics. And combining probiotics and prebiotics into "synbiotics" will further enhance the immunosupportive effects. There is little evidence that a single-strain-based "superprobiotic"/magic LAB will ever be found. Instead, combining several specific and defined probiotics and several key plant fibers into multistrain/multifiber synbiotics appears to be the most promising alternative. Some edge-cutting effects from using multistrain and multifiber compositions are reported both from animal and controlled clinical studies.

  28. Probiotic effects of Lactobacillus casei on DSS-induced ulcerative colitis in mice

    M. V. Herías, J. F. J. G. Koninkx, J. G. Vos, J. H. J. Huis in't Veld and J. E. van Dijk.

    International journal of food microbiology, Vol. 103, No. 2, Aug 25 2005, pp. 143-155.

    We tested the effect of Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota (LcS) on the murine model of ulcerative colitis induced by dextran sodium sulphate. The effect of LcS was tested either as a prophylactic 10 days before the onset of the disease, simultaneously with ulcerative colitis induction or continued 10 days after the disease was induced. LcS was not able to prevent the disease induction in any of the experiments. However, important clinical parameters including blood anemia indicators, body weight, and organ weight were improved in the animals receiving LcS as compared with the ulcerative colitis-induced controls. Increased colonic epithelial regeneration in the LcS treated animals was observed in the chronic stage. The results seemed better for the simultaneous short LcS treatment where some parameters remained similar to the PBS controls, including disease activity scores measured in the acute stage. We can conclude that although LcS alone cannot prevent the induction of ulcerative colitis by dextran sodium sulphate, it can improve the clinical condition of the mice. This could imply important biological consequences for the human situation. Further studies including LcS or other probiotic bacteria together with the available treatment are encouraged.

  29. Probiotics and allergy

    Elizabeth Furrie.

    The Proceedings of the Nutrition Society, Vol. 64, No. 4, Nov 2005, pp. 465-469.

    Allergy is caused by an immune reaction that is out of all proportion to the antigenic stimuli. Classical allergy is a type I hypersensitivity reaction mediated by the interaction of mast cells (and eosinophils) coated with allergen-specific IgE and a cross-linking allergen. The physiological outcome is inflammation commonly displayed by urticaria, rhinitis, vomiting and diarrhoea, depending on the route of allergen entry. In extreme reactions anaphylactic shock can result that may lead to death. Chronic allergic responses most commonly present themselves as asthma and eczema. All these symptoms are the consequence of an imbalanced immune system making an unsuitable response to an environmental or food antigen. On bacterial colonisation of the colon after birth the appropriate microbiological stimuli is essential to redress the balance of the skewed T-helper 2 immune response present in the newborn. This normal interaction between baby and microbes is thought to be compromised in the Western world, with a reduction in bifidobacteria and an increase in clostridial species, particularly in bottle-fed infants. The use of probiotic therapy to prevent allergic disease has been demonstrated in two studies using a probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG in neonates. A long-term reduction in allergy has been shown in the test group, with lactobacillus reducing the incidence of atopic eczema. Management of allergy through probiotics has also been demonstrated in infants, using lactobacilli to control atopic eczema and cow's milk allergy. Unfortunately, these positive results have not been repeated in studies with older children and young adults.

  30. Probiotics and allergy

    E. Furrie.

    Proceedings of the Nutrition Society, Vol. 64, No. 4, 2005 2005, pp. 465-469.

    Allergy is caused by an immune reaction that is out of all proportion to the antigenic stimuli. Classical allergy is a type I hypersensitivity reaction mediated by the interaction of mast cells (and eosinophils) coated with allergen-specific IgE and a cross-linking allergen. The physiological outcome is inflammation commonly displayed by urticaria, rhinitis, vomiting and diarrhoea, depending on the route of allergen entry. In extreme reactions anaphylactic shock can result that may lead to death. Chronic allergic responses most commonly present themselves as asthma and eczema. All these symptoms are the consequence of an imbalanced immune system making an unsuitable response to an environmental or food antigen. On bacterial colonisation of the colon after birth the appropriate microbiological stimuli is essential to redress the balance of the skewed T-helper 2 immune response present in the newborn. This normal interaction between baby and microbes is thought to be compromised in the Western world, with a reduction in bifidobacteria and an increase in clostridial species, particularly in bottle-fed infants. The use of probiotic therapy to prevent allergic disease has been demonstrated in two studies using a probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG in neonates. A long-term reduction in allergy has been shown in the test group, with lactobacillus reducing the incidence of atopic eczema. Management of allergy through probiotics has also been demonstrated in infants, using lactobacilli to control atopic eczema and cow's milk allergy. Unfortunately, these positive results have not been repeated in studies with older children and young adults.

  31. Probiotics that modify disease risk

    Seppo J. Salminen, Miguel Gueimonde and Erika Isolauri.

    The Journal of nutrition, Vol. 135, No. 5, May 2005, pp. 1294-1298.

    Probiotics are defined as live bacterial preparations with clinically documented health effects in humans. Probiotics have specific properties and targets in the human intestinal tract and intestinal microbiota. Each probiotic strain, independent of its genus and species is unique and, thus, the properties and the human health effects of each strain have to be assessed in a case-by-case manner. Understanding the mechanisms by which probiotics influence the normal intestinal microbiota and counteract aberrancies in microbiota would facilitate the use of probiotics for both dietary management and reduction in risk of specific diseases. Development of intestinal microbiota is an important factor affecting the health of the newborn. Recent studies suggest that specific bacterial components, especially the bifidobacteria, have a key impact on development of a healthy balanced infant microbiota. The composition of infant and child intestinal microbiota may become aberrant and thus influence the development of diarrheal, inflammatory, and allergic diseases. Based on this understanding, positive health effects of probiotics have been reported in the management of diarrheal, inflammatory, and allergic diseases in infants. Most recently, a reduction in risk of atopic diseases followed early administration of specific probiotics.

  32. Use of probiotics in children with acute diarrhea

    Hania Szajewska and Jacek Z. Mrukowicz.

    Paediatric drugs, Vol. 7, No. 2, 2005, pp. 111-122.

    Probiotics, defined as microbial cell preparations or components of microbial cells that have a beneficial effect on the health and well being of the host, have traditionally been used to treat and prevent a variety of infections. Beneficial effects of probiotics in acute infectious diarrhea in children seem to be: (i) moderate; (ii) strain-dependent; (iii) dose dependent; (iv) significant in watery diarrhea and viral gastroenteritis, but non-existent in invasive, bacterial diarrhea; and (v) more evident when treatment with probiotics is initiated early in the course of disease. Three large, randomized controlled trials (RCTs) provide evidence of a very modest effect (statistically significant, but of questionable clinical importance) of some probiotic strains (Lactobaccillus GG, Lactobaccillus reuteri, Bifodobacterium lactis) on the prevention of community-acquired diarrhea. We have found conflicting evidence from four RCTs on the efficacy of Lactobacillus GG and B. bifidum and Streptococcus thermophilus in the prevention of nosocomial diarrhea in children. Two RCTs in children provide evidence of a moderate beneficial effect of Lactobacillus GG in the prevention of antibacterial-associated diarrhea (AAD), but results in adults are conflicting. Data on the efficacy of other probiotic strains in AAD in children are very limited. In conclusion, to date, the most extensively studied and best documented clinical application of probiotics in children is for the treatment of acute watery diarrhea of rotaviral or presumably viral etiology. Studies documenting effects in other types of diarrheal diseases in children are limited, although some preliminary results are promising. The effects of different probiotic microorganisms are not equal. Only very few probiotic strains have been tested rigorously in RCTs. Many questions remain to be answered. Future clinical trials should evaluate carefully selected, precisely defined probiotic strains and address clinically important endpoints.