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Publish or Perish: Afterlife of a Published Article
(Released April 2006)

 
  by Eileen J. De Guire  

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Key Citations Short Format Full Format
  1. Analyses of the fatigue crack propagation process and stress ratio effects using the two parameter method

    J. Zhang, X. D. He and S. Y. Du.

    International Journal of Fatigue, Vol. 27, No. 10-12, Oct.-Dec. 2005, pp. 1314-1318.

    In situ SEM observations have revealed that fatigue crack propagation in aluminium alloys is caused by the shear band decohesion around the crack tip. The formation and cracking of the shear band is mainly caused by the plasticity generated in the loading part of a load cycle. This shear band decohesion process has been observed to occur in a continuous way over the time period during the loading part of a cycle. Based on this observation, in this study, a new parameter has been introduced to describe fatigue crack propagation rate. This new parameter, daldS, defines the fatigue crack propagation rate with the change of the applied stress at any moment of a stress cycle. The relationship between this new parameter and the conventional daldN parameter which describes fatigue crack propagation rate per stress cycle is given. Using this new parameter, it is proven that two loading parameters are necessary in order to accurately describe fatigue crack propagation rate per stress cycle, da/dN. An analysis is performed and a general fatigue crack propagation model is developed. This model has the ability to describe the four general type of fatigue crack propagation behaviours summarised by Vasudevan and Sadananda.

  2. Development of a Fiber-Optic Accelerometer for Third-Party Damage Detection

    Jae Young Nam, Jae Boong Choi, Young Jin Kim and Chang Ryul Pyo.

    Key Engineering Materials, Vol. 297-300, Part 3, 2005, pp. 1979-1984. Nov.

    The objective of this paper is to develop a fiber optic accelerometer applicable to third party damage detection system. A fiber optic accelerometer was developed by use of combining principles of one degree of freedom vibration model and an extrinsic Fabry-Perot interferometer. The developed fiber optic accelerometer was designed to perform with a sensitivity of 0.06mV/g, a frequency range of less than 6kHz and an amplitude range of -200g to 200g. The developed accelerometer was compared with a piezoelectric accelerometer and calibrated. In order to verify the developed accelerometer, the field experiment was performed. From the field experiment, vibration signals and the location of impact were successfully detected. The developed accelerometer is expected to be used for the third party damage detection system which requires long distance transmission of signals. (Application: inspection of underground natural gas pipelines.)

  3. Development of Fe-Mn-Si-Cr Shape Memory Alloy Fiber Reinforced Plaster-based Smart Composites

    Teppei Wakatsuki, Yoshimi Watanabe and Hiroshi Okada.

    Materials Science Forum, Vol. 475-479, Part 3, 2005, pp. 2063-2066.

    In previous studies, it has been found that the shape memory effect of the embedded straight and wavy shape memory alloy (SMA) fibers enhance the strength and energy absorption prior to fracture of the composite, where the embedded SMA fibers shrink due to their shape memory effect. In the case of wavy fiber reinforced composites, the SMA fibers were subjected to pre-tensile strain using fiber holder with rotatable rollers to maintain the constant periodicity and amplitude of wavy fibers. In this study, on the other hand, the wavy SMA fibers were subjected to pre-tensile strain without using fiber holder, and therefore, periodicity and amplitude of wavy fibers were varied during the deformation. Then the wavy SMA fiber reinforced smart composite is fabricated. For the mechanical property characterization, three-point bending test is performed for the specimens.

  4. Effect of aging treatment on high temperature strength of Nb added ferritic stainless steels

    Jae Cheon Ahn, Gyu Man Sim and Kyung Sub Lee.

    Materials Science Forum, Vol. 475-479, Part 1, 2005, pp. 191-194.

    Effects of aging treatment on high temperature strength of Nb added ferritic stainless steels for automotive parts were investigated. Hot tensile tests were carried out at 700 deg C after the aging at 700 deg C for different aging times using Gleeble 1500. High temperature strength of all steels decreased as the aging time increased. In Nb free steels, the reduction in high temperature strength is mainly due to grain growth. On the other hand, in Nb added steels, the reduction in high temperature strength occurred by Nb precipitation. It was observed that Fe2Nb (Laves phase), Nb(C,N) and Fe3Nb3C were precipitated out during the aging at 700 C in Nb added steels. The coarsening rate of Fe2Nb was higher than that of Nb(C,N). Fine Fe2Nb precipitates formed during at the early stage of aging contributed to high temperature strength in 0.01C-0.38Nb steel. However, coarse Fe2Nb particles formed during the aging were very detrimental to high temperature strength. The coarsening of Fe2Nb was relatively retarded by adding Mo.

  5. Effects of laser irradiation on iron loss reduction for Fe-3%Si grain-oriented silicon steel

    Muneyuki Imafuku, Hiroshi Suzuki, Koichi Akita, Keiji Iwata and Masahiro Fujikura.

    Acta Materialia, Vol. 53, No. 4, Feb. 2005, pp. 939-945.

    The effects of laser irradiation on iron loss reduction for Fe-3%Si grain-oriented silicon steel sheet were investigated. The local tensile residual stress states near the laser irradiated cavity lines were observed by using the new X-ray stress measurement method for a single crystal. Although the higher laser power induced the larger tensile residual stresses, the minimum iron loss was obtained at the medium tensile residual stress conditions of about 100-200 MPa. The increase of Vickers hardness was observed with increasing laser power, which was the mark of the plastic deformations induced by the laser irradiation. The tensile residual stress reduces eddy current loss and the plastic deformation increases hysteresis loss of the material. The total iron loss is determined by the balance of these two effects of laser irradiation.

  6. Electrochemical oxidation of Mn/MnO films: formation of an electrochemical capacitor

    B. Djurfors, J. N. Broughton, M. J. Brett and D. G. Ivey.

    Acta Materialia, Vol. 53, No. 4, Feb. 2005, pp. 957-965.

    An in-depth study of the oxidation step required to produce electrochemical capacitors from porous manganese-oxide materials was carried out. The oxidation process takes place under the application of a small anodic current in a solution of 1 M Na2SO4, resulting in the formation of a three-layered structure. During the oxidation process, a base layer of undisturbed zigzag material oxidizes from Mn/MnO to Mn3O4. At the same time, a second layer forms directly on the surface of the zigzag material. The layer is partly crystalline Mn3O4 and partly amorphous. The final and most important layer is the amorphous, hydrated MnO2 surface film. It is believed that this layer is solely responsible for the capacitive behavior of these films. The porosity of the electrode prior to oxidation is shown to be immaterial as oxidation of a fully dense film results in similarly high capacitive values attributed to the formation of a porous surface layer.

  7. End user searching: a Web log analysis of NAVER, a Korean Web search engine

    Soyeon Park, Joon Ho Lee and Hee Jin Bae.

    Library and Information Science Research, Vol. 27, No. 2, 2005, pp. 203-221.

    Transaction logs of NAVER, a major Korean Web search engine, were analyzed to track the information-seeking behavior of Korean Web users. These transaction logs include more than 40 million queries collected over 1 week. This study examines current transaction log analysis methodologies and proposes a method for log cleaning, session definition, and query classification. A term definition method which is necessary for Korean transaction log analysis is also discussed. The results of this study show that users behave in a simple way: they type in short queries with a few query terms, seldom use advanced features, and view few results' pages. Users also behave in a passive way: they seldom change search environments set by the system. It is of interest that users tend to change their queries totally rather than adding or deleting terms to modify the previous queries. The results of this study might contribute to the development of more efficient and effective Web search engines and services. (Original abstract)

  8. From the search problem through query formulation to results on the web

    Judit Bar-Ilan and Elena Barsky.

    Online Information Review, Vol. 29, No. 1, 2005, pp. 75-89.

    Purpose: The purpose of the research was to create internet search instructions, to test their effectiveness and to track the search behavior of first year MLS students. Design/methodology/approach: The students received two exercises with similar search tasks. No specific search guidelines were delivered to the students prior to the first exercise. Prior to the second exercise students received a lecture based on the internet search instructions developed by the authors. The results of the two searches were analyzed and compared. Findings: As a result of the lecture students significantly improved the search results. There were a certain number of problematic search behavior patterns and obstacles uncovered, which proved to have a critical impact on the search results, such as: difficulties in acquiring new or alternative vocabulary during the search process, perception of the task as the ultimate source of keywords, and perception of commercial sources as unavailable. Research limitations/implications: In order to understand the effect of the internet search instructions, the experiment has to be repeated with other groups of users. If the results consistently show that search behavior improves, the authors recommend systematic training of internet users. Originality/value: The paper might be particularly interesting for information specialists and search instructors mostly because it reveals connection between the way the problem was stated and initial search strategy - a connection that to our knowledge has not been deeply explored yet. (Original abstract - amended)

  9. Google Scholar: the pros and the cons

    Péter Jacsó.

    Online Information Review, Vol. 29, No. 2, 2005, pp. 208-214.

    Purpose: To identify the pros and the cons of Google Scholar. Design/methodology/approach: Chronicles the recent history of the Google Scholar search engine from its inception in November 2004 and critiques it with regard to its merits and demerits. Findings: Feels that there are massive content omissions presently but that, with future changes in its structure, Google Scholar will become an excellent free tool for scholarly information discovery and retrieval. Originality/value: Presents a useful analysis for potential users of the Google Scholar site. (Original abstract)

  10. How experts and novices search the Web

    Diana Tabatabai and Bruce M. Shore.

    Library and Information Science Research, Vol. 27, No. 2, 2005, pp. 222-248.

    Searching for information pervades a wide spectrum of human activity, including learning and problem solving. With recent changes in the amount of information available and the variety of means of retrieval, there is even more need to understand why some searchers are more successful than others. This study was undertaken to advance the understanding of expertise in seeking information on the Web by identifying strategies and attributes that will increase the chance of a successful search on the Web. The strategies were as follows: evaluation, navigation, affect, metacognition, cognition, and prior knowledge, and attributes included age, sex, years of experience, computer knowledge, and info-seeking knowledge. Success was defined as finding a target topic within 30 minutes. Participants were from three groups. Novices were 10 undergraduate pre-service teachers, intermediates were 9 final-year master of library and information studies students, and experts were 10 highly experienced professional librarians working in a variety of settings. Participants' verbal protocols were transcribed verbatim into a text file and coded. These codes, along with Internet temporary files, a background questionnaire, and a post-task interview were the sources of the data. Since the variable of interest was the time to finding the topic, in addition to ANOVA and Pearson correlation, survival analysis was used to explore the data. The most significant differences in patterns of search between novices and experts were found in the cognitive, metacognitive, and prior knowledge strategies. Survival analysis revealed specific actions associated with success in Web searching: (1) using clear criteria to evaluate sites, (2) not excessively navigating, (3) reflecting on strategies and monitoring progress, (4) having background knowledge about information seeking, and (5) approaching the search with a positive attitude. (Original abstract)

  11. In situ neutron diffraction of heavily drawn steel wires with ultra-high strength under tensile loading

    Y. Tomota, T. Suzuki and A. Kanie, et al.

    Acta Materialia, Vol. 53, No. 2, Jan. 2005, pp. 463-467.

    To make clear the strengthening mechanism of heavily drawn steel wires exhibiting ultra-high strength, in situ neutron diffraction during tensile loading was performed. A ferrite steel (FK) subjected to a true strain of 6.6 and a pearlite steel (PS) subjected to 4.0 were extended on a tensile tester and (1 10) diffraction profiles were measured at various holding stresses. Tensile strengths of steel FK and PS are 1.7 and 3.7 GPa, respectively. The change in (1 10) spacing with tensile stress is reversible, i.e., elastic, close to the relevant tensile strength. A stress versus (1 10) lattice plane strain is linear for steel FK while evidently nonlinear at higher stresses for steel PS. In steel PS in which cementite peaks were hardly observed, the strengthening mechanism is postulated to be different from that for as-patented pearlite steels.

  12. INTERFACE STRUCTURES AND DIFFUSION PATHS IN SiC/METAL COUPLES

    Masaaki Naka, Takashi Fukai and Julius C. Schuster.

    Inc , 735 Ceramic Place, Westerville, OH, 43081, USA, [URL:http://www.ceramics.org]: American Ceramic Society, 2005,

    The interface structures between SiC and metal are reviewed in SiC/metal systems. Metals are divided into two groups, carbide forming metals and non-carbide forming metals. Carbide forming metals form metal carbide on the metal side, and metal silicide on the SiC side. Further diffusion of Si and C from SiC causes the formation of a ternary phase. Non-carbide forming metals form a metal silicide containing graphite or a layered structure consisting of metal silicide and metal silicide containing graphite. The diffusion path between SiC and metal are formed along tie-lines connecting SiC and metal on the corresponding ternary Si-C-M phase diagram. The reactivity of metals is dominated by the formation of carbide or silicide. The reactivities of elements are discussed relative to their positions in the periodical table of elements, and Ti shows the highest reactivity among carbide forming metals. For non-carbide forming metals the reactivity sequence is Fe > Ni > Co. Detailed knowledge of phase reactions and diffusion paths for SiC/metal systems are needed in order to control the interface structures in SiC/metal joints at high temperatures. (Also considered: Ti, Zr, Hf, V, Nb, Ta, Cr, Mo, W.)

  13. Microstructure and precipitation in Al-Li-Cu-Mg-(Mn, Zr) alloys

    N. Gao, M. J. Starink, L. Davin, A. Cerezo, S. C. Wang and P. J. Gregson.

    Materials Science and Technology, Vol. 21, No. 9, Sept. 2005, pp. 1010-1018.

    Hot rolled Al-6Li-1Cu-1Mg-0.2Mn (at.-%) (Al-1.6Li-2.2Cu-0.9Mg-0.4Mn, wt-%) and Al-6Li-1 Cu-1 Mg-0.03Zr (at.-%) (Al-1.6Li-2.3Cu-1 Mg-0.1Zr, wt-%) alloys developed for age forming were studied by tensile testing, electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD), three-dimensional atom probe (3DAP), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). For both alloys, DSC analysis shows that ageing at 150DGC leads initially to formation of zones/clusters, which are later gradually replaced by S phase. On ageing at 190DGC, S phase formation is completed within 12 h. The precipitates identified by 3DAP and TEM can be classified into (a) Li rich clusters containing Cu and Mg, (b) a plate shaped metastable precipitate (similar to GPB2 zones/S"), (c) S phase and (d) delta spherical particles rich in Li. The Zr containing alloy also contains beta' (Al3Zr) precipitates and composite beta'/delta' particles. The beta' precipitates reduce recrystallisation and grain growth leading to fine grains and subgrains. Age forming is a key innovation in the fabrication of curved structural components for aerospace applications, e.g. wing skin.

  14. Nondestructive testing of the space shuttle external tank foam insulation using near field and focused millimeter wave techniques

    S. Kharkovsky, F. Hepburn, J. Walker and R. Zoughi.

    Materials Evaluation, Vol. 63, No. 5, May 2005, pp. 516-522.

    The space shuttle Columbia's catastrophic failure has been attributed to a piece of external tank spray on foam insulation striking the left wing of the orbiter, causing significant damage to some of the reinforced carbon/carbon leading edge wing panels. Subsequently, several nondestructive testing (NDT) techniques have been considered for testing the external tank. One such technique involves using millimeter waves, which have been shown to easily penetrate the foam and provide high resolution images of its interior structures. This paper presents the results of testing three different spray on foam insulation covered panels by reflectometers at millimeter wave frequencies, specifically at 100 GHz. Each panel was fitted with various embedded discontinuities/inserts representing voids and unbonds of different shapes, sizes and locations within each panel. In conjunction with these reflectometers, radiators, including a focused lens antenna and a small horn antenna, were used. The focused lens antenna provided for a footprint diameter of approximately 12.5 mm (0.5 in.) at 254 mm (10 in.) away from the lens surface. The horn antenna was primarily operated in its near field for obtaining relatively high resolution images. These images were produced using two dimensional scanning mechanisms. Discussion of the difference between the capabilities of these two types of antennas (radiators) for the purpose of testing the spray on foam insulation as it relates to the produced images is also presented. Keywords: millimeter waves, near field, insulating foam, spray on foam insulation, unbond, void, focusing lens, horn antenna.

  15. Visualizing overlap and rank differences among web-wide search engines: Some free tools and services

    Peter Jacso.

    Online Information Review, Vol. 29, No. 5, 2005, pp. 554-560.

    Purpose: To compare the performance of different search engines, highlighting the overlap and rank differences. Design/methodology/approach: Presents results of an overlap test search series among traditional CD-ROM indexing/abstracting databases since the mid-1980s, web databases, and authors' own polysearch engine, and reviews Google Scholar. Findings: Finds that overlap is minimal among web-wide search engines which crawl and index the mostly unstructured open web; and that overlap among Google Scholar and the native search engines is far less than the ideal 100 per cent in the optimal context of crawling and indexing highly-structured and metadata-rich collections. Originality/value: Reinforces the existing view that for comprehensive searches one must search more than one database. Highlights and recommends several very good search engine sites. (Original abstract)

  16. The web as a free source for scientific information: a comparison with fee-based databases

    Luisa M. Doldi and Erwin Bratengeyer.

    Online Information Review, Vol. 29, No. 4, 2005, pp. 400-411.

    Purpose: The aim of this study was an evaluation of the web as a source of scientific bibliographic information. Design/methodology/approach: In order to give this evaluation a quantitative dimension, a comparison with the information obtained from fee-based bibliographic databases was performed. Based on a concrete search example in the field of plant production biotechnology, a comparative study of selected fee-based bibliographic databases (CAB Abstracts and Biosis Preview) and a search of the web with selected search engines (Scirus and Google) was carried out. A comparison of the information retrieved through the databases and that retrieved through search engines was conducted with respect to the quantity and quality of retrieved documents, search time, the cost of information, retrieval strategies, the reliability of information and the demands on the skills of the searcher. Findings: The surprising results of this comparison clearly indicate that the web, assuming a professional use of the medium, is not only a valuable source for scientific information, but also provides the scientific community with an instrument to make knowledge available and accessible for almost anyone. Originality/value: This study shows that the web has reached a certain level of maturity in regard to scientific and qualitative content and can be considered a worthwhile source of scientific information. (Original abstract)

  17. Web search strategies and human individual differences: a combined analysis

    Nigel Ford, David Miller and Nicola Moss.

    Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, Vol. 56, No. 7, May 2005, pp. 757-764.

    This is the second of two articles published in this issue of JASIST reporting the results of a study investigating relationships between Web search strategies and a range of human individual differences. In this article we provide a combined analysis of the factor analyses previously presented separately in relation to each of three groups of human individual difference (study approaches, cognitive and demographic features, and perceptions of and approaches to Internet-based information seeking). It also introduces two series of regression analyses conducted on data spanning all three individual difference groups. The results are discussed in terms of the extent to which they satisfy the original aim of this exploratory research, namely to identify any relationships between search strategy and individual difference variables for which there is a prima facie case for more focused systematic study. It is argued that a number of such relationships do exist. The results of the project are summarized and suggestions are made for further research. (Original abstract)

  18. Web search strategies and human individual differences: cognitive and demographic factors, internet attitudes, and approaches

    Nigel Ford, David Miller and Nicola Moss.

    Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, Vol. 56, No. 7, May 2005, pp. 741-756.

    The research reported here was an exploratory study that sought to discover the effects of human individual differences on Web search strategy. These differences consisted of (a) study approaches, (b) cognitive and demographic features, and (c) perceptions of and preferred approaches to Web-based information seeking. Sixty-eight master's students used AltaVista to search for information on three assigned search topics graded in terms of complexity. Five hundred seven search queries were factor analyzed to identify relationships between the individual difference variables and Boolean and best-match search strategies. A number of consistent patterns of relationship were found. As task complexity increased, a number of strategic shifts were also observed on the part of searchers possessing particular combinations of characteristics. A second article (published in this issue of JASIST; Ford, Miller, & Moss, 2005) presents a combined analyses of the data including a series of regression analyses. (Original abstract)

  19. Citation-enhanced indexing/abstracting databases

    Peter Jacso.

    Online Information Review, Vol. 28, No. 3, 2004, pp. 235-238.

    Provides an introductory look at what savvy users should know about the implications of having information about cited references in I /A records. Looks at the more sophisticated, link-enabled cited references and the novel citation scores in full-text collections, then discusses the alternatives for searching efficiently by elements of cited references: cited author, cited title, cited source and cited year in I/A databases and full-text archives. (Original abstract)

  20. Date-restricted queries in web search engines

    Dirk Lewandowski.

    Online Information Review, Vol. 28, No. 6, 2004, pp. 420-427.

    Search engines usually offer a date-restricted search on their advanced search pages. But determining the actual update of a web page is not without problems. Conducts a study testing date-restricted queries on the search engines Google, Teoma and Yahoo! Finds that these searches fail to work properly in the engines examined. Finally, discusses implications of this for further research and search engine development. (Original abstract)

  21. Index use by engineering faculty and students

    Bette Finn and Pat Johnston.

    Georgia Library Quarterly, Vol. 41, No. 3, Fall 2004, pp. 5-15.

    Reports the results of a user study, undertaken at Georgia Institute of Technology (Georgia Tech), to determine the information seeking behaviour of faculty and graduate students, with particular reference to the Civil and Environmental Engineering schools, their use of abstracting and indexing services (AandIs) and primary information sources. Analyzes the resulting data to determine whether faculty and graduate research is in compliance with Association for College and Research Libraries (ACRL) Information Literacy Standards for index use. Concludes that, although a majority of the researchers do use AandIs, there is concern about those who do not use them. A further concern is the current trend for researchers to go directly to the full text databases, such as IEEE Xplore, Science Direct and Google-type searching on the World Wide Web, with some searchers eliminating the vital index searching process. (Original abstract - amended)

  22. Online IR system evaluation: online databases versus Web search engines

    Hong Xie.

    Online Information Review, Vol. 28, No. 3, 2004, pp. 211-219.

    This study evaluated two different types of online information retrieval (IR) systems: online databases and Web search engines, in terms of user generated criteria. It also compares four types of Web search engines: directories, search engines, meta-search engines, and specialized search engines. The results show that three elements are essential to users in the evaluation of online IR systems: interface design, system performance and collection coverage. While participants preferred the ease of use and intuitive interfaces of Web search engines, they also liked the credible and useful information offered by online databases. Based on the discussion of advantages and problems of online databases and Web search engines, implications of for the design of IR systems are further suggested. (Original abstract)

  23. Out of my searcher's mind, or whatever happened to Kay Francis?

    Barbara Quint.

    Online, Vol. 28, No. 6, Nov 2004-Dec 2004, pp. 35-38.

    Presents a follow-up to an earlier two-part article, written by the author (Online, 15 (3) May 1991. pp.13-18; 15 (4) July 1991, pp.28-35), in which she identified seven stages to be undertaken by the users when planning and executing an online search. The aim is to compare the pre-Internet conditions of 1991 for online searching with those applying to the present. Two of the original factors have disappeared from the equation: the fact that online searching was undertaken by professional searchers and not end-users; and the high cost of searching which made faster searching and less relevant documents retrieved the keys to cheap searches. The mass Internet search engines, such as Google and Yahoo! have eliminated these two factors almost completely. Uses the example of an online search for the film star, Kay Francis, to reveal what is better and what is worse about the current online searching environment compared with the past.

  24. Reformulation of consumer health queries with professional terminology: a pilot study

    Robert M. Plovnick and Qing T. Zeng.

    Journal of Medical Internet Research, Vol. 6, No. 3, Jul 2004-Sep 2004, pp. .

    The full text of this electronic journal article can be found at [URL:http://www.jmir.org/2004/3/e27/]. Background: The Internet is becoming an increasingly important resource for health-information seekers. However, consumers often do not use effective search strategies. Query reformulation is one potential intervention to improve the effectiveness of consumer searches. Objective: The project endeavoured to answer the research question: "Does reformulating original consumer queries with preferred terminology from the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) Metathesaurus lead to better search returns?" Methods: Consumer-generated queries with known goals (n=16) that could be mapped to UMLS Metathesaurus terminology were used as test samples. Reformulated queries were generated by replacing user terms with Metathesaurus-preferred synonyms (n=18). Searches (n=36) were performed using both a consumer information site and a general search engine. Top 30 precision was used as a performance indicator to compare the performance of the original and reformulated queries. Results: Forty-two percent of the searches utilizing reformulated queries yielded better search returns than their associated original queries, 19% yielded worse results, and the results for the remaining 39% did not change. We identified ambiguous lay terms, expansion of acronyms, and arcane professional terms as causes for changes in performance. Conclusions: We noted a trend towards increased precision when providing substitutions for lay terms, abbreviations, and acronyms. We have found qualitative evidence that reformulating queries with professional terminology may be a promising strategy to improve consumer health-information searches, although we caution that automated reformulation could in fact worsen search performance when the terminology is ill-fitted or arcane. (Original abstract)

  25. Retrieval features for online databases: common, unique, and expected

    Nor Sahlawaty Halim and Roslina Othman.

    Online Information Review, Vol. 28, No. 3, 2004, pp. 200-210.

    The aims of this study were to identify the retrieval features for online databases; difficulties faced by users; and retrieval features expected by users. A total of 25 databases were surveyed and 40 users were interviewed after the training sessions. Common retrieval features included Boolean operators, phrase searching, match of exact words or phrases, field specific and limit fields searches, truncation, and wildcard. Even though features are offered in many systems, their interpretation and implementation are different. Unique features included lateral searching, density and frequency of terms, reference link, and searching via table of content. The expected features included relevance feedback and term weighting other than those already offered by ACM Digital Library and IEEE Xplore. Such expectations were influenced by the users' background in ICT. Difficulties included application of the retrieval features in searching. Database providers must include the expected features, synonyms linked to terms in the thesaurus, and extensive search examples. (Original abstract)

  26. Web users' information retrieval methods and skills

    Carol S. Bond.

    Online Information Review, Vol. 28, No. 4, 2004, pp. 254-259.

    When trying to locate information on the Web people are faced with a variety of options. This research reviewed how a group of health related professionals approached the task of finding a named document. Most were eventually successful, but the majority encountered problems in their search techniques. Even experienced Web users had problems when working with a different interface to normal, and without access to their favourites. No relationship was found between the number of years' experience Web users had and the efficiency of their searching strategy. The research concludes that if people are to be able to use the Web quickly and efficiently as an effective information retrieval tool, as opposed to a recreational tool to surf the Internet, they need to have both an understanding of the medium and the tools, and the skills to use them effectively, both of which were lacking in the majority of participants in this study. (Original abstract)

  27. A growing player: IDS Version 6.0 from CSA

    M. L. Fulton.

    Searcher, Vol. 11, No. 5, May 2003, pp. 57-61.

    Reviews the facilities provided for online searchers by the Internet Database Service (IDS) Version 6.0, produced by CSA (formerly Cambridge Scientific Abstracts). IDS provides World Wide Web access to over 70 databases covering major areas of science and social science research. Concludes that IDS allows searchers: to search multiple databases quickly (even if dial-up connections are still in use); to determine if the library has electronic access to specific resources and link directly to the full text of resources available in the library collection; to build a database using the user's own bibliographic/database manager or the one offered by CSA; to send a list of references via electronic mail to the user's home email address or to another party; to save up to 20 search strategies for a period of 6 months; and to save a search alert to search automatically selected databases for new content every week. Concludes that the resource has quality content with quality indexing and abstracting and the tools and linking capabilities help the content work well. (Quotes from original text)

  28. Internet librarian

    Julia Gelfand, Kris Kasianovitz and Colby Riggs.

    Library Hi Tech News, Vol. 20, No. 1, Jan 2003-Feb 2003, pp. 13-16.

    The 2002 Internet Librarian Conference "Navigating in turbulent waters" was held 4-6 November, 2002, in Palm Springs, California. The conference was a mixture of leading-edge ideas, tools, expert speakers, and events focused on information professionals and Internet-related technologies. It featured 4 keynote sessions, over 100 speakers in 4 simultaneous tracks each day for a total of 12 different themes: virtual services; knowledge sharing applications; E-learning and training; Wireless Web world; search engines; future focus; E-resources; Web operations and opportunities; searchers and search strategies, Intranets and portals, DRM tools and technologies, and Web design and development. For more information see http: //www.infotoday.com/il2002/default.htm.

  29. Searching the online catalog and the World Wide Web

    Shu-Hsien L. Chen.

    Journal of Educational Media and Library Sciences, Vol. 41, No. 1, Sep 2003, pp. 29-43.

    The article discusses the searching behaviors of school children using the online catalog and the World Wide Web. The amount of information and search capability for the online catalog and the World Wide Web, though, differ to a great extent, students share several common problems in using them. They have problems in spelling and typing, phrasing of search terms, extracting key concept, formulating search strategy, and evaluating search results. Their specific problems of searching the World Wide Web include rapid navigation of the Internet, overuse of "Back" button and browsing strategy, and evaluating only the first screen. Teachers and media specialists need to address these problems in the instruction of information literacy skills so that students can fully utilize the power of online searching and become efficient information searchers. (Original abstract)

  30. Hoe zoeken de nieuwe zoeksystemen. How the new search systems work

    E. Sieverts.

    Informatie Professional, Vol. 6, No. 4, Apr 2002, p.26-9 2002, pp. .

    The wealth of information available via the worldwide web together with the wide range of subjects covered and lack of any organised structure place heavy demands on retrieval systems. Moreover, intranet users require greater precision from search results than internet users. Google determines relevancy by examining the number of links to each document. The frequency with which search terms appear in the text or title of a document is also important. Some systems offer users the opportunity to refine search strategies at each stage.

  31. Web search strategies and retrieval effectiveness: an empirical study

    N. Ford, D. Miller and N. Moss.

    Journal of Documentation, Vol. 58, No. 1, 2002, pp. 30-48.

    Reports the results of a study that investigated links between Web search strategies and retrieval effectiveness. 68 masters students of librarianship, information management and information systems searched for two topics using the AltaVista search engine. Logs of the resultant 341 queries, along with relevance judgements for over 4,000 retrieved items, were analyzed using factor analysis and regression. Presents and discusses the differing but complementary types and strengths of evidence produced by these two forms of analysis. Retrieval effectiveness was associated positively with best match searching and negatively with Boolean searching. Discusses the implications of these findings for Web searching. (Original abstract - amended)

  32. Exploring users' experiences of the Web

    B. Brown and A. Sellen.

    First Monday, Vol. 6, No. 9, Sep 2001.

    The full text of this electronic journal article can be found at [URL:http://www.firstmonday.dk/issues/issue6_9/brown/]. While browsing the Web is a widespread everyday activity there is a shortage of detailed understanding of how users organize their Web usage. Reports results from a qualitative in-depth interview study of how users browse the Web and combine browsing with their other activities. The data are used to explore three particular problems which users have with browsing the Web. Firstly, users have problems managing their favourites, and in particular accessing their favourites through a hierarchical menu. Second, users have problems with combining information across different Web sites (the 'meta-task' problem). Third, users have concerns with security and privacy, although these concerns seem to change as users become more experienced with shopping on the Web. Discusses three concepts which address these problems: home page favourites; Web clipping; and the Web card. These concepts are attempts at incremental improvements to the Web without affecting the Web's essential simplicity. (Original abstract)

  33. Mouse click plagiarism: the role of technology in plagiarism and the librarian's role in combating it

    N. J. Auer and E. M. Krupar.

    Library Trends, Vol. 49, No. 3, Winter 2001, pp. 415-432.

    Article included in a special issue devoted to the theme: Ethical issues in information technology. The proliferation of full text databases and the World Wide Web has made plagiarism a rapidly growing problem in academia. Possible factors influencing student behaviour and attitudes toward plagiarism include ignorance, lack of personal investment in their education, situational ethics and lack of consistent styles among and within various disciplines. Librarians are in a unique position to help prevent and detect plagiarism by forming partnerships with faculty to re-examine assignments and instructional sessions and by informing them of Internet paper mills and useful Internet search strategies. (Original abstract)

  34. The role of individual differences in Internet searching: an empirical study

    N. Ford, D. Miller and N. Moss.

    Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, Vol. 52, No. 12, Oct 2001, pp. 1049-1066.

    Reports the results of a study of the role of individual differences in Internet searching. The dimensions of individual differences forming the focus of the research consisted of: cognitive styles; levels of prior experience; Internet perceptions; study approaches; age; and gender. 69 Masters students searched for information on a prescribed topic using the AltaVista search engine. Results were assessed using simple binary relevance judgements. Factor analysis and multiple regression revealed interesting differences, retrieval effectiveness being linked to: male gender; low cognitive complexity; an imager (as opposed to verbalizer) cognitive style; and a number of Internet perceptions and study approaches grouped here as indicating low self efficacy. Discusses the implications of these findings for system development and for future research. (Original abstract - amended)

  35. A study of the use of electronic information systems by higher education students in the UK

    C. Armstrong, R. Fenton, R. Lonsdale, D. Stoker, R. Thomas and C. Urquhart.

    Program, Vol. 35, No. 3, Jul 2001, pp. 241-262.

    Reports findings from the first annual cycle of a three-year research project on the provision and use of electronic information systems (EIS) within higher education in the UK. The project, JISC User Surveys: Trends in Electronic Information Services (JUSTEIS), was funded by the Joint Information Systems Committee (JISC) and undertaken at the University of Wales, Aberystwyth (UWA). Students, academics and library staff in 25 universities were surveyed using critical incident and critical success factors methodologies to ascertain the range and nature of EIS use. Provision of these systems by higher education institutions was also investigated via an analysis of their library Web sites. The findings reported in this paper focus on student use and the purposes for which EIS are employed, and reveal the limited array of EIS used and the ad hoc nature of search strategies adopted across undergraduate and postgraduate bodies within a range of disciplines. There appears to be little or no variation in the pattern of EIS use by the various student groups studied: the effect of the Internet on information seeking by students is hugely significant and the more formal resources, such as JISC-negotiated resources are little used. There is little evidence of coherent search strategies used by students. Recommendations for both the JISC and higher education are offered. (One author may be contacted by electronic mail at [mailto:rff@aber.ac.uk]). (Original abstract)

  36. Users' perceptions of the Web as revealed by transaction log analysis

    H. Moukdad and A. Large.

    Online Information Review, Vol. 25, No. 6, 2001, pp. 349-358.

    When information seekers use an information retrieval system their strategy is based, at least in part, on the perceptions they have formed about that environment. A random sample was gathered of more than 2,000 actual search queries submitted by users (at an unspecified university library) to one World Wide Web search engine, WebCrawler, in two separate capture sessions. The results suggest that a high proportion of users do not employ advanced search features and those who do frequently misunderstand them. Furthermore, many users seem to have formed a model of the Web that imbues it with the intelligence found in a reference librarian, for example, but not a retrieval system. The linguistic structure of many queries resembles a typical human-human communication model that is unlikely to produce satisfactory results in a human-computer communication environment, such as that offered currently by the Web. Design of more intuitive systems is dependent upon a more complete understanding of user behaviour at the intellectual and emotional as well as the technical levels. (Original abstract)