Discovery Guides Areas


Environmental Refugees: How Many, How Bad?
(Released June 2006)

  by Ethan Goffman  


Key Citations



Resources Websites


  1. Africa Environment Outlook, Environmental Change: Impacts On People
    (United Nations Environmental Program/GRID-Arendal, Longum Park, Service Box 706, N-4808, Arendal, Norway)

  2. Citizens Guide to Climate Refugees (PDF)
    (Friends of the Earth, Australia, Cam Walker, PO Box 222, Fitzroy, VIC, 3065 Australia)

  3. Climate Change Scenarios: Will There Be Growing Numbers of Environmental Migrants
    (Dr. Jim Mitroy, Senior Lecturer in Physics, Charles Darwin University, Australia)

  4. Environmental Impact of Refugees in Guinea (PDF)
    (UNEP, Regional Office for Africa, P.O. Box 30552, Nairobi,

  5. Environmental Refugees - A Misnomer or A Reality?
    (Fiona Flintan, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland)

  6. Environmental Refugees: Myth or Reality? (PDF)
    (Working Papers, The Journal of Humanitarian Assistance, Department of Peace Studies, Bradford University, Bradford BD7 1DP, UK)

  7. Environmental Refugees: The Case for Recognition (PDF)
    (New Economics Foundation, 3 Jonathan Street, London, SE11 5NH, England)

  8. Environmental Refugees: An Emergent Security Issue (PDF)
    (Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, Kaerntner Ring 5-7, 1010 Vienna, Austria)

  9. Haiti
    (Refugees International, 1705 N Street, NW, Washington, DC 20036)

  10. Island Vulnerability, Tuvalu
    (Island Vulnerability, Center for Capacity Building, National Center for Atmospheric Research, 3450 Mitchell Lane, Boulder, CO 80301)

  11. The Migrant Experience
    (The Library of Congress, 101 Independence Ave, SE, Washington, DC 20540)

  12. Migration and Tourism
    (United Nations Environment Programme, United Nations Avenue, Gigiri, P.O. Box 30552, Nairobi, Kenya)

  13. The Toledo Initiative on Environmental Refugees and Ecological Restoration
    (LiSER Foundation, Antoniestraat 19, 2011 CN Haarlem, The Netherlands)

  14. Troubling New Flows of Environmental Refugees
    (Lester Brown, Earth Policy Institute, 1350 Connecticut Ave. NW, Suite 403, Washington DC 20036)

  15. World Information Centre on Environmental Refugees
    (LiSER Foundation, Antoniestraat 19, 2011 CN Haarlem, The Netherlands)

Websites taken from CSA's Web Resources Related to the Social Sciences/Humanities and other databases.

Illustrations, Figures & Tables
  1. The land level sinks whereas the sea level rises, hampering the discharge of rivers in deltaic areas and increasing the vulnerability of the protected areas.

    Flood-risk Management Strategies for an Uncertain Future: Living with Rhine River Floods in The Netherlands?
    Klijn, F.; van Buuren, M.; van Rooij, S.A., Ambio, Vol. 33, No. 3, pp. 141-147. May 2004
  2. Refugee households in the Portland Metropolitan Area: All refugees settled from 1989-2001

    Heterolocalism, Networks of Ethnicity, and Refugee Communities in the Pacific Northwest: The Portland Story
    Hardwick, Susan W.; Meacham, James E., Professional Geographer, Vol. 57, No. 4, pp. 539-557. Nov 2005
  3. Number of refugees estimated by UNHCR, 1970-99

    Seeking asylum in Europe
    Hatton, Timothy J., Economic Policy, Vol. 19, No. 38, pp. 5-62. Apr 2004
  4. Location of Rwandan refugee camps near and inside the highland area of the Kahuzi-Biega National Park. The camps outside the park were established by UNHCR and NGOs in 1994, while those inside the park appeared after 1996

    Follow-Up Survey of Environmental Impacts of the Rwandan Refugees on Eastern D. R. Congo
    Sato, H.; Yasui, K.; Byamana, K., Ambio, Vol. 29, No. 2, pp. 122-123. Mar 2000
  5. Those impacted and those killed by floods. Left and middle: The number of people affected by floods is soaring but the death toll is going down. Right: The numbers of reported flood and drought disasters are growing

    Are Floods Growing?
    Ambio, Vol. 34, No. 6, pp. 478-480. Aug 2005
Illustrations, figures & tables taken from CSA's Illustrata

  1. Geisler, Charles C.
    Professor, Department of Development Sociology, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Cornell University
    Some forms of displacement are subtle, despite their magnitude. This research examines one such case: those people evicted from parks & protected areas ('conservation refugees') as these facilities . . . Greenlining the creation or expansion of relatively exclusionary protected areas can lead to the mass displacement of local communities and the creation of a new variant of environmental refugees. Employs several methods to estimate the magnitude of environmental refugees in Africa and suggests... to the mass displacement of local communities & the creation of a new variant of environmental refugees. The present research employs several methods to estimate the magnitude of environmental refugees

  2. Palinkas, Lawrence A.
    Professor, Department of Family and Preventive Medicine, School of Medicine, University of California, San Diego
    particularly interested in the sociocultural and environmental determinants of health and health-related... an examination of social, psychological and environmental influences on health and health-related . . . and health services utilization, U.S.-Mexico border health issues, immigrant and refugee health

  3. Simpson, Charles
    Professor, Chair, Sociology Program, Arts & Science, State University of New York at Plattsburgh
    Community development and land use issues in North America and Central America:
    • Urban growth
    • Viability of indigenous and peasant communities
    • Wilderness preservation initiatives
    • Refugee flows
    • Community-based approaches to development

  4. McGregor, JoAnn
    Lecturer, Department of Geography, School of Human and Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of Reading
    Social history and politics of Southerm Africa
    Conflict, migration and refugees
    Environment and development

  5. Young, Helen
    Associate Professor, School of Nutrition Science and Policy, Tufts University
    Among refugee & famine-affected populations living in camps, there appears to be a close. . ., which are influenced by both environmental & social factors. In situations of famine & population

List of scholars taken from CSA's Community of Scholars