- An analysis of Chinese perceptions on unilateral Clean Development Mechanism (uCDM) projects
Tek Narayan Maraseni and Gao Xinquan.
Environmental Science & Policy, Vol. 14, No. 3, May 2011, pp. 339-346.
Unilateral Clean Development Mechanism (uCDM) projects are planned, implemented and financed by a Non-Annex I entity yet without the direct involvement of an Annex I entity. Currently in the CDM project pipeline, unilateral projects grow continuously. On the basis of a questionnaire survey and formal and informal discussions with key CDM stakeholders in China, which dominate the world CDM market, this study tested seven propositions: (1) uCDM provision provides lower risk to the host country investor; (2) uCDM provision lowers transaction costs; (3) uCDM provision helps to keep rent in the host country; (4) uCDM provision offers less technology transfer than normal CDM projects; (5) delayed financial flow in uCDM projects will be a major problem for developing uCDM projects; (6) the Chinese Government will promote uCDM policy in the future; and (7) there will be more uCDM projects in China in the future. The first six hypotheses were accepted while the final one was rejected. Outcomes of this study may help refine future uCDM policy.
- Development forecast of renewable energy power generation in China and its influence on the GHG control strategy of the country
Tong Liu, Gang Xu, Peng Cai, Longhu Tian and Qili Huang.
Renewable Energy, Vol. 36, No. 4, Apr 2011, pp. 1284-1292.
CO2 emissions of the electricity supply sector in China account for about half of the total volume in the country. Thus, reducing CO2 emissions in China's electricity supply sector will contribute significantly to the efforts of greenhouse gas (GHG) control in the country and the rest of the world. This paper introduces the development status of renewable energy and other main CO2 mitigation options in power generation in China and makes a preliminary prediction of the development of renewable energy in the country for future decades. Besides, based on the situation in China, the paper undertakes a comprehensive analysis of CO2 mitigation costs, mitigation potential, and fossil energy conversation capacity of renewable energy and other mitigation options, through which the influence of renewable energy on the mitigation strategy of China is analyzed.
- Evaluating the environmental impacts of an urban wetland park based on emergy accounting and life cycle assessment: A case study in Beijing
N. Duan, XD Liu, J. Dai, et al.
Ecological Modelling, Vol. 222, No. 2, 24 Jan 2011, pp. 351-359.
In this paper, emergy accounting (EA) and life cycle assessment (LCA) methods are employed to investigate a typical urban wetland park, the Green Lake Urban Wetland Park (GLUWP) of Beijing, in terms of its environmental and capital inputs, ecosystem services and organic matter yields, environmental support, and sustainability. The LCA method is also used to obtain a quantitative estimation of the environmental impact of discharges during the entire life cycle of the GLUWP. Various emergy-based indices, such as emergy yield ratio (EYR), environmental load ratio (ELR), emergy sustainability index (ESI), net economic benefit (Np), and environmental impacts of process-based LCA, including global warming potential (GWP), eutrophication (EU), nonrenewable resource depletion (RU), energy consumption (EN), acidification potential (AP), photochemical oxidant creation potential (POCP), particulate matter (PM) and wastes (W), are calculated. The results show that the GLUWP has higher proportions of renewable resource input, less pressure on the environment, more environmental support and better ecological and economic benefits, which can be considered as an environment-friendly and long-term sustainable ecological practice, compared with another constructed wetland in Beijing. Meanwhile, the dominant environmental impact is induced by POCP with the construction phase contributing the most on the entire life cycle. It is expected that increasing green area, extensively using environment-friendly materials, optimizing construction techniques and reducing power consumption can promote the sustainability of the GLUWP.
- Impacts of renewable energy regulations on the structure of power generation in China – A critical analysis
Zhen-Yu Zhao, Jian Zuo, Lei-Lei Fan and George Zillante.
Renewable Energy, Vol. 36, No. 1, Jan 2011, pp. 24-30.
China is facing a number of energy-related challenges such as shortage of electricity supply and environmental pollution. The Government recognized the important role the renewable energy plays in the power generation structure. As a result, a series of supporting policies, laws and regulations have been issued to boost the renewable energies in China. This paper provides a critical analysis of the policy framework for the renewable energy in China and its impacts on the power generation structure. The relevant policy documents, including the most recent government work report delivered by Premier Wen Jia-bao during the Third Session of the 11th National People's Congress (NPC) in March 2010 are analyzed. The patterns of renewable energy developments are found strongly correlated with the promulgation of relevant policies.
- International cooperation on renewable energy development in China – A critical analysis
Zhen Yu Zhao, Jian Zuo, Tian Tian Feng and George Zillante.
Renewable Energy, Vol. 36, No. 3, Mar 2011, pp. 1105-1110.
The past decades have witnessed the rapid growth of foreign participation in the renewable energy development in China. This is a result of massive energy demand and the Government's strategy to shadow the role of traditional fossil fuel in the energy mix. This paper critically reviewed the international cooperation in the field of renewable energy with various partners in the new century. The cooperation pattern varies from partner to partner. The results showed that China has benefited from the international cooperation on renewable energy such as accessing to finance and advanced technologies, developing human resources related to renewable energy, and enhancing related policy framework. Major issues associated with the international cooperation are discussed as well.
- Life-cycle energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions for electricity generation and supply in China
Xunmin Ou, Yan Xiaoyu and Xiliang Zhang.
Applied Energy, Vol. 88, No. 1, Jan 2011, pp. 289-297.
The Well-to-Meter (WTM) analysis module in the Tsinghua-CA3EM model has been used to examine the primary fossil energy consumption (PFEC) and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions for electricity generation and supply in China. The results show that (1) the WTM PFEC and GHG emission intensities for the 2007 Chinese electricity mix are 3.247 MJ/MJ and 297.688 g carbon dioxide of equivalent (gCO sub(2,) sub(e)/MJ, respectively; (2) power generation is the main contributing sub-stage; (3) the coal-power pathway is the only major contributor of PFEC (96.23%) and GHG emissions (97.08%) in the 2007 mix; and (4) GHG emissions intensity in 2020 will be reduced to 220.470 gCO sub(2,) sub(e)MJ with the development of nuclear and renewable energy and to 169.014 gCO sub(2,) sub(e)MJ if carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) technology is employed. It is concluded that (1) the current high levels of PFEC and GHG emission for electricity in China are largely due to the dominant role of coal in the power-generation sector and the relatively low efficiencies during all the sub-stages from resource extraction to final energy consumption and (2) the development of nuclear and renewable energy as well as low carbon technologies such as CCS can significantly reduce GHG emissions from electricity.
- A preliminary assessment on CO sub2 storage capacity in the Pearl River Mouth Basin offshore Guangdong, China
Di Zhou Zhou, Zhongxian Zhao, Jie Liao and Zhen Sun.
International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control, Vol. 5, No. 2, Mar 2011, pp. 308-317.
Guangdong has China's highest GDP of any province and actively advocates low-carbon development. At present, Guangdong's low-carbon roadmap emphasizes the adjustment of industrial structure, increased energy saving and efficiency, and renewable and nuclear energy, while CCS is not featured. This is partially due to the geographical gap in the existing body of research on CCS in China, as to date no substantial research on CCS has taken place in the regions south of the Yangtze River, including Guangdong. This paper presents the partial outcome of the first CCS-related research in Guangdong, which is aiming for a preliminary assessment on the effective CO sub2 storage capacity in the Pearl River Mouth Basin (PRMB) offshore Guangdong. As the storage capacity onshore Guangdong is limited as shown by a parallel study, the offshore sedimentary basins deserve particular attention. The PRMB is the largest sedimentary basin in the passive margin of the northern South China Sea, with a total area of nearly 200 000 km super(2)and maximum sediment thickness of over 14 km. Based on published data, geological conditions and parameters for CO sub2 storage are analyzed, volumes of potential formations are calculated on a GIS platform, and the storage capacity is calculated according to CSLF and USDOE formulations. The estimated effective storage capacity is 308 Gt in deep saline formations, including 0.06 Gt in oil and gas fields. This capacity is sufficiently large for storaging the CO sub(2) emitted from the major point sources in Guangdong in many decades. Promising areas are suggested for further investigations.
- Renewable energy: China's domestic and global power surge
China Law & Practice, Jan 2011.
2010 has been a year in which the most significant renewable energy developments in China resulted not from new legislation or policies, but from the cumulative, self-reinforcing and accelerating economic and technological effects of previous legislation and policies. These effects include newly visible market shares and influence of Chinese participants in domestic and global markets. China's growing demand for energy appeared, about half a decade ago, not only to threaten rapid depletion of domestic and global supplies of non-renewable energy sources, but also to foreshadow (in clouds of coal-generated smoke) an even more rapid choking off of public health, agriculture and economic growth in China, in its neighbors and (through carbon emissions and climate change) in the entire world. But less than six years after the PRC Renewable Energy Law created a legislative framework for renewable energy promotion, China has fundamentally changed its domestic trends, and now is substantially influencing global trends, towards increased usage of renewable energy. While filling in its legislative framework with a series of national and local legal, tax and financial regulations and policies during the intervening years, China has hosted and orchestrated substantial installation of renewable energy generating products and, more importantly, enormous investments in factories to manufacture them. These factories represent a large and growing constituency for increasing domestic and international installation of renewable energy generating products, and for increasing China's role not only in their manufacture, but also in related services.
- Research and Markets; Solar Photovoltaic Market in China 2011
Journal of India, Apr 12 2011, pp. 97.
An analysis of drivers and challenges explains the factors leading to the growth of the market and include economic growth and demand for energy, geographical advantages and vast solar resources, huge export market, solar subsidies, strong investment potential and low carbon footprint. The various initiatives take by the Chinese Government have been highlighted and include renewable energy law, feed-in-tariff, MOHURD subsidy (Solar Roofs program), the Golden Sun program, government support policies and rural electrification programme.
- Analysis of Guangdong Province's Energy Flow Chart and Energy Balance
Jingwei Yi, Daiqing Zhao and Guotian Cai.
Sino-Global Energy/Zhongwai Nengyuan, Vol. 15, No. 4, Apr 2010, pp. 95-101.
Guangdong province is now one of the most developed regions in China after 30 years of growth since the start of reform and opening-up. Rapid economic growth and large-scale urbanization construction have also created enormous pressure for energy supply and environmental protection. To ensure an adequate energy supply and sustain the growth of economy and the environment, it is necessary to analyze all the factors affecting the province's energy balance including energy supply, conversion and consumption. Researchers mapped an energy flow chart based on Guangdong province's energy balance sheet in 2007. Fossil fuels, principally coal, petroleum and natural gas, accounted for a large proportion in the province's energy mix, while the percentage of rich renewable energy resources was relatively low. The growth of Guangdong province's energy consumption was very fast and the province highly relies on import to meet its energy needs, adding to the difficulty of ensuring energy security. The use of fossil fuels has also resulted in a deterioration of the environment and climate change. The efficiency of coal-fired power generation in Guangdong province is still lower than that in developed countries. Industrial sectors are the biggest energy consumers in Guangdong province, followed by the traffic and transportation and storage and postal industries. The third largest energy consumer is the residential sector. The province's demand for high-quality energy sources such as refined oil products and electricity is also expanding rapidly. Given this situation, we suggest Guangdong province develop low-carbon energy sources, including nuclear power, new energy and renewable energy sources. Other measures include making full use of resources and markets both within and outside of China, strengthening the construction of energy transportation capacity, raising the efficiency of coal-based power generation by conducting technical upgrades as well as optimizing the fuel mix, pushing the application of energy-efficient technologies in the industrial sector, accelerating the development of the third industry, promoting the introduction of efficient, intelligent and low-emission traffic and transportation means and encouraging residents to lead a low-carbon life that does not compromise the comfortability of life.
- An Analysis of the Status Quo of Energy Utilization and Countermeasures in China
X. Zhang, R. Zhu, X. Li and S. Chen.
Journal of Sustainable Development, Vol. 3, No. 3, Sep 2010, pp. 208.
With China's rapid economic development and the world's total primary Energy declining, Energy bottleneck effect on China's economy has become increasing evident. China's economic growth pattern is in the transitional period from extensiveness to intensiveness, the improvement of the energy structure also becomes more urgent. In this paper, the authors put forward some measures to adjust China's energy structure through the analysis of the status quo of China's energy structure and the existing problems. To achieve the sustainable development of energy, economics and environment, we must accelerate the transformation of China's energy structure, and strengthen publicity and promote healthy lifestyles. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT]
- Barriers and opportunities of using the clean development mechanism to advance renewable energy development in China
Qiang Wang and Yong Chen.
Renewable & Sustainable Energy Reviews, Vol. 14, No. 7, Sep 2010, pp. 1989-1998.
Studying the barriers and opportunities of using clean development mechanism (CDM) to advance renewable energy deployment in China has a practical significance to achieve its ambitious renewable energy plan which affects the global efforts to curb carbon emission. This paper analyses the role of CDM in promoting renewable energy development in China by reviewing the CDM activities, especially renewable energy CDM activities in China. There are three barriers to utilizing CDM for renewable energy deployment, namely the dilemma of additionality, lower proportional certified emission reduction credit revenues on the investment, and the lack of incentive for technology transfer. Whereas the opportunities of using CDM in promoting renewable energy development include the international carbon market redirection to renewable energy, Chinese renewable energy boom driven by a series of effective energy policies, and additional finance from CDM supporting Chinese renewable energy development. Based on the study on the barriers and opportunities, the article considers that CDM is an indispensable incentive and a viable choice to promote renewable energy deployment in China.
- CCS in China: Toward an Environmental, Health, and Safety Regulatory Framework
D. Seligsohn, Y. Liu, S. Forbes, Z. Dongjie and L. West.
World Resources Institute Brief, Aug 2010.
Carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) is one of several technologies that many countries are looking to in order to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and keep rising temperatures from reaching dangerous levels. Many experts and policy makers believe CCS may be a critical option in the portfolio of solutions available to combat climate change, because it has the potential to achieve significant reductions in CO2 emissions from fossil fuel-based systems. There remain, however, many questions regarding the commercialization of the technology and issues surrounding the regulatory frameworks needed if CCS is to be deployed. These questions must be answered quickly to identify whether CCS can play the role that many hope, and if so, how best to deploy it. Renewable energy sources are also projected to play a major rols in tha future and are rapidly expanding. Renewables, however, are not predicted to overtake fossil fuel generation for several decades; hence CCS, if safely deployed, could help provide a bridge to a more sustainable energy future. As CCS technology moves from an R&D effort to demonstration- scale projects and ultimately commercial developments, governments in many major economies, including Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, the European Union, France, Italy, Norway, South Africa, the United Arab Emirates, the United Kingdom, and the United States have announced plans to construct commercial-scale CCS demonstrations. The International Energy Agency's CCS Roadmap, designed to determine the role for CCS in achieving a 50 percent reduction in 2005 energy-related global CO2 emissions by 2050, states that 100 CCS projects should be online by 2020 (IEA 2009b; IEA 2009c). The first tranche of announced demonstration projects—let alone the 100 projects suggested by the IEA—will require not only significant financial investments by industry and the private sector, but also a robust regulatory framework for ensuring that projects proceed safely. The development of rigorous regulations for ensuring environmental protection and managing the risks associated with CCS efforts is paramount, and pilot regulatory frameworks for protecting environmental health and safety have been developed—and in some cases adopted—for the European Union, Australia, and the United States.
- China a Leader In Solar Revolution
Photonics Spectra, Vol. 44, No. 3, Mar 2010, pp. 56-57.
Not for nothing is it called the Sleeping Giant. A variety of new markets and manufacturing possibilities are emerging in China, creating new opportunities for many in the optics and photonics communities. Chief among these, perhaps, is solar energy. China is positioning itself as an important - if not the important - player in this area. In the past few years, it has become a major producer of solar products, even as changing demographics make it one of the largest markets for renewable energy.
- China Rationalizes Its Renewable Energy Policy
Jack H. Su and Simone S. Hui.
Electricity Journal, Vol. 23, No. 3, Apr 2010, pp. 26-34.
China's over-reliance on thermal power generation, especially coal-fired power stations, is well-documented. While nuclear power continues as an option to coal, China's strides in renewable energy are unprecedented. Recent amendments to the Renewable Energy Law, first promulgated in 2006, attempt to rationalize the regulatory regime governing wind, solar, hydropower and biomass projects in China, currently fraught with inadequate interconnection and tariff shock issues.
- China's Renewable Energy Development Strategy
Sino-Global Energy/Zhongwai Nengyuan, Vol. 15, No. 3, Mar 2010, pp. 29-32.
Developing and utilizing renewable energy is currently the most practicable measure to combat climate change and to meet ever-increasing energy demand. In 2009, China's power output from wind power and solar photovoltaic power plants continued growing rapidly. The country's installed wind power generating capacity was estimated to be around 2200 xl0(4)kW. However, non-fossil energy still represented a small share in China's energy mix. Last year, China's total energy consumption reached 31x10(8)t of coal equivalent. Consumption of commercialized non -fossil energy sources such as hydropower, nuclear power and wind power was around 2.3x 10(8)t of coal equivalent, accounting for some 7.4% of all energy consumed. China's objective is to raise the share of non-fossil energy in its energy mix to 15% by 2020.This objective is very difficult to achieve. Accelerating the development and utilization of renewable is one of the most important tasks in developing energy. By 2020, the total amount of renewable energy developed and used in China would increase two times over 2008. Currently and in the next 10 years, China's focus in developing renewable energy is on hydropower, wind power, solar energy and biomass energy. China's measures for accelerating the development of renewable energy include: (1)continuing to develop hydropower facilities to promote the hydropower industry to grow in a sustained and healthy manner; (2)promoting the expansion of wind power generating capacity in an orderly manner to considerably raise the share of wind power in China's electricity production; (3)quickening the spread of use of solar energy utilization technology and expanding the scale of developing and utilizing solar energy; (4) developing and utilizing biomass energy in accordance with local specifics and developing more advanced technology for utilizing biomass energy.
- China's View of Climate Change
Policy Review, No. 161, Jun/Jul 2010, pp. 27.
In the world's prevailing climate change narrative, human use of fossil fuels – such as coal, fuel oil, and natural gas – causes the release of heat-trapping greenhouse gases – mainly carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and fluorinated gases – that ultimately contribute to global warming and its associated effects, including melting snow caps, rising sea levels, and extreme weather phenomena. Due to the "strong correlation between population growth and climate change," said Zhao Baige, vice minister of China's National Population and Family Planning Commission, the decline in Chinese population in the past three decades "converts into a reduction of 1.83 billion tons of carbon dioxide emission in China per annum."
- Comparison of Energy Efficiency of Developed Regions in China at Similar Economic Level between 1995 and 2007
Journal of Sustainable Development, Vol. 3, No. 4, Dec 2010, pp. 97.
Economic level could be an important factor which influences energy efficiency and it's generally accepted that high level of economic development can lead of high energy efficiency. However, the situation may be different when economic factor is put aside. In the paper, nine regions in China are chosen to compare their energy efficiency at similar economic level between 1995 and 2007. Based on the result, the nine regions can be divided into three categories-early developed regions with low energy efficiency, late developed regions with high energy efficiency and late developed regions with low energy efficiency. Three possible reasons for the result (the technology "leapfrog", energy mix and industrial mix) are discussed. The adoption of the latest technologies, low portion of coal-driven energy in energy mix and high portion of light industry in industrial mix can be the reason for high energy efficiency of late developed regions in China. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT]
- Decarbonising power generation in China - Is the answer blowing in the wind?
Renewable & Sustainable Energy Reviews, Vol. 14, No. 4, May 2010, pp. 1154-1171.
This paper examines the current situation of wind industry development, evaluates the potentials of GHG mitigation and identifies the key determinants of scaling up wind power deployment in China. China has doubled its wind capacity every year for the past 4 years, the total installed capacity reached 12 Gigawatts (GW) and surpassed the 10-GW target 2 years ahead of schedule in the national plan for renewable energy development ,  and ,and would reach 100-120 GW by 2020 according to the government's new energy plan. It may become the biggest wind power generation and wind turbines manufacturing country of the world in the next years if the abundant wind resources and enormous domestic market can be harnessed with appropriate policies and efficient technology. The recent positive move in vigorous development of wind power in China implies that the total installed capacity will far exceed the targets of the government's 2007 renewable energy plan. However, the prosperous Chinese wind market has also revealed some worrisome signals and weakness  and , such as low capacity factor and frequent outage of wind farms, inadequate grid infrastructure, long distance transmission, low quality of turbines, adverse price bidding, nepotism in wind farm developer selection process and regulatory uncertainty and policy inconsistency which all conspire to hinder effective power generation in the massively new installed wind capacities. A coherent policy framework is required for creating enabling environment for accelerating wind energy penetration and state-of-art technology deployment in the country. It is argued that institutional, financial and technical capacity will need to be cemented to exploit the huge potentials of wind resources to meet the rapidly growing demand for electricity in China in the coming decades with minimised environmental implications.
- The effect of energy-saving and emission reelection of solar energy resource utilization in rural areas of china
Xiao-Xia Zou, Yun-Fan Wan, Yu-E Li and Qing-Zhu Gao.
Kezaisheng Nengyuan (Renewable Energy Resources), Vol. 28, No. 3, Jun 2010, pp. 93-98.
Analysing the development potential of renewable energy and calculating the emission reduction due to energy saving and cost for emission reduction, can provide the basis for the national climate change mitigation and for the adaptation of corresponding actions. The author analyzed 2001-2008 China's rural solar cookers, solar water heaters and solar room's development trends during the period of 2001-2008 and forecasted its development potential, at the same time, by using the calculation methodology approved by the CDM Executive Board and the results of previous studies, calculated the energy reduction and mitigation costs. The results show that: the use of solar energy resources in rural areas of China increased rapidly, and it is with a tremendous potential for development; the emission reduction is obvious; according to the EU emissions trading price, the CO(2) reduction cost of the sun room and solar cooker is negative. It is suggested that the state should reasonably plan the use of solar energy resources in rural areas, and try to form a scale in the international market in order to sell the emission reductions.
- Effective policies for renewable energy – the example of China's wind power – lessons for China's photovoltaic power
Renewable & Sustainable Energy Reviews, Vol. 14, No. 2, Feb 2010, pp. 702-712.
China, one of the global biggest emitter of CO sub(2), needs promotion renewable energy to reduce air pollution from its surging fossil fuel use, and to increase its energy supply security. Renewable energy in its infancy needs policy support and market cultivation. Wind power installed capacity has boomed in recent year in China, as a series of effective support policies were adopted. In this paper, I review the main renewable energy policies regarding to China's wind power, including the Wind Power Concession Program, Renewable Energy Law, and a couple of additional laws and regulations. Such policies have effectively reduced the cost of wind power installed capacity, stimulated the localization of wind power manufacture, and driven the company investment in wind power. China is success in wind power installed capacity, however, success in wind-generated electricity has yet achieved, mainly due to the backward grid system and lack of quota system. The paper ends with the recommended best practice of the China's wind power installed capacity might be transferable to China's photovoltaic power generation.
- Emergy analysis of an industrial park: The case of Dalian, China
Yong Geng, Pan Zhang, Sergio Ulgiati and Joseph Sarkis.
Science of the Total Environment, Vol. 408, No. 22, 15 Oct 2010, pp. 5273-5283.
With the rapid development of eco-industrial park projects in China, evaluating their overall eco-efficiency is becoming an important need and a big challenge academically. Developing ecologically conscious industrial park management requires analysis of both industrial and ecological systems. Traditional evaluation methods based on neoclassical economics and embodied energy and exergy analyses have certain limitations due to their focus with environmental issues considered secondary to the maximization of economic and technical objectives. Such methods focus primarily on the environmental impact of emissions and their economic consequences. These approaches ignore the contribution of ecological products and services as well as the load placed on environmental systems and related problems of carrying capacity of economic and industrial development. This paper presents a new method, based upon emergy analysis and synthesis. Such a method links economic and ecological systems together, highlighting the internal relations among the different subsystems and components. The emergy-based method provides insight into the environmental performance and sustainability of an industrial park. This paper depicts the methodology of emergy analysis at the industrial park level and provides a series of emergy-based indices. A case study is investigated and discussed in order to show the emergy method's practical potential. Results from DEDZ (Dalian Economic Development Zone) case show us the potential of emergy synthesis method at the industrial park level for environmental policy making. Its advantages and limitations are also discussed with avenues for future research identified.
- Environmental health in China: progress towards clean air and safe water
J. Zhang, D. Mauzerall, T. Zhu, S. Liang, M. Ezzati and J. Remais.
The Lancet, Vol. 375, No. 9720, Mar 27-Apr 2 2010, pp. 1110.
Environmental risk factors, especially air and water pollution, are a major source of morbidity and mortality in China. Biomass fuel and coal are burned for cooking and heating in almost all rural and many urban households, resulting in severe indoor air pollution that contributes greatly to the burden of disease. Many communities lack access to safe drinking water and sanitation, and thus the risk of waterborne disease in many regions is high. At the same time, China is rapidly industrialising with associated increases in energy use and industrial waste. Although economic growth from industrialisation has improved health and quality of life indicators, it has also increased the release of chemical toxins into the environment and the rate of environmental disasters, with severe effects on health. Air quality in China's cities is among the worst in the world, and industrial water pollution has become a widespread health hazard. Moreover, emissions of climate-warming greenhouse gases from energy use are rapidly increasing. Global climate change will inevitably intensify China's environmental health troubles, with potentially catastrophic outcomes from major shifts in temperature and precipitation. Facing the overlap of traditional, modern, and emerging environmental dilemmas, China has committed substantial resources to environmental improvement. The country has the opportunity to address its national environmental health challenges and to assume a central role in the international effort to improve the global environment.
- Evaluating the effectiveness of urban energy conservation and GHG mitigation measures: The case of Xiamen city, China
Jianyi Lin, Bin Cao, Shenghui Cui, Wei Wang and Xuemei Bai.
Energy Policy, Vol. 38, No. 9, Sep 2010, pp. 5123-5132.
To assess the effectiveness of urban energy conservation and GHG mitigation measures, a detailed Long-range Energy Alternatives Planning (LEAP) model is developed and applied to analyze the future trends of energy demand and GHG emissions in Xiamen city. Two scenarios have been designed to describe the future energy strategies in relation to the development of Xiamen city. The 'Business as Usual' scenario assumes that the government will do nothing to influence the long-term trends of urban energy demand. An 'Integrated' scenario, on the other hand, is generated to assess the cumulative impact of a series of available reduction measures: clean energy substitution, industrial energy conservation, combined heat and power generation, energy conservation in building, motor vehicle control, and new and renewable energy development and utilization. The reduction potentials in energy consumption and GHG emissions are estimated for a time span of 2007-2020 under these different scenarios. The calculation results in Xiamen show that the clean energy substitution measure is the most effective in terms of energy saving and GHG emissions mitigation, while the industrial sector has the largest abatement potential.
- The evolving role of carbon finance in promoting renewable energy development in China
Joanna I. Lewis.
Energy Policy, Vol. 38, No. 6, Jun 2010, pp. 2875-2886.
The world is negotiating what the international climate change regime will look like after 2012 – the year that current Kyoto Protocol greenhouse gas emissions reduction targets expire – and the future of the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) is under discussion. Critics claim the scale of reductions that the CDM is driving in the developing world is insufficient from a scientific perspective if we are to avoid dangerous climate change, that the project-by-project crediting process is inefficient, and that the reductions being achieved are not 'additional' – meaning they would have happened anyway and thus should not be financially supported. Yet, the efficacy of CDM must be examined in the broader context of carbon mitigation in the developing world and the actions that are taking place. This paper examines the role that the CDM has played in promoting renewable energy development in China in order to assess how international carbon finance can best be used to help promote emissions mitigation in the developing world. It also assesses how several options under consideration for reforming the current structure of the CDM in particular and developing country engagement in general may impact renewable energy development in China in the coming years.
- Green Technologies: Opportunites for South-South Trade
International Trade Forum, No. 1, 2010, pp. 34.
Climate change and broader environmental concerns have, as yet, had only a relatively minor impact on shaping the directional economic growth in South-East Asia. However, prospects for change are expanding with growing global concern and increasing competition for and pressure upon available agricultural land and water. Green technologies include extremely complex and expensive advanced technology (high-tech) and the simplest technologies that serve basic human needs. ITC has identified renewable energy, green information technology and related services, and waste recycling and water treatment as the most promising sectors in terms of export growth and opportunities. China, India, Malaysia, Pakistan, Philippines, Thailand and Vietnam have already achieved some success in exporting green technologies. Furthering trade in green technologies in developing countries is often hampered by challenges. ITC's trade development activities in this sector seek to to strengthen the competitiveness of SME green technology exporters and help develop TSI's capacities to expand trade in environmental technologies and services.
- Optimization of China's generating portfolio and policy implications based on portfolio theory
Lei Zhu and Ying Fan.
Energy (Oxford), Vol. 35, No. 3, Mar 2010, pp. 1391-1402.
This paper applies portfolio theory to evaluate China's 2020-medium-term plans for generating technologies and its generating portfolio. With reference to the risk of relevant generating-cost streams, the paper discusses China's future development of efficient (Pareto optimal) generating portfolios that enhance energy security in different scenarios, including CO sub(2)-emission-constrained scenarios. This research has found that the future adjustment of China's planned 2020 generating portfolio can reduce the portfolio's cost risk through appropriate diversification of generating technologies, but a price will be paid in the form of increased generating cost. In the CO sub(2)-emission-constrained scenarios, the generating-cost risk of China's planned 2020 portfolio is even greater than that of the 2005 portfolio, but increasing the proportion of nuclear power in the generating portfolio can reduce the cost risk effectively. For renewable-power generation, because of relatively high generating costs, it will be necessary to obtain stronger policy support to promote renewable-power development.
- Potential impact of (CET) carbon emissions trading on China's power sector: A perspective from different allowance allocation options
Rong-Gang Cong and Yi-Ming Wei.
Energy (Oxford), Vol. 35, No. 9, Sep 2010, pp. 3921-3931.
In Copenhagen climate conference China government promised that China would cut down carbon intensity 40-45% from 2005 by 2020. CET (carbon emissions trading) is an effective tool to reduce emissions. But because CET is not fully implemented in China up to now, how to design it and its potential impact are unknown to us. This paper studies the potential impact of introduction of CET on China's power sector and discusses the impact of different allocation options of allowances. Agent-based modeling is one appealing new methodology that has the potential to overcome some shortcomings of traditional methods. We establish an agent-based model, CETICEM (CET Introduced China Electricity Market), of introduction of CET to China. In CETICEM, six types of agents and two markets are modeled. We find that: (1) CET internalizes environment cost; increases the average electricity price by 12%; and transfers carbon price volatility to the electricity market, increasing electricity price volatility by 4%. (2) CET influences the relative cost of different power generation technologies through the carbon price, significantly increasing the proportion of environmentally friendly technologies; expensive solar power generation in particular develops significantly, with final proportion increasing by 14%. (3) Emission-based allocation brings about both higher electricity and carbon prices than by output-based allocation which encourages producers to be environmentally friendly. Therefore, output-based allocation would be more conducive to reducing emissions in the Chinese power sector.
- Rebound effect in Chinese household energy efficiency and solution for mitigating it
Jinlong Ouyang, Enshen Long and Kazunori Hokao.
Energy (Oxford), Vol. 35, No. 12, Dec 2010, pp. 5269-5276.
The current efforts and technologies on energy efficiency seem unable to hold back the increasing momentum of the household energy consumption per unit of China, which has been on the increase since 2000. Usually, this phenomenon is simply attributed to the demand for more comfortable household lifestyle due to the current rapid economic development of China. However, the latent cause – rebound effect has long been ignored in the household energy efficiency of China, while it has been analyzed deeply and recognized widely all over the world. This article studies the rebound effect in the household energy efficiency of China and its related negative influence on the energy demand. A high rebound effect of at least 30% in the household energy efficiency of China is presumed by reference to the rebound effects of other countries. Finally, five feasible ways are summarized to mitigate the rebound effect and their values are analyzed respectively: (1) develop renewable energy resources, (2) increase energy prices, (3) improve energy efficiency, (4) build rational energy prices system, and (5) improve consumer behavior.
- Review of Implementation of Renewable Energy Law and Outlook
Huifeng Xue and Haining Wang.
Sino-Global Energy/Zhongwai Nengyuan, Vol. 15, No. 3, Mar 2010, pp. 33-36.
China's State Council enacted the Law of Renewable Energy of the People's Republic of China on January 1,2006.This law is not only a legal guarantee to promote the development of renewable energy sources in China but has also had a positive influence internationally. The Law of Renewable Energy establishes five basic legal systems-overall objectives, peremptory grid attachment, differentiated electricity pricing, fee apportionment and special foundation. Based on these five systems, the Law forms a well-functioning legal and policy system to bolster the development of renewable energy, particularly for use in power generation. At the same time, China has made progress in implementing important legal systems, rules and regulations and this has given a boost to the development and utilization of renewable energy, contributing greatly to alleviating the shortfall of resources and the efforts to combat climate change. At the same time, some problems popped up during the implementation of the Law of Renewable Energy. The development, utilization and planning of renewable energy is out of line with the overall planning of energy, electricity and power grids; the systems of peremptory grid attachment and full acquisition of renewable energy are difficult to impose; the additional allocation method for pricing of electricity from renewable energy is irrational. Therefore, based on post-enactment assessment, the Commission of Environment and Resources of the National People's Congress put forth a proposal to modify the Law of Renewable Energy, including introducing overall planning, combining market configuration and governmental macro control, guaranteeing the unified use of governmental subsidies and establishing a renewable development fund managed by the government. The protective full acquisition system for renewable energy is the biggest bright spot in this modification to the law. On December 26, 2009, the 12th session of the Standing Committee of the 11 th National People's Congress passed the proposal of modifying the Law of Renewable Energy.
- Seasonal and spatial variability of surface ozone over China: contributions from background and domestic pollution
Y. Wang, Y. Zhang, J. Hao and M. Luo.
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions, Vol. 10, No. 11, 15 Nov 2010, pp. 27853-27891.
Both observations and a 3-D chemical transport model suggest that surface ozone over populated eastern China features a significant drop in mid-summer and that the peak month differs by latitude and region. Source-receptor analysis is used to quantify the contributions of background ozone and Chinese anthropogenic emissions on this variability. Annual mean background ozone over China shows a spatial gradient from 55 ppbv in the northwest to 20 ppbv in the southeast, corresponding with changes in topography and ozone lifetime. Anthropogenic background (annual mean of 12.6 ppbv) shows distinct troughs in the summer and peaks in the spring. On the monthly-mean basis, Chinese pollution ozone (CPO) has a peak of 20-25 ppbv in June north of the Yangtze River and in October south of it, which explains the peaks of surface ozone in these months. The mid-summer drop in ozone over eastern China is driven by the decrease of background ozone (-15 ppbv). Tagged simulations suggest that this decrease is driven by reduced transport from Europe and North America, whereas ozone from Southeast Asia and Pacific Ocean exhibits a maximum in the summer over eastern China. This contrast in seasonality provides clear evidence that the seasonal switch in monsoonal wind patterns plays a significant role in determining the seasonality of background ozone over China.
- Solar Architecture Landmark of the World: Sun-Moon Mansion of China Solar Valley
Hua-Wei Zhai, Shu-Wang Zhao, Shao-Lian Liu and Lei Gao.
Construction Conserves Energy, Vol. 38, No. 1, Jan 2010, pp. 60-62.
The comprehensive solar energy utilization and building energy-saving technologies for the Sun-Moon Mansion in China Solar Valley are introduced completely, playing a positive role for modeling and promoting the research and application on integration of solar energy and ecological buildings in China.
- Status and problems of wind turbine structural health monitoring techniques in China
Wenyi Liu, Baoping Tang and Yonghua Jiang.
Renewable Energy, Vol. 35, No. 7, Jul 2010, pp. 1414-1418.
Wind energy is an important renewable energy source because of its reliability due to the maturity of the technology, good infrastructure and relative cost competitiveness. Rich wind resources and strong support in regulations by the Chinese government have enabled the wind power industry to grow at a fast speed and the primary market scale has been achieved, making it the second largest wind power market in the world. There has also been an increase in wind energy research in various regions in China during the last few years. As utility-size wind turbines increase in size, and correspondingly their initial capital investment cost, there is an increasing need to monitor the health of these structures. However, most of the research papers in China are about the manufacture and production, such as the simulation of the wind turbine generator system model, the systematic resonance and stability for the world turbine, the wind speed, wind power and pitch adjustment simulation model, and so on. Few papers focus on the structural health monitoring (SHM) techniques of the wind turbine. In this paper, we review the status of the current SHM techniques in wind turbine and analyze the problems of them in China. The aims of this paper are to let more scholars and experts know the status of the current SHM techniques and to do something for building a successful industry in China.
- The status of concentrating solar power and risk analysis on application in China
Wei Chen and Jun Zhang.
Kezaisheng Nengyuan (Renewable Energy Resources), Vol. 28, No. 2, Apr 2010, pp. 148-151.
Concentrating Solar Power, which technical feasibility has been proven, is one of the forms for achievable large-scale use of solar energy, and in a few countries it has came into the pre-commercialization stage. This paper summarizes the global status and some barriers in the future of CSP development, and also makes the risk analysis and some suggestions on the development of CSP technology in China.
- Study on China's legal system for the wind energy resources development and utilization
Kezaisheng Nengyuan (Renewable Energy Resources), Vol. 28, No. 2, Apr 2010, pp. 7-10.
This paper summarizes the status quo of China's wind energy development and utilization, and points out the three main issues of why China's wind energy resources utilization rate is relatively low and it had not developed until the mid 90's of 20th. The analysis has been carried out on the six legal systems for China's wind energy resource development and utilization such as resources survey system, overall goals and development planning system, industry guidance and technical support systems, internet price and cost-sharing system, special fund system and the environmental protection system of the wind power development. By combining the theory and the practice, and mainly with the help of the methods of empirical research and case study, the objective of this paper is to provide reference on the wind power industry policy and legal system for the enterprises, sectors and industries which are interested on the wind power development.
- Study on the construction of the offshore wind farm ASSY in the southeast coast of China
Ying Zhong, Yuan Zheng, Mei-Qin Liu and Zhen-Zhou Zhao.
Kezaisheng Nengyuan (Renewable Energy Resources), Vol. 28, No. 3, Jun 2010, pp. 140-144.
This paper which is about the construction of wind power turbine, introduces three foundations of offshore wind farm for the southeast coast of China and analyses them in the aspects of applicable water depth and economy. Thus the most suitable foundation for each range of the water depth is summarized. Besides, the paper also introduces the two kinds of offshore wind power installation. Based on the characteristics of each installation, by combining the advanced techiques of the world, several installation schemes for Chinese southeast coast wind power are presented.
- Trade and Migration with Renewable Natural Resources: Out-of-Steady-State Dynamics
R. Lopez and M. Schiff.
Institute for the Study of Labor Discussion Paper Series, No. 4923, 2010.
Commodity price increases associated with the entry of China, India and other countries into the world economy has led to increased pressure on common-property renewable natural resources (NR). The problem is particularly worrisome for economies that obtain a large share of their income from the exploitation of NR in the production of an exportable commodity. This paper contributes to the analysis by examining the issue in the framework of a general equilibrium dynamic model and by solving for both the steady state and the transition dynamics. We show that i) a resource-rich, capital-poor economy is more likely to be subject to a "natural resource curse" and complete (irreversible) NR depletion; ii) the latter's likelihood rises with the relative commodity price and labor inflow; iii) a labor inflow under internal equilibrium results in a higher steady-state capital-labor ratio and manufacturing output, and unchanged NR and commodity output; iv) import and export taxes result in a larger steady-state NR and commodity output and a smaller capital stock and manufacturing output, and may prevent complete NR depletion; and v) the latter may also be prevented through capital inflows (foreign aid) and labor outflow (openness by the North), improved regulation, technical change and a production tax.
- Wind power development and policies in China
Cuiping Liao, Eberhard Jochem, Yi Zhang and Nida R. Farid.
Renewable Energy, Vol. 35, No. 9, Sep 2010, pp. 1879-1886.
The People's Republic of China foresees a target of 30 GW for installed wind power capacity by 2010 (2008: 12 GW). This paper reports on the technical and economic potentials of wind power, the recent development, existing obstacles, and related policies in China. The barriers to further commercialization of the wind power market are important and may deter the 100 GW capacity target of the Chinese government by 2020. The paper concludes that the diffusion of wind power in China is an important element for not only reducing global greenhouse gas emissions, but also for worldwide progress of wind power technology and needed economies of scale.
- Wind power in China – Opportunity goes with challenge
Xiao Yu and Hang Qu.
Renewable & Sustainable Energy Reviews, Vol. 14, No. 8, Oct 2010, pp. 2232-2237.
Climate change and limited primary energy resources require indigenous renewable electricity generation options to change the current coal-dominated power source matrix in China. The wind power is such a solution for the above challenges, and it still has large space for improvement in China. In this paper several critical factors related to Chinese wind power were studied in details, including the wind resources, the wind turbine industry and the policies from the Chinese government. Based on the study, the perspective of wind power in China was discussed. With outstanding advantages, the offshore wind power has a bright future in China, so its main characteristics are discussed. Based on the discussions, suggestions were given to improve the development of Chinese wind power, and the government's further measures are also recommended.
- Analysis of Causes of Different Regional Energy Intensities in China
Shantong Li and Zhaoyuan Xu.
Sino-Global Energy/Zhongwai Nengyuan, Vol. 14, No. 8, Aug 2009, pp. 1-10.
Energy intensity reflects the comprehensive energy efficiency of an economy. In China, energy intensity varies dramatically from one region to another. Using the structure decomposition method, this article analyzes the causes of different energy intensities in different areas in China. Analytic results show that in most areas, industry energy intensity is the main factor behind the difference in energy intensity. Energy intensity difference resulting from different industrial structures accounts for over 30% of the total difference. In the areas with higher energy intensities, the factors affecting energy consumption vary and the corresponding energy saving potential and difficulty also differ. Enhancing technological capability and energy efficiency is the most important approach to reducing energy intensity. Optimizing industrial structure and promoting the development of the service industry is also important. Region-specific conditions should be taken into account when setting energy saving and emission reduction objectives.
- Backcasting performance of the emerging renewable energy sector in China
Journal of Technology Management in China, Vol. 4, No. 1, 2009, pp. 53.
Purpose – This paper aims to explore the use of backcasting approach in dealing with the indeterminate future performance of the emerging renewable energy sector, based on the case of China. Through backcasting analysis of the emerging sector under uncertainties and concerns of the stakeholders, it acknowledges a range of hurdles ingrained in the current energy system and issues related to technology management within the Chinese context. Design/methodology/approach – This is a conceptual paper with integration of relevant contemporary knowledge. Findings – This study points out the challenges in plausible developments for the renewable energy sector harnessing such approach. Particularly, the pursuit of end-points under a multitude of optima can be associated with goal-seeking embedded in backcasting for sustainable developments, whereas economic and technological constraints inherent to the processes of technological innovation in the cultural environment are recognized. Formulating an integrative framework, this study suggests the relevance of the approach of backcasting to augment dynamic policy analysis and planning for plausible developments in time, and to consequently optimize resource allocation in the renewal of necessary technological infrastructure. Originality/value – This paper structurally reveals critical issues in the development of an emerging technology sector of growing importance and the pertinent implications to policy making in China for sustainable development given the underlying quantitative and qualitative constraints. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT]
- China's Dilemma: Economic Growth, the Environment and Climate Change
The China Journal, No. 62, Jul 2009, pp. 194.
Given that burning fossil fuels in general and coal in particular is responsible for a large part of the environmental problems in China, it would be logical to begin by discussing energy issues and then go on to environmental degradation and climate change, not the other way round. [...] the distinction between these two parts is very weak.
- Decomposition analysis of CO2 emissions from fuel combustion in selected countries
International Journal of Environmental Technology and Management, Vol. 11, No. 1-3, 17 Jul 2009, pp. 47-67.
This article introduces an approach applicable to analysing different factors influencing elements relevant in sustainable development like environmental impacts. The approach is built on the idea of IPAT identity and it applies a chained two-factor decomposition technique for calculating numerical estimates for a larger set of contributing factors than traditionally done in applying decomposition analysis. The empirical example identifies six different meaningful contributing factors or 'driving forces' behind change in carbon dioxide emissions from fuel combustion. The factors include changes in (1) carbon intensity of energy supply, (2) efficiency of the energy transformation system, (3) energy intensity of the national economy, (4) economic growth in terms of labour productivity, (5) share of economically active population and (6) amount of population. The empirical analysis for the years 1990-2003 is carried out for the USA, Japan, China, India, Brazil and the European Union (EU-25) as a whole and for each Member State.
- Green from Above: Climate Change, New Developmental Strategy, and Regulatory Choice in China
Texas International Law Journal, Vol. 45, No. 1, Fall 2009, pp. 201.
Shortly after his inauguration, President Obama instructed the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to reconsider California's request for a waiver of Clean Air Act preemption so that the state could enact air pollution standards for motor vehicles that were stricter than the national standards.The EPA under the Obama administration seems to be moving in the direction of regulating CO2. These moves are welcomed by the international community. In Washington, D.C., there seems to be a growing sense of urgency among President Obama's policy advisors to work with China on climate change. In early February 2009, U.S. Secretary of State Hillary Clinton visited China with climate change at the top of her agenda. From February to June 2009, an impressive list of high officials and political leaders took turns visiting China to discuss climate issues, including U.S. Special Envoy for Climate Change Todd Stern, Secretary of Energy Steven Chu, Secretary of Commerce Gary Locke, Senator John Kerry, and Speaker of the House Nancy Pelosi. The prioritization of climate change during these visits to China by highlevel U.S. government officials suggests that climate change, compared with other issues like human rights, is high on the Obama administration's agenda in relations with China. Despite the growing pressures on China regarding climate issues, Premier Wen Jiabao indicated that China is not ready to accept a carbon cap at the United Nation's Climate Change Conference in Copenhagen, to be held in December 2009, stating that "it's difficult for China to take quantified emission reduction quotas at the Copenhagen conference, because this country is still at an early stage of development."
- Temporal and spatial variations of energy consumption in rural China
LX Zhang, ZF Yang, B. Chen, GQ Chen and YQ Zhang.
Communications in Nonlinear Science & Numerical Simulation, Vol. 14, No. 11, Nov 2009, pp. 4022-4031.
Presented in this paper is an overview of energy consumption in rural China in view of temporal and spatial variations. Characterized by steadily decreased proportion of biomass use and increased percentage of coal and electricity use, coal and biomass are still the major energy sources in rural areas, accounting for nearly 80% of the total rural energy consumption. Moreover, the energy consumption varies significantly across provinces both in total sum and by fuel types due to diversities of geographic features, economic development levels and local energy source availability. Three statistical groups are clustered associated with quantitative change and structural change, exhibiting evident transition from noncommercial energy pattern to commercial energy pattern. Much more work need to be done to cope with the forthcoming dramatic changes associated with booming rural economy and newly released policy from the points of both energy security and environmental pressure in China.
- The Financing Pattern Discussion of China Wind Power Generation Company
Environmental Science and Management, Vol. 33, No. 1, Jan 2008, pp. 184-186.
In our country are now actively encouraging the development of renewable energy industries premise. wind power industry is faced with a major opportunity for development, development of the wind power industry urgently needs funds, the paper on Chinas current wind power generation company financing realities were analyzed by the wind power generation companys should gradually change the current rely mainly on commercial loans from financial institutions such financing methods, focusing on the implementation of policy — oriented financial institutions to finance, through the listing and other means of financing the capital, absorbing private equity investment, financing and use of CDM to achieve financing channels the diversification, lower financing costs and realize the interests of wind power maximization.
- High-quality solar lighting comes to rural China
Appropriate Technology, Vol. 35, No. 3, Sep 2008, pp. 40-42.
The nine provinces in the West and North-West of China are among the poorest in the country. The remoteness of the region and the low population density mean that there is limited access to the goods and services which are now available in the economically thriving East of China. Lighting is provided by kerosene and butter lamps, because few people in rural areas have grid electricity. One of the aims of the China Renewable Energy Development Project (REDP), set up in 2001, was to increase the access to electricity for these isolated rural populations, using photovoltaic (PV) technologies. One of the main aims of the REDP was to increase the access to electricity for isolated rural populations, using PV technologies. A solar-home-system consists of a PV module, battery, charge controller and sometimes an inverter. REDP plans to establish a Photovoltaic Industry Association, which will be part of the Chinese Renewable Energy Industries Association, to act as the expert body on solar PV in China.
- Wind power generation in China: present status and future prospects
Fushuan Wen, Dong Hua, Qin Wang and SN Singh.
International Journal of Energy Technology and Policy, Vol. 6, No. 3, 28 Jun 2008, pp. 254-276.
With the rapid economic development and huge amount of population, China is becoming one of the largest energy consumption countries in the world. This results in a heavy pressure on electricity supply in China. The potential wind energy storage is very large in China due to its large territory and nature conditions. Considering the energy-saving and environment factors, wind power, with its clean and renewable characteristic, has become a high priority of energy development in Chinese central government. Although China's wind power industry has achieved great achievements in the past 20 years, both opportunities and challenges coexist for the future development. Currently, the Chinese government is actively making relevant policies to guide wind power development moving toward a beneficial business and to promote the localisation of wind turbine generator manufacturing so as to reduce costs. Wind power is a new investment business around the globe as an alternative of traditional energy; China has also actively taken part in this worldwide trend. It is anticipated that by grasping the chance and speeding up the development, the future of wind energy in China is promising.
- China's Global Quest for Energy Security
Canadian Foreign Policy, Vol. 13, No. 2, 2006, pp. 105.
China has experienced pressing energy shortages in recent years, and Beijing has intensified its efforts to secure China's energy supply through both increased domestic production and external expansion. In this paper, I first analyze China's global quest for energy by looking at the correlation between China's economic growth and its energy security concerns. I then examine the implications of China's "go-out" strategy through two sets of case studies. I argue that China's global search for energy is primarily driven by its rapid economic growth, out of insecurity rather than a master plan to dominate the world, and that China's energy security issues have multiple implications beyond simple economic concerns. Finally, I recommend a forward-looking engagement policy to be adapted by Canada, the United States and other countries in dealing with China's growing energy demands. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT]
- Opportunities and Challenges in Liberalizing the Environmental Goods and Services Market: The Case of Developing Countries in Asia
Joy A. Kim.
Journal of World Trade, Vol. 40, No. 3, Jun 2006, pp. 527.
While the liberalization of trade in environmental goods and services has often been claimed to be potentially beneficial to developing countries, its realization in the short- to medium-term is fraught with several obstacles and definitional challenges. Many developing countries without knowing the impact of trade liberalization in this market, struggle to posture their negotiation positions despite the considerable interest that they might have in these negotiations. The challenges facing developing countries are further compounded by their insufficient regulatory frameworks and institutional capacities. This article attempts to outline the opportunities that developing countries in Asia might have in liberalizing the environmental goods and services market in the context of case studies. In order for countries in the region to reap the benefits of the liberalization, it is imperative for them to overhaul their positions in the market, to identify their environmental goods and services export interests, and to choose definitions of environmental goods and services that best suit their trade and sustainable development interests. Only when these criteria are fulfilled can they be proactive in the negotiations so that the classifications reflect products and services in areas where they have specific trade interests or environmental needs. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT]
- Development of solar thermal systems in China
Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, Vol. 86, No. 3, Mar. 2005, pp. 427-442.
China has an abundant solar energy resource. Solar thermal conversion systems have been studied for 25yr, and solar thermal industry has developed rapidly for 10yr. There are various solar thermal systems, with an area of around 10millionm2 in 2002. These systems mainly provide domestic hot water, but some other applications are under extensive study and development as well. The purpose of this paper is to present the developments that have taken place and that are under way.
- Working with Nature
International Water Power and Dam Construction, Vol. 57, No. 3, Mar 2005, pp. 14.
The Yangtze River basin, China, has been subject to centuries of human exploitation and settlement, yet a wealth of natural diversity remains. Dam construction, including the Three Gorges hydroelectric scheme, now threatens these remaining ecosystems, as does industrial effluent and poorly treated sewage. An ecosystem-based approach to river management that takes into account land use, climate change effects, protected areas, and upstream protection is needed. The World Wildlife Fund advocates natural management solutions that restore a balance between nature and people. In particular, integrated management is being touted to draw together economic, social, and environmental needs. User participation is essential for resolving conflicts and allocating water resources among competing users, including natural ecosystems. In China, the World Wildlife Fund has co-funded an integrated river basin management (IRBM) Task Force with the China Council for International Cooperation on Environment and Development. The task force is scrutinizing similar experiences in Australia, Europe, and Canada. China must choose between continued unsustainable resource exploitation and integrated, sustainable development.
- Ecological Construction and Protection in the Wetland Region of Three-Gorge Reservoir Area
Xue-lei Wang, Shu-ming Cai, Xian-you Ren and Shi-jian Chen.
Resources and Environment in the Yangtze Basin, Vol. 13, No. 2, Mar 2004, pp. 149.
Although the massive Three Gorges Reservoir project in China is expected to provide many advantages for regional development, experts have grown increasingly concerned over potential environmental impacts. New wetlands are expected to form once the Reservoir is filled. Water levels in these wetlands will fluctuate with variations in seasonal inflows of water into the Reservoir. These wetlands may provide new and specialized structures, functions, and environmental landscape features. Planners should consider strategies for protecting and managing these emerging wetland zones. Strategies for ecological protection and land use are recommended.
- Selection and Systematic Integration of Numerical Models for Water Quality Forecast in Three Gorges Reservoir
Zhao-wei Liu, Yong-can Chen and Man-bin Shen.
Resources and Environment in the Yangtze Basin, Vol. 13, No. 2, Mar 2004, pp. 128.
The advantages offered by the integration of water quality models and water environment information system technologies are highlighted. A study was implemented to help improve water pollution control and water resources management in the Three Gorges Reservoir in China. As part of this effort, five water quality model for solving diverse types of water pollution problems found in the Reservoir were integrated with an information system. Several important components of this system are discussed, including the preprocessing module, the postprocessing module, and the interface module. A case study is reviewed of a successful simulation of water flow fields and water quality in the Wanzhou Reach of the Reservoir.
- Renewable Energy for Rural Sustainability: Lessons From China
Aiming Zhou and John Byrne.
Bulletin of Science, Technology & Society, Vol. 22, No. 2, Apr 2002, pp. 123-131.
Rural electrification is now and will remain an essential element for rural development in China and other developing countries. With more than half of the world's population living in rural communities, lessons for rural renewable energy applications and assessment from China can be very helpful in defining a global sustainable development strategy. This paper describes energy needs in rural China, examines the resource availability of three provinces (Inner Mongolia, Qinghai and Xinjiang in Western China), and evaluates rural energy options and the economics of stand-alone off-grid renewable energy technologies for rural application in this region. An eight-year collaborative effort between several of China's leading energy and environmental research institutes and the Center for Energy and Environmental Policy demonstrates the existence of a viable renewable energy-based strategy to address rural electricity needs in a socially and environmentally sustainable manner.
- Development of China Renewable Energy
Renewable Energy, Vol. 9, No. 1, Sep 1996, pp. 1132.
The renewable energy resource base and associated development economics in China are discussed. Hybrid, decentralized, and grid-connected wind energy systems are being commissioned to exploit the estimated 1.6 TW wind energy resource. Solar space and water heating units serve thousands of households in the north. The high costs of photovoltaics preclude their use in the residential sector. About 600 million tpy of the 5 billion tpy of biomass produced is available for energy use. Biofuels provide 70% of domestic sector energy in rural areas. Targets for more widespread and efficient utilization of these renewable energy forms are detailed.
- "The Prospects and Economic Costs of the Reduction of CO sub(2) Emissions in the People's Republic of China (PRC)"
Global Climate Change: The Economic Costs of Mitigation and Adaptation
Oxford, England: Elsevier, p. 339.
Energy demand growth rates in developing countries are higher than those of industrial nations. Carbon dioxide emissions will be higher as well. In China, energy intensity (energy consumption per gross domestic product) is much higher than in most developing nations, despite a heavy emphasis on energy conservation. By the year 2050, Chinese energy demand will be 5.2 billion tons, of which more than 80% will have to come from coal, unless noncarbon energy sources are used. Hydropower, nuclear energy, and solar energy possibilities are surveyed. To reduce CO sub(2) emissions, greater reliance on these alternatives will be essential. The economic penalties of a large-scale energy transition will be intolerable, unless cheaper advanced technology is developed.