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Scientific Communication and the Dematerialization of Scholarship
(Released March 2007)

  by Douglas Brown  


Key Citations



Key Citations Short Format Full Format
  1. The acquisition of open access research articles

    Arthur Sale.

    First Monday, vol.11, no.10, Oct 2006.

    The behaviour of researchers when self-archiving in an institutional repository has not been previously analyzed. This paper uses available information for three repositories analyzing when researchers (as authors) deposit their research articles. The three repositories have variants of a mandatory deposit policy. It is shown that it takes several years for a mandatory policy to be institutionalized and routinized, but that once it has been the deposit of articles takes place in a remarkably short time after publication, or in some cases even before. Authors overwhelmingly deposit well before six months after publication date. The OA principle of "deposit now, set open access when feasible" is shown to be not only reasonable, but fitting what researchers actually do. (Author abstract)

  2. Earlier web usage statistics as predictors of later citation impact

    Tim Brody, Stevan Harnad and Leslie Carr.

    Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, vol.57, no.8, pp.1060-1072, Jun 2006.

    The use of citation counts to assess the impact of research articles is well established. However, the citation impact of an article can only be measured several years after it has been published. As research articles are increasingly accessed through the Web, the number of times an article is downloaded can be instantly recorded and counted. One would expect the number of times an article is read to be related both to the number of times it is cited and to how old the article is. The authors analyze how short-term Web usage impact predicts medium-term citation impact. The physics e-print archive - - is used to test this. (Author abstract)

  3. Effect of e-printing on citation rates in astronomy and physics

    Edwin A. Henneken, Michael J. Kurtz and Guenther Eichhorn, et al.

    JEP: the Journal of Electronic Publishing, vol.9, no.2, Jun 2006.

    Examines the change in citation behaviour in astronomy and physics since the introduction of the arXiv e-print repository at Cornell University ( It has been observed in a number of studies that papers that initially appear as arXiv e-prints get cited more than papers that do not. Using the citation statistics from the NASA-Smithsonian Astrophysics Data System (ADS), data is provided that confirms the findings from these other studies and allows an examination of the average citation rate to e-printed papers in the Astrophysical Journal, and shows that for a number of major astronomy and physics periodicals, the most important papers are submitted to the arXiv e-print repository first. The study focused on showing that there is a significant difference between papers that appear as arXiv e-prints and papers that do not and was limited to an analysis of four major astronomy journals (Astrophysical Journal (including Letters and Supplement Series), Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, Astronomy and Astrophysics, Proceedings of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific) and two physics journals (Physical Review, Nuclear Physics). A major difference was found between the normalized citation rate for papers from the pre-arXiv era and papers that have been offered as e-prints in the arXiv repository. Furthermore, based on a dataset of the Astrophysical Journal in the periods of 1985 through 1987 and 1997 through 1999, the study followed the citations for traditionally published papers and e-printed papers. The paper formulates these three effects in three postulates and then continues to test these postulates on data taken from the Astrophysics Data System and the arXiv. These postulates are: the Open Access Postulate (OA), where because of free, unrestricted access, papers are read more easily and therefore get cited more frequently; Early Access Postulate (EA), where papers offered as e-print are available sooner and therefore gain primacy and additional time in press, and therefore they get cited more often; and Self-selection Bias Postulate (SB), where the most important and therefore most citable papers are posted on the Internet. (Quotes from original text)

  4. e-Science and its implications for the library community

    Tony Hey and Jessie Hey.

    Library Hi Tech, vol.24, no.4, pp.515-528, 2006..

    Purpose: The purpose of this article is to explain the nature of the "e-Science' revolution in twenty-first century scientific research and its consequences for the library community. Design/methodology/approach: The concepts of e-Science are illustrated by a discussion of the CombeChem, eBank and SmartTea projects. The issue of open access is then discussed with reference to arXiv, PubMed Central and EPrints. The challenges these trends present to the library community are discussed in the context of the TARDis project and the University of Southampton Research Repository. Findings: Increasingly academics will need to collaborate in multidisciplinary teams distributed across several sites in order to address the next generation of scientific problems. In addition, new high-throughput devices, high-resolution surveys and sensor networks will result in an increase in scientific data collected by several orders of magnitude. To analyze, federate and mine this data will require collaboration between scientists and computer scientists; to organize, curate and preserve this data will require collaboration between scientists and librarians. A vital part of the developing research infrastructure will be digital repositories containing both publications and data. Originality/value: The paper provides a synthesis of e-Science concepts, the question of open access to the results of scientific research, and a changing attitude towards academic publishing and communication. The paper offers a new perspective on coming demands on the library and is of special interest to librarians with strategic tasks. (Author abstract)

  5. Is open access the future for scientific publishing?

    Mark Walport.

    Science in Parliament, vol.63, no.4, pp.24-25, Sep 2006..

    Argues that open access scientific publishing making research outputs accessible to as many people as possible, for free, via the Internet, offers an important advance in the research process and will help scientists throughout the world make discoveries to improve health and demonstrate their work to the public. The director of The Wellcome Trust describes how, to help realise the Trust's vision of an open access world, it is working in partnership with a group of major UK biomedical research funding bodies including the Medical Research Council, the Department of Health, Cancer Research UK and the British Heart Foundation to establish a UK version of PubMedCentral. (Quotes from original text)

  6. Knowledge discovery in the digital library: access tools for mining science

    Bernard Dumouchel and Jeffrey Demaine.

    Information Services & Use, vol.26, no.1, pp.39-44, 2006..

    A researcher's interactions with the scientific literature are limited by its overwhelming size, resulting in ever-increasing specialization. Knowledge Discovery is the process of identifying meaningful, unknown relationships between concepts, enabling broader inquiry of the scientific literature. Although largely automated, Knowledge Discovery is an inherently participatory process. While knowledge discovery techniques can uncover hidden relationships in the data, only the user's expertise can give those relationships meaning. As such, these techniques do not replace but rather enhance the scholarly process. The role of moderating the interface between scholarship and the published literature is the core mission of the research library. By enabling researchers to data-mine the scientific literature Knowledge Discovery techniques are a natural extension of the library's role of bringing structure to information and in making that information accessible. CISTI is investigating theories in information science in order to apply knowledge discovery techniques to its collection: Linked Literature Analysis seeks to uncover hidden relationships between concepts that are causally related, and Main Path Analysis identifies the evolution of a research field based on citations. Providing seamless access to e-science makes it possible to analyze the published literature in a way that augments the scholar's research. (Author abstract)

  7. Open access for physics

    Marc Brodsky and Miriam A. Drake.

    Searcher, vol.14, no.7, pp.34-37, Jul 2006-Aug 2006..

    Reports an interview with Marc Brodsky, who is executive director of the American Institute of Physics (AIP), leads a federation of ten physics societies, and is head of a major science publisher. The interview ranged of a number of aspects of the AIP's publishing programme but focuses on the organization's involvement in open access (OA) publishing and the views of the organization on how OA is likely to impact on the peer review process.

  8. Open access publishing: a developing country view

    Jennifer I. Papin-Ramcharan and Richard A. Dawe.

    First Monday, vol.11, no.6,, Jun 2006..

    Paper presented at "FM10 Openness: Code, Science, and Content", the First Monday Conference, 15-17 May 2006. This paper presents the experience with open access (OA) publishing by researchers in an academic research institution (The University of the West Indies (UWI) St. Augustine Campus) in a developing country, Trinidad and Tobago. It describes the two parallel but complimentary paths for authors to enable open access: publishing in open access periodicals and/or self-archiving. The benefits to researchers of free access to information, increased research impact and possible solution to the "serials crisis" are highlighted. It suggests that advocates of OA should consider all possible difficulties that researchers may have with OA, so that these could be ameliorated. To this end, it considers the UWI researchers' knowledge of OA, their access to the scholarly literature, open access archives/repositories at the UWI and related issues of research and library funding, Information and Communication Technologies (ICT), and infrastructure/Internet connectivity. Concludes that there are obvious and well-documented benefits for developing country researchers even though there are some disincentives that make it difficult for researchers in developing countries to fully participate in the OA movement. (Author abstract - amended)

  9. The role of quality in providing seamless access to information and data in e-science; the experience gained in crystallography

    John R. Helliwell, Peter R. Strickland and Brian McMahon.

    Information Services & Use, vol.26, no.1, pp.45-55, 2006..

    The determination of molecular structures of biological and chemical interest is a major role of applied crystallography worldwide today. Where once each new structure represented a hard-won research result, improvements in technique, technology and computational power have brought large-scale structure determination efforts well into the realm of e-science. Half a million crystal structures of "small" molecules and over 35,000 protein and nucleic-acid crystal structures are publicly available. Many more structures have been determined but never published; increasingly these are being disseminated over the web. The crystallographic community is energetic through the activities of the International Union of Crystallography (IUCr) in its efforts to uphold quality standards in a diverse scientific environment. The IUCr has developed a data exchange standard, the crystallographic information file (CIF), and associated data dictionaries. These have allowed the seamless transfer of information from the experimental apparatus, through computation analysis, to database deposition and publication. The formal data language of CIF also allows the definition of quality standards for data deposition and publication, and the deployment of mechanisms for checking compliance with such standards, such as the checkCIF web service. This article discusses the role of the crystallographic journals owned by the IUCr in maintaining quality of information and data for effective peer-reviewed publishing of advances in crystallographic science, and the possibilities provided by the CIF dictionaries for future semantic web applications. (Author abstract)

  10. Strategies and frameworks for institutional repositories and the new support infrastructure for scholarly communications

    Tyler O. Walters.

    D-Lib Magazine, vol.12, no.11,, Nov 2006..

    Institutional repositories (IRs) are proliferating as they become an indispensable component for information and knowledge sharing in the scholarly world. As their numbers increase worldwide, a new phase of IR development is emerging. Examines the emerging IR developments and explores how IRs can help create a new infrastructure to support scholarly communications and digital research. The experiences of the Georgia Institute of Technology Library and Information Center while building its IR, SMARTech, and designing related services is reviewed as an exemplar university. (Quotes from original text)

  11. The effect of use and access on citations

    Michael J. Kurtz, Guenther Eichhorn and Alberto Accomazzi, et al.

    Information Processing & Management, Vol. 41, No. 6, Dec 2005.1395-1402.

    It has been shown (Lawrence, S. (2001). Online or invisible? Nature, 411, 521) that journal articles which have been posted without charge on the internet are more heavily cited than those which have not been. Using data from the NASA Astrophysics Data System ( and from the ArXiv e-print archive at Cornell University ( we examine the causes of this effect. (Original abstract)

  12. Scholarly communication: the use and non-use of e-print archives for the dissemination of scientific information

    I. Lawal.

    Issues in Science and Technology Librarianship, Vol. , No. 36, Fall 2002..

    The full text of this electronic journal article can be found at [URL:]. Reports results of a study which surveyed a randomly chosen sample from a population of 240,000 scholars in nine scientific disciplines from private and public colleges and universities across the USA and Canada. The disciplines included physics/astronomy, chemistry, mathematics/computer science, engineering, cognitive science /psychology, and biological sciences. The survey sought to determine use and non-use of electronic reprint (ePrint) archives in the different disciplines. Results show that 18 per cent of the researchers use at least one archive while 82 per cent do not use any. Scholars in physics use ePrint archives the most and chemistry the least. ArXiv receives the most use and authors' Web sites the least use. Reasons for use include dissemination of research results, visibility and exposure of authors. Reasons for non-use include publishers' policies and technology constraints. (Original abstract - amended)

  13. The e-volution of preprints in the scholarly communication of physicists and astronomers

    C. Brown.

    Journal of the American Society for Information Science, Vol. 52, No. 3, Feb 2001, pp 187-200.

    Examines the philosophies, policies and practices of top tier physics and astronomy journals regarding eprints from the Los Alamos eprint archive, Finds that, even though the use of the traditional literature has not changed since began in 1991 and the policies concerning eprint citation and publication were inconsistent, the number of citations (35,928) and citations rates (34.1 per cent) to 12 archives were large and increasing. Concludes that eprints have evolved into an important facet of the scholarly communication of physicists and astronomers. (Original abstract - amended)

  14. How do physicists use an e-print archive?

    S. Pinfield.

    D-Lib Magazine, Vol. 7, No. 12, Dec 2001.

    The full text of this electronic journal article can be found at [URL: /12pinfield.html]. It has been suggested that institutional electronic reprint (e-print) services will become an important way of achieving the wide availability of e-prints across a broad range of subject disciplines. However, as yet there are few exemplars of this sort of service. Describes how physicists make use of an established centralized subject-based e-prints service, arXiv and discusses the possible implications of this use for institutional multidisciplinary e-print archives. A number of key points are identified, including technical issues (such as file formats and user interface design), management issues (such as submission procedures and administrative staff support), economic issues (such as installation and support costs), quality issues (such as peer review and quality control criteria), policy issues (such as digital preservation and collection development standards), academic issues (such as scholarly communication cultures and publishing trends), and legal issues (such as copyright and intellectual property rights). These are discussed with reference to the project to set up a pilot institutional e-print service at Nottingham University, UK. This project is being used as a pragmatic way of investigating the issues surrounding institutional e-print services, particularly in seeing how flexible the e-prints model actually is and how easily it can adapt itself to disciplines other than physics. (Original abstract - amended)