Terrorism and the Fate of Democracy after September 11
Giroux, Henry A
Cultural Studies - Critical Methodologies, 2002, 2, 1,
It is contended that some democratic processes have been
replaced by discourses of increased national security, war, & revenge in
the wake of the September 11 terrorist attacks in the eastern US. It is
asserted that conservative politicians & party members & organizations
within the national media are shaping the nation's current political
reality. Although the George W. Bush administration has asked Americans to
accept reduced civil liberties in the name of national security, the
federal state is criticized for doing little to encourage the everyday
citizen's participation in political processes prior to the attacks. The
need to address the rise of neoliberalism & the welfare state's downfall
within the context of this new national discourse is stressed. Moreover, it
is argued that the freedoms granted by democracy cannot be sacrificed to
augment national security. It is concluded that the terrorist attacks must
be considered within the context of the democratic crisis in the
present-day US. 6 References. J. W. Parker.
September 11, Terrorism, and Blowback
Cultural Studies - Critical Methodologies, 2002, 2, 1,
Momentous historical events like the September 11, 2001,
terrorist attacks on the United States test social theories & provide a
challenge to give a convincing account of the event & its consequences.
They also provide cultural studies an opportunity to trace how the
discourses of social theory play themselves out in media discourse, as well
as to test how the broadcast & other dominant media of communication
perform their democratic role of providing accurate information &
discussion, & assume a responsible role in a time of crisis. In these
remarks, I want first to suggest how certain dominant social theories were
put in question during the event, how highly problematic positions
generated by contemporary social theory circulated through the media, & how
the media on the whole performed disastrously & dangerously, whipping up
war hysteria while failing to provide a coherent account of what happened,
why it happened, & what would count as responsible responses to the
terrorist attacks. 5 References. [Copyright 2002 Sage Publications, Inc.].
National Consequences of International Terrorism
Horowitz, Irving Louis
Society, 2002, 39, 2(256), Jan-Feb,
Identifies some broad repercussions for the US of the terrorist
attacks of 11 Sept 2001, including the end of (1) the nation's sense of
invulnerability, (2) mindless multiculturalism, (3) national integration,
(4) political indifference, (5) civic preeminence, (6) maximum privacy, &
(7) free market monetarist capitalism. In the months since the attacks,
concerns for public safety have superseded possible infringements on
private liberties, & patriotism has enjoyed a resurgence; whether these
trends persist over the long run remains to be seen. Major political
parties have reached a new ground for agreement & the public's political
consciousness has been raised, in the process strengthening the democracy
the terrorists hoped to destroy. K. Hyatt Stewart.
The Lone Gunmen
Foreign Policy, 2001, 127, Nov-Dec, 72-73.
article discusses the new threat of the megalomaniacal hyperterrorist to US
national security, highlighting Ramzi Yousef, Timothy McVeigh, Yigal Amir,
Shoko Asahara, & Osama bin Laden as prime examples of this new breed of
terrorists. It discusses how they vary from textbook versions of terrorist
groups, particularly in terms of how they view themselves in historical
terms & strive to discover new ways to create massive destruction. M. D.
The Other Evil: The War on Terrorism Won't Succeed without a War on
Foreign Policy, 2001, 127, Nov-Dec, 75-76.
one of the remaining challenges after the tragedy of 11 Sept 2001 in the US
is the role that poverty plays in fueling these terroristic fires. To the
increasing number of poverty-stricken people in terrorism-implementing
countries, the terrorists are viewed as heroes who inflict injury on the
countries by whom they feel victimized. It is suggested that we engage this
"war on poverty" by focusing on programs of economic aid, democracy
promotion, etc, & then back these efforts with increased commitments from
treasuries, primarily that of the US. M. D. Cowder.
Foreign Policy, 2001, 127, Nov-Dec, 31-47.
This article, chaired by
journal editor, Moises NaiM, is an engaging interview among four
high-ranking, retired US military leaders - Maj. Gen. William Nash, Adm.
William Owens, Gen. Charles Boyd, & Lt. Gen. Paul Van Riper - that occurred
only one day after the 9/11/01 terrorist bombing of the US). During the
course of the interview, both similar & varying viewpoints concerning the
measures that ought to be taken in dealing with this recent crisis, & the
extent to which the military is, will be, or should be changing its tactics
to complete successful missions in light of these new threats, are
discussed. Also, opinions on obstacles to achieving a more efficient
military, along with thoughts on capitalizing on our allies, the value of
multilateral treaties, & the assessment of who our greatest security
threats might be are also addressed. Embedded within this article is a
piece on military budgets that contains three figures on defense spending &
a second piece that provides the interview participants' opinions on the
controversial Goldwater-Nichols Dept of Defense Reorganization Act. It
concludes with a list of resources for those who want to learn more about
both military strategy & structure & terrorism. 3 Figures. M. D. Cowder.
New Ways of War-New Legitimacy
Internationale Politik, 2001, 56, 10, Oct, 3-5.
response to the terrorist attacks in New York & Washington has to be a
change in the way of warfare, which must, according to a former Secretary
General of the Israeli foreign ministry, be based on new alliances &
legitimacies. Adapted from the source document.
"Black September" 2001: The World Trade Center Catastrophe and the
Rivista di Studi Politici Internazionali, 2001, 68,
4(272), Oct-Dec, 587-603.
In an exploration of the effects of the World
Trade Center attacks on relations in the Middle East & Israeli-Arab issues,
focus is on the reactions of other countries, particularly France & other
EU member states toward the 11 Sept events & the Arab world in general. The
article discusses the role of Sharon & Israel in deciding who is
responsible for continued terrorist acts. It also considers what types of
actions will be needed to control terrorism, not only in Israel, but also
in the rest of the world. E. Miller.
Change and Continuity in Terrorism
Studies in Conflict and Terrorism, 2001, 24, 5, Sept-Oct,
Terrorism has changed during the last ten years, though it still
follows traditional patterns & shows little inclination to use chemical
biological, radiological, or nuclear (CBRN) weapons. Terrorism, in many
cases, now lacks any publicly identified central command authority. Also,
many terrorist movements do not have defined aims or objectives. Therefore,
individual networks may have greater freedom & latitude in tactical
decisions. Nevertheless, the technical expertise, logistical, & financial
problems makes CBRN attacks unlikely. The Aum Shinrikyo, which was
responsible for the 1995 nerve gas attack on the Tokyo subway, illustrates
this point. This organization has about 60,000 members, about $1 billion in
assets, & members with scientific & engineering degrees. For all its
sophisticated research & development, its attempts to disseminate botulinum
toxin or anthrax have failed, & its greatest success in the subways caused
only 12 fatalities. The Japanese government is still standing, & there is
no widespread panic. These factors should be taken into account to create
counterterrorism that is affordable & practical. R. Larsen.
Comparing Motives and Outcomes of Mass Casualty Terrorism Involving
Conventional and Unconventional Weapons
Parachini, John V
Studies in Conflict and Terrorism, 2001, 24, 5,
Analyzes the motivations of terrorists & suggests that
the new shift by the US in protecting itself against the use of
unconventional weapons may be misguided. Several incidents, eg, the
Oklahoma City bombing, the World Trade Center bombing, & other bombings
perpetrated or organized by Osama bin Laden, are examined. Interviews &
letters of the terrorists are reviewed to show their motivation. For
example, both Timothy McVeigh & bin Laden see themselves as oppressed
victims, their actions as a part of a holy war, & their attacks as
symbolic. However, religion is not always a factor, as groups such as
Yousef & the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam demonstrate. In all these
instances, unconventional weapons are almost never utilized; conventional
weapons are easy to use & deadly against human life. A balance between
preparation for both unconventional & conventional weapons is needed, as
well as new research & policy initiatives. 2 Figures. R. Larsen.
Terrorism and Counterterrorism: An International Perspective
Studies in Conflict and Terrorism, 2001, 24, 5, Sept-Oct,
Summarizes the key points of terrorism & points to an integrated
approach to defeat it. Terrorism is no longer aimed at diplomats, soldiers,
or those in authority; now the victims are innocent parties. Newer diffuse
threats such as individuals working alone who have access to traditional
weapons are appearing. Serious crime & terrorism are becoming one & the
same. Weapons of mass destruction are now accessible & present a real,
albeit small, threat. It is only through inclusive team activity that
terrorism can be defeated. The political & geographical obstacles that
remain must be overcome, & communities must remain strong for any
counterterrorism to work. R. Larsen.
Few New Emphases. The Reserved Middle East Politics of Bush Jr.
Hubel, Helmut; Kaim, Markus
Internationale Politik, 2001, 56, 8, Aug,
The present US government under the leadership of President George
W. Bush tends to have a rather reserved style concerning the Middle East.
Beside the Middle East conflict, it follows up on issues like energy, the
spreading of weapons of mass destruction, & international terrorism in the
region with great concern. Adapted from the source document.
The Concept of International Terrorism: An Interim Study of South
Round Table, 2001, 360, July, 333-343.
terrorism, coined to describe the attempts by the Soviet state to promote
instability in the West, is now being applied to the activities of
organizations & individuals, often in the developing world, who advocate
indiscriminate violence in support of their goals. The combination of
politics & religion in countries such as Pakistan under leaders such as
General Zia al Haq & the rapid increase in the number of religious
seminaries (Madrissas) laid the grounds for the emergence of urban
terrorism that began in the 1980s & continues to plague the country. The
author suggests that terrorism seeks legitimacy from religion, & points out
that many people entering Pakistan's seminaries are from underprivileged
backgrounds. He suggests the elimination of international terrorism is
through education & the elimination of poverty, & recommends the
establishment of parallel Madrissas providing a more enlightened religious
education. Adapted from the source document.
Unequal Justice: Arabs in America and United States Antiterrorism
Whidden, Michael J
Fordham Law Review, 2001, 69, 6, May,
This article asserts that the Antiterrorism & Effective Death
Penalty Act of 1996 (AEDPA), designed to prevent such terrorist acts as the
bombing of the Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building in Oklahoma City, violates
the principle of "equal justice" since it targets the Arab population in
the US. The law is more suited to fight international terrorism, rather
than domestic terrorism. Its three most controversial sections allow the
courts to deport "alien terrorists" based on findings from secret evidence;
the listing of foreign terrorist organizations by the Secretary of State; &
the fining of individuals who contribute to them. The author describes the
historical events that led to the creation of AEDPA & defines,
historically, the concept of equal justice. Out of 87 terrorist acts in the
US, only the bombing of the World Trade Center & one other act were tied to
Arab groups. Because of the anti-Arab sentiment in the US, the judicial
system has acquired an unconscious racial bias. AEDPA stigmatizes all Arabs
&, thus, subtly encourages societal discrimination. Corrective measures
such as changing the foreign terrorist organization labeling process,
restricting unjust tracking of anti-Arab hate crimes, repealing the
acceptance of secret evidence, & restricting investigative excesses, should
be adopted. L. A. Hoffman.
Analytic Models and Policy Prescription: Understanding Recent Innovation
in U.S. Counterterrorism
Studies in Conflict and Terrorism, 2001, 24, 3,
The threat of terrorism, particularly terrorism
involving a weapon of mass destruction (WMD), has received enormous
attention in the last decade. Since the mid-1990s, the federal government
has embarked on a concerted national effort to prepare the country for acts
of WMD terrorism. A key component of the counterterrorism agenda is the
domestic preparedness program, a series of initiatives aimed at reducing
America's vulnerability to a WMD terrorist attack. However, there is a
heated debate over whether the US needs a domestic preparedness program at
all. This article argues that much of the debate originates in disparate
approaches to analyzing terrorism. Terrorism studies specialists use an
internal model that analyzes the root causes, motives, & historical
patterns of terrorism & concludes that the threat of WMD terrorism against
the US is not sufficient to warrant the domestic preparedness budget.
Policymakers & national security experts, however, rely on an external risk
assessment model that considers terrorism within the context of the many
risks to American security. This assessment model evaluates WMD terrorism
on the basis of risk & consequences, & reaches a logical conclusion that
the potential for mass destruction not only merits, but also requires, a
level of domestic preparedness. 5 Tables, 1 Figure. Adapted from the source
The Future of Terrorism
Johnson, Larry C
American Behavioral Scientist, 2001, 44, 6, Feb,
Despite pundit hysteria & media hype, the actual threat of
terrorism has shrunk in recent years. The decline, which commenced during
the late 1980s, includes reductions in the number of incidents, groups, &
fatalities. Although the 1990s saw a significant increase in the number of
people injured in terrorist attacks, less than 1% of the incidents caused
more than 70% of the injuries. Radical Islamic groups account for only a
small % of terrorist attacks but are disproportionately responsible for
causalities. The decline & containment of terrorism hinges on the
reluctance of states to sponsor terrorist attacks, the spread of democracy,
& more effective anti- & counterterrorist methods. 11 Figures, 10
References. Adapted from the source document.
Manufacturing "Terrorists": Refugees, National Security and Canadian
Aiken, Sharryn J
Refuge: Canada's Periodical on Refugees, 2001, 19, 4,
The overarching objective of this paper is to provide a
critical appraisal of the antiterrorism provisions of Canada's Immigration
Act. The impact of these measures on refugees is the primary concern of
this inquiry, but observations are relevant to the situation of other
categories of noncitizens as well. Part 1 (2000) considered international
efforts to address "terrorism," the relevance of international humanitarian
law to an assessment of acts of "terror," & the nature of contemporary
discourse on terrorism. The evolution of the current "admissibility"
provisions in Canadian immigration law was examined, with particular
reference to national security threats & "terrorism." Focus here is on the
role played by Canada's Federal Court in legitimizing the national security
scheme. The tensions in the current jurisprudence are considered with a
more in-depth analysis of Suresh v. Minister of Citizenship & Immigration,
a case pending before the Canadian Supreme Court. The paper concludes with
suggestions for restoring human rights for refugees while safeguarding a
genuine public interest in security. Adapted from the source document.
In the Shadow of Terror: The Illusive First Amendment Rights of
Ross, Susan Dente
Communication Law and Policy, 2001, 6, 1, winter,
Despite a sustained period of peace & prosperity in the US,
Congress has enacted considerable antiterrorism legislation, which - like
past laws based in fear of foreign threats to the national security -
erodes freedom of expression. This article provides a political,
historical, & legal background before examining this legislation & its
application in cases affecting the rights of First Amendment claimants. The
article finds that most courts, including the US Supreme Court, have tended
to use a formulaic strict scrutiny analysis of the legislation that
endorses the government's position that, for example, the Antiterrorism &
Effective Death Penalty Act of 1996, is a content-neutral response to the
important interest in reducing the threat of terrorism. The article argues
that the courts instead should adopt an analysis based on the real intent &
discriminatory effects of the law to find it is impermissibly
content-based, overbroad, & vague. Adapted from the source document.
The World and President Bush
Survival, 2001, 43, 1, spring, 7-16.
The world was kind
to America in the 1990s. It is unlikely, however, that the next decade will
be so accommodating. Clinton administration policies on the People's
Republic of China & Iraq, inadequate defense spending, & delays in building
a national missile defense are intimately related failures that may well
converge most unpleasantly for the Bush administration. Since the end of
the Cold War, Americans have confused themselves by asking the wrong
question: "Where is the threat?" Yet the danger to be faced does not fit
neatly under the heading of "international terrorism," "rogue states," or
"ethnic conflict." The danger, rather, is that the US, the world's dominant
power, on which the maintenance of international peace & the support of
liberal democratic principles depend, will neglect its responsibilities &
allow the international order that it created & sustains to collapse.
Adapted from the source document.
Terrorism, Crime, and Transformation
Studies in Conflict and Terrorism, 2001, 24, 1, Jan-Feb,
This article argues that some of today's terrorist groups have
transformed into transnational criminal organizations (TCOs) that are more
interested in profits than politics. This dynamic has important
implications for policymakers as some traditional, politically motivated
terrorist groups further profit-minded agencies under a political banner.
The author argues that there are different degrees of transformation; some
terrorists commit criminal acts to support political operations, while
others view profit-driven criminal acts as their end game. The article
further argues that unlike some observers suggest, TCOs & terrorist groups
will not cooperate with each other to advance aims & interests, instead
utilizing their "in-house" capabilities to undertake criminal or political
acts. Adapted from the source document.
Problems of Preparedness: U.S. Readiness for a Domestic Terrorist
Falkenrath, Richard A
International Security, 2001, 25, 4, spring,
This article analyzes the growth of the federal weapons of mass
destruction preparedness program, which since 1995 has grown from almost
nothing to an annual budget of $1.5 billion in 2000. The article discusses
reasons for the US's interests in developing such a program. The article
then discusses how this program relates to initiatives in the government
such as counterterrorism & disaster management. The article then gives a
brief history of the development of this program & its current
characteristics & organizational structure. The article concludes with a
discussion of problems that face the US government in preparing for
domestic attacks with weapons of mass destruction. E. Miller.
"Rogue States" and NMD/TMD: Policies in Search of a Rationale?
Ahrari, M Ehsan
Mediterranean Quarterly, 2001, 12, 2, spring,
The article criticizes the US's development of a national missile
defense (NMD) or theater missile defense (TMD), saying that it will
escalate into another arms race. The rationale behind such a weapons system
is that rogue states such as Iran, Iraq, Libya, North Korea, Cuba, Sudan, &
Syria may challenge the primacy of the US. The article shows that Iran has
had political shifts & does not possess the capability to make nuclear
weapons. Iraq is an unlikely aggressor since the Gulf War. The leadership
of Libya has renounced terrorism. Altogether, the rationale to build the
NMD lacks credibility & may force the People's Republic of China & Russia
to increase military spending to keep up with the US. R. Larsen.
Israelis and Palestinians: The Price of Peace
Internationale Politik und Gesellschaft, 2001, 3,
Regarding peace between Israel & Palestine, the former needs to
relinquish beliefs that have directed its policies for decades. Israel
needs to give up territories once regarded as vital to security, & it needs
to come to terms with the idea that those who will take control there are
the ones who had sworn to destroy Israel & had long been regarded as
terrorists. Also, Israel will have to hand over more than a hundred Jewish
settlements & sovereignty over East Jerusalem. The Palestinians will have
to finally accept that more than three-quarters of former Palestine is now
Israeli territory, & that the vast majority of Palestinians will not be
able to return to Israel. The Palestinian government needs to proactively
fight the anti-Israeli terrorism of its radical compatriots. In the Oslo
accord of 1993, both sides had agreed in principle to pay their respective
price. The route to a lasting peace was therefore mapped out, even if not
every detail was clarified. It would result in a sovereign, but
demilitarized, Palestinian state basically within the cease-fire borders of
1967. Major Jewish settlements would be retained by Israel, & in return,
Palestine would receive an equal amount of land next to Gaza. Jerusalem
would serve both states as an open capital city. For the Palestinian
refugees, there would be limited reparations, but no mass return to Israel.
The renewed escalation in violence in September 2000 despite the basic
agreement between the two sides is due to the bad management of the peace
process. But the long-term direction continues to be toward peace. Adapted
from the source document.
Terrorism and Democracy: Perpetrators and Victims
Eubank, William; Weinberg, Leonard
Terrorism and Political Violence,
2001, 13, 1, spring, 155-164.
Most observers believe that the "democratic
rules of the game" provide a peaceful means for resolving political
conflicts. This may be true, but not all groups or even single individuals
in democratic societies need play by these rules. This analysis uses two
data sets: one that classifies most countries of the world based on how
they were ruled in the mid-1980s, & the other on the frequency with which
their nationals either perpetrated or were victimized by terrorists
attacks, to investigate the relationship between terrorism & democracy. The
findings suggest that stable democracy & terrorism go together. An analysis
of the data reveal that terrorist attacks occur most often in the world's
most stable democracies, & that, further, both the perpetrators & victims
of those attacks are citizens of the same democracies. 4 Tables. Adapted
from the source document.
Terrorism with Weapons of Mass Destruction: The Congressional
Terrorism and Political Violence, 2001, 13, 1, spring,
The proliferation of weapons of mass destruction (WMD) & the rise
in increasingly violent terrorism have coincided this decade to spur many
governments to action. This article explores how the US Congress has
reacted to this new threat to national security in its attempts to combat
both proliferation & terrorism. It recounts the evolution of the
congressional response from borderline apathy to intense concern &
concludes by demonstrating Congress' desire to focus more on the threat of
domestic terrorism as opposed to that of international proliferation.
Adapted from the source document.
Explaining the United States' Decision to Strike Back at
Malvesti, Michele L
Terrorism and Political Violence, 2001, 13, 2,
When an anti-US international terrorism incident occurs,
the preferred US counter-terrorism response is law enforcement action.
Sometimes, however, US decisionmakers supplement or supplant this approach
with a "power" approach via overt military action. Among the more than
2,400 anti-US incidents over a 16-year period, the US has applied military
force in response to only three: the 1986 Libyan bombing of a West German
discotheque; the 1993 Iraqi attempt to assassinate former President Bush in
Kuwait; & the 1998 bombing of two US embassies in East Africa by bin Laden
operatives. What differentiates these incidents from other anti-US attacks?
Although the presidents who ordered the strikes offered justifications
common to each, this article uncovers five other factors that may have
greater explanatory power. 1 Table. Adapted from the source document.
A Tertiary Model for Countering Terrorism in Liberal Democracies: The
Case of Israel
Pedahzur, Ami; Ranstorp, Magnus
Terrorism and Political Violence, 2001,
13, 2, summer, 1-26.
Like other studies in the field of
counter-terrorism, the question underlying this article is to what degree
can a democracy lead an effective struggle against terrorism & at the same
time uphold its liberal, or even democratic, character? This article seeks
to elaborate on the theoretical tools used for answering this question by
developing the operational aspects of the "war model" & "criminal justice
model" in the war against terrorism & then by presenting an "expanded
criminal justice model" to mediate between the two already existing models.
This continuum of models is then tested on the Israeli response to Jewish
terrorism & possible explanations for the state's decision to move from one
model to the other are presented. One of the central conclusions of the
study is that the most successful antiterrorist campaigns led by Israel
against Jewish terrorists were the ones in which the state's authorities
did not cross any democratic boundaries. 1 Table. Adapted from the source
Terror and the Dilemma of World Politics
Estudios Publicos, 2001, 84, spring, 49-83.
are the dilemmas facing the great democracies, especially the US, following
the attack of 11 Sept 2001? The worldwide reaction of condemnation, the
author warns, could easily dissolve when it comes to formulating concrete
policies against terrorism. Thus, the major challenge at the moment is to
elicit a political response aimed at creating an "international society"
concept reaching beyond that of the great developed nations. The great
persuasions & ideas that have arisen out of modernity (Marxism has always
been the favorite example) have been present in the foundations of all
responses during the 20th century in practically all societies of the
planet. Is this period coming to an end, to return to particularisms?
Perhaps so, but here it is argued that so-called "fundamentalism" is also a
component of the potential of what is modern. 33 References. Adapted from
the source document.
Survival, 2001, 43, 4, winter, 35-48.
days of the September 11 attacks on the World Trade Center & the Pentagon,
President George W. Bush proclaimed: "Our war on terror begins with
al-Qaeda, but it does not end there. It will not end until every terrorist
group of global reach has been found, stopped, & defeated." Despite the
sweeping cast of the Bush doctrine, however, the qualification "with global
reach" gave him the leeway to circumscribe the operative definition of
terrorism. Practical considerations require a policy that does so. The
counterterrorism effort against al-Qaeda alone will require diverse &
sustained military, law-enforcement, & intelligence resources that will
stretch the capacities of the US & its allies. The US & its allies enjoy
greater leverage over some terrorist groups, & less over others. The upshot
is that different policies will fit different terrorist groups & sponsors.
Adapted from the source document.