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Tsunamis and the International Response:
Economic, Social and Environmental Dimensions

(Released April 2005)

 
  by Ben Fertig, Tanya Foster and Irene Nicholas  

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  1. Reconstruction planning process of the Aonae community after the 1993 Hokkaido Nansei-oki earthquake

    Minami, S; Oyanagi, Y

    Proceedings of the 6th Japan/United States Workshop on Urban Earthquake Hazard Reduction , pp. 275-278. 2000

    On July 12, 1993, a large earthquake occurred near an island southwest of Hokkaido, Japan, triggering a large tsunami. The damage caused by the tsunami was so great that some fishing towns were destroyed. The Aonae community on the southern end of Okushiri Island was seriously affected by a combination of tremors, tsunami and fires. The Hokkaido Prefectural Government and the Okushiri Town Government drew up reconstruction plans and carried out rebuilding works in the affected districts. Currently, five years after the earthquake, most of the homes that either partially or totally collapsed have been rebuilt or replaced. This paper describes how rapid and effective residential reconstruction planning for the Aonae community was achieved prior to the earthquake and clarifies some subjects with regard to reconstruction planning, such as organization, guidelines for reconstruction, residential improvement, consensus of residents, and financial sources.

  2. NGOs in the Disaster Context of India: Some Issues

    Bose, B P C

    Loyola Journal of Social Sciences, 2003, 17, 2, July-Dec, 171-191

    Discusses the relevance of NGOs in the context of natural disasters in India, particularly two cyclones (1977 & 1979) in Andhra Pradesh, & super cyclone in Orissa & Gujarat earthquake (2001), focusing on the attitude of the governmental authorities toward these disasters & the underlying political considerations of relief reflected in the nature of relations in the international arena. The author looks at the conflicting approaches & assumptions of the NGOs & the governmental authorities in dealing with these natural calamities. Voluntary efforts in the given context, as the author believes, provide a lesson or two for both the governmental & nongovernmental organizations. Instead of pointing an accusing finger at each other, both the NGOs & governmental agencies have to carry out their respective roles as collaborators, co-managers, & partners rather than as contenders. 39 References. Adapted from the source document.

  3. Towards Improved Logistics: Challenges and Questions for Logisticians and Managers

    Chaikin, Donald

    Forced Migration Review, 2003, 18, Sept, 10

    Effective programs require efficient support functions. Logistics is a key support function & needs to be incorporated into planning & management decisions from inception to close-down.

  4. Emergent Phenomena and Multiorganizational Coordination in Disasters: Lessons from the Research Literature

    Drabek, Thomas E; McEntire, David A

    International Journal of Mass Emergencies and Disasters, 2002, 20, 2, Apr, 197-224

    Research on emergent behavior & response coordination has been a significant feature of the disaster studies literature. Through a detailed review of past & recent sociological research, the following paper summarizes what is known about multiorganizational coordination. After defining what we mean by emergence & coordination, a brief discussion follows about the process by which literature was selected for this review. The article then highlights the importance of coordination for response operations, explains why it is often problematic, & provides recommendations to improve multiorganizational collaboration in disasters. The article concludes with implications for the theory & practice of emergency management. 103 References. Adapted from the source document.

  5. Humanitarian Logistics: Context and Challenges

    Gustavsson, Lars

    Forced Migration Review, 2003, 18, Sept, 6-8

    Logistics & supply chain management underpin responses to humanitarian crises.

  6. Responding to Disasters: Diversity of Bureaucrats, Technocrats and Local People

    Hilhorst, Dorothea

    International Journal of Mass Emergencies and Disasters, 2003, 21, 1, Mar, 37-55

    The relations between disaster experts, governments, & local people have often been considered problematic in disaster situations. The idea that disasters caused by natural hazards are the ultimate terrain of experts & managers has been discredited by approaches focusing on the capacities & coping practices of local people, while the role of governments in the interplay between experts & local people is often left unclear. This paper reviews some recent insights into the complexity of these relations by introducing the notion of social domains of disaster responses. Social domains are areas of social life where ideas & practices concerning risk & disaster are exchanged, shared, & more or less organized because of a certain proximity, physically or discursively, in the ways references are made to disaster & risk. The study of social domains allows one to focus on the everyday practices & movements of actors negotiating the conditions & effects of vulnerability & disaster. The paper discusses how experts & local people are represented in different subsequent paradigms of disaster studies; elaborates on the importance of social domains for studying disaster response; & discusses the three domains of disaster science, governance, & local people. 47 References. Adapted from the source document.

  7. Complex Emergency-Complex Finance?

    Hovey, Guy; Landsman, Diana

    Forced Migration Review, 2003, 18, Sept, 36

    Complex emergencies & NGO response mechanisms entail rapid deployment of staff & resources, immediate recruitment, & accelerated distribution of relief supplies.

  8. "Scaling-up" in emergencies: British NGOs after Hurricane Mitch

    Lister, Sarah

    Disasters; 25:36-47 no 1 Mar 2001

    Presents research findings from a study of responses of British nongovernmental organizations; assesses extent and type of increased resources and functions, and constraints.

  9. Humanitarian information systems and emergencies in the greater Horn of Africa: logical components and logical linkages

    Maxwell, Daniel; Watkins, Ben

    Disasters, vol. 27 no. 1, pp. 72-90, Mar 2003

    Natural and man-made emergencies are regular occurrences in the Greater Horn of Africa region. The underlying impoverishment of whole populations is increasing, making it more difficult to distinguish between humanitarian crises triggered by shocks and those resulting from chronic poverty. Shocks and hazards can no longer be seen as one-off events that trigger a one-time response. In countries that are both poor and exposed to frequent episodes of debilitating drought or chronic conflict, information needs tend to be different from the straightforward early warning /commodity accounting models of information systems that have proven reliable in past emergencies. This paper describes the interdependent components of a humanitarian information system appropriate for this kind of complex environment, noting the analytical links between the components and operational links to programme and policy. By examining a series of case studies from the Greater Horn region, the paper demonstrates that systems lacking one or more of these components will fail to provide adequate information - and thus incur humanitarian costs. While information always comes with a cost, the price of poor information - or none - is higher. And in situations of chronic vulnerability, in which development interventions are likely to be interspersed with both safety nets and emergency interventions on a recurrent basis, investment in improved information is a good investment from both a humanitarian and a financial viewpoint.; Reprinted by permission of Blackwell Publishers

  10. The Allocation of Natural Disaster Relief Funds: Hurricane Mitch in Honduras

    Morris, Saul S; Wodon, Quentin

    World Development, vol. 31, no. 7, July 2003, pp. 1279-89

    While it may be feasible to target those receiving relief after a natural disaster, it is difficult to differentiate the amount of relief provided among beneficiaries. This is because much of the relief consists of food, clothing, and medicine, all goods for which the absorptive capacity of households is limited. Empirical tests using data from Honduras following Hurricane Mitch confirm this hypothesis. The probability of receiving relief was negatively correlated with wealth and positively correlated with assets losses (with a higher weight placed on losses than pre-disaster wealth) and the fact that households suffered damage to their dwelling. By contrast, controlling for whether households suffered damage to their dwelling, the amount of relief received was related neither to pre-Mitch wealth, nor to assets losses.

  11. Food aid in complex emergencies: lessons from Sudan

    Ojaba, E; Leonardo, A I; Leonardo, M I

    Social Policy and Administration; 36 (6) Dec 2002, p.664-84.s

    The term complex emergency was coined by the UN to imply a phenomenon characterized by a combination of causes (conflicts, war, famine, displacement) requiring a combination of responses. The 'complexity' refers to the multi-mandate nature of the response as well as the multi-causal nature of the emergency. Operation Lifeline Sudan, the UN humanitarian assistance programme in Sudan, has been described as history's largest humanitarian intervention in an active civil war, providing a model for the international community in what can be achieved in complex political emergencies. Reviews how humanitarian aid was used in Sudan and the potential for that usage contributing to development. (Original abstract - amended)

  12. Regional Co-Operation in Disaster Prevention and Management

    Reynhardt, Mark

    ISSUP Bulletin, 2002, 6, Nov, 1-14.

    Examines the Southern African Development Community (SADC) as reflecting current "best practices" in the response to & management of disasters in contemporary Africa. The SADC has identified poverty as the major contributing factor to the deleterious effects of disasters in the region, exacerbated by the AIDS epidemic, drought, climate change, food shortages, civil strife, & the refugee problem. The capabilities of SADC member states to respond to disasters are analyzed, focusing on the development & implementation of a multisectoral disaster management strategy, the SADC Disaster Management Mechanism. Its various components are described, highlighting the work of the Regional Early Warning Unit in Harare. Factors that constrain coordinated interregional & international disaster planning & response in southern Africa are also identified. K. Hyatt Stewart.

  13. The Role of Nongovernmental Organizations in Earthquake Disaster Management: An Asian Perspective

    Shaw, Rajib

    Regional Development Dialogue, 2003, 24, 1, spring, 117-129.

    An Asian perspective on the role of nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) in earthquake disaster management contends that earthquakes are Asia's most devastating hazards. NGOs are identified as either professional organizations having specific expertise/knowledge or social NGOs related to social/humanitarian activities. The current state of NGO activities in Asia is examined, along with disaster activities of NGOs related to rescue, relief, rehabilitation, & recovery. Successful collaborative efforts between national & international NGOs are highlighted. Although governments are capable of handling policy/institutional matters, it is maintained that NGOs are better equipped to deal with community matters. A framework for coordinating NGO operations is presented, emphasizing the need for multidisciplinary action involving different stakeholders. A comment by Sanny R. Jegillos highlights the "formal-active" roles of NGOs in countries like Japan, the Philippines, & India. Other issues discussed include difficulties involved in trying to achieve sustainable partnerships & whether the success of NGOs hinges upon the failure of governments to address people's needs. 1 Table, 8 Figures. J. Lindroth.