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Domestic Water Conservation:
Greywater, Rainwater and Other Innovations

(Released February 2004)

 
  by Bryan Flowers  

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  1. Effectiveness of retrofitting homes with water-saving devices

    Neighbors, R; Durand, R

    NEW WAVES, vol. 6, no. 1, p. 2, 1993

    Because of excessive groundwater pumping in the Houston area, land subsidence has been a major problem. For example, lands along the Ship Channel sank by as much as 9 feet, while areas near the Johnson Space Center sank by 4 feet or more. Conservation will allow this area to use water more efficiently, lessening subsidence risks and allowing more water for future population growth.

  2. No Sewers--No Growth

    Boyles, EH

    DE Journal Vol. 228, No. 5, p 56-59, 77, November, 1976. 6 tab.

    The spread and impact of sewer moratoriums as a means of restricting community growth was investigated. One major effect of this program is an adverse effect on the recovery of the American housing industry. One plumbing industry spokesman suggested that moratoriums result in housing shortages; unemployment in the construction industry; depressed business for builders, subcontractors, and their suppliers; and contribute to rising costs. Sewer moratoriums result when a sanitary district or municipality outgrows its sewerage system or cannot maintain established treatment standards. The moratorium usually involves a combination of the following factors: a freeze on new sewer authorizations, a freeze on new sewer connections, a freeze on new building permits or a class of building permits, a freeze on subdivision requests or re-zoning and zoning to higher than developed densities, and a slowing down or quota system for any or all of the above. Suggested solutions consisted of developing untapped water sources, building additional sewage treatment facilities, or instituting an area-wide water conservation program. One facet of the latter category is water saving fixtures and fittings. Various items, suggested by the plumbing industry, were evaluated. (Collins-FIRL)

  3. Action for limiting drinking water consumption

    Curto, G; Mazzola, MG

    Ingegneria Ambientale. Vol. 17, no. 7/8, pp. 406-414. 1988.

    Managerial, structural, economic and educational methods of limiting water demand are reviewed with actual examples demonstrating their effectiveness. Management of water demand by checking and maintaining water distribution networks resulted in decreased water losses and was considered more effective than water rationing (restricting water supplies to certain times). Controlling pressure oscillations in networks was another factor affecting water losses and could lower average annual water consumption by 3-6 per cent. Installing individual water meters, low water consumption sanitary appliances and recirculation systems for used water were structural methods discussed with some indication of water conservation achieved; up to 40 per cent of water required for toilet flushing could be saved. A tariff policy capable of curbing water demand could also provide incentives or penalties according to the behaviour of users. Education through publicity campaigns would be complementary to other methods. (Full translation 575 pounds sterling).

  4. Saving water

    Creighton, S

    Utility Week. Vol. 5, no. 6, pp. 18-19. 1996.

    Ways in which water conservation in the domestic sector might be furthered in the U.K. are discussed and the potential role of a Water Saving Trust considered. Metering would not of itself reduce water use and if the water tariff were pitched so high that even single-occupant metered homes began to feel the pinch, the socially underprivileged, if metered, would reduce their consumption to unacceptably low levels. Metering of only households possessing garden sprinklers or swimming pools, while selectively targeting those that could afford to pay more, would have little effect on overall demand, as external uses constitute only 3 per cent of it (greater proportionally in summer, however). Even if metering became compulsory the time required to introduce it to all properties would delay universality until the 21st century. A better approach is the use of water-efficient appliances; if all households installed the most water-efficient appliances, there would be no need for metering at all. A Water Savings Trust, suitably funded, could pay for surveys of domestic water use and perhaps subsidize the installation of such appliances. Funding could be from a variety of sources; suggested are a Regulator-imposed fine on water companies that failed adequately to reduce their leakage (regarded as the major cause of any need for water conservation), a levy on water bills, or an increase in abstraction charges.

  5. The effectiveness of residential water conservation measures

    Maddaus, WO

    Journal of the American Water Resources Association. Vol. 70, no. 3, pp. 52-58. 1987.

    Results of a study, sponsored by the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development to determine the savings in water use that could be achieved by various water conservation measures in over 200 households throughout the country, are summarized. These included low-flush toilets, low-flow showerheads, prompt repair of leaking fixtures, and installation of reduced water-use appliances such as washing machines and dishwashers. Studies in several cities also showed that metering provided a strong incentive for consumers to use less water, and that a reduction in water pressure reduced water use. Tabulated data on the various water-conserving devices and the associated reduction in water use are included.

  6. Domestic water consumption under the microscope

    Achttienribbe, GE

    H2O. Vol. 29, no. 10, pp. 278-279292. 1996.

    The Netherlands Waterworks Association VEWIN conducted in 1995 an investigation parallel to one carried out in 1992, with the object of discovering the pattern of household water use. The earlier survey had had, as one of its objects, the establishment of baseline data on which a strategy of water conservation could be founded. The 1995 survey, using a sample size of 2000 households, investigated the daily per person volume of water used for bathing, showering, hand washing, toilet flushing, clothes washing by hand and machine, dishwashing by hand and machine, cooking and drinking, and other purposes. Differences in the pattern of use which might relate to sociological factors, such as age, were noted, as also was the type of water-using appliance used in 1995 compared with 1992. The overall daily per person consumption had declined from 138 to 134 litres. The principal reductions arose in toilet flushing and showering, which together accounted for 7 fewer litres, but an increase of 3 litres was found in washing machine use. The overall reduction was due more to the use of water-efficient appliances than to any conscious change in the water-using habits of the respondents. (English translation L120, valid for 1996).

  7. Retrofit Realities

    DeOreo, WB; Mayer, PW; Lewis, DM; Dietemann, A; Skeel, T; Smith, J

    Journal of the American Water Works Association [J. Am. Water Works Assoc.]. Vol. 93, no. 3, pp. 58-72. Mar 2001.

    Utility managers who have been looking for some hard data from conservation studies need search no farther. This study provides precise data and should help dispel some myths about high-efficiency devices. In 1996, Seattle Public Utilities participated in the AWWA Research Foundation's Residential End Uses of Water Study (REUWS). REUWS was a baseline study, and homes were chosen at random. But because of that approach, few homes equipped with water-saving fixtures and appliances--particularly water-conserving clothes washers--were included in the study. As a result, the REUWS final report didn't shed much light on the potential effects of water conservation retrofits with high-efficiency plumbing fixtures and appliances. A final recommendation in the REUWS report was that homes participating in the study be selected for future intervention studies, such as interior retrofit programs. Enter the Seattle Home Water Conservation Study (SHWCS)--the first such study using samples taken from the original REUWS group. SHWCS provides important information on water-conserving fixtures and appliances through a before-and-after paired comparison of water use patterns. Precise data were obtained on reductions in per-capita cold and hot water use that were achieved by retrofitting plumbing fixtures and appliances with new, high-efficiency devices. The most effective fixtures evaluated in the study--based on measured savings--were toilets, clothes washers, and faucet aerators. Together, these devices accounted for almost 18 gpcd (67 Lpcd) of the total observed savings of 24 gpcd (90 Lpcd). All told, the retrofit in Seattle reduced water use--which was already low compared with many other cities--from around 70 gpcd (265 Lpcd) to 40 gpcd (151 Lpcd) or less by using new high-efficiency fixtures and appliances. Although there are many claims and estimates being made about potential water savings from interior retrofits, there haven't been many precise measurements. This study gives resource planners some hard numbers to use in making estimates of future municipal water demands.

  8. Household Water Use: Technological Shifts and Conservation Implications

    Clouser, RL; Miller, WL

    Water Resources Bulletin Vol 16, No 3, p 453-458, June, 1980. 4 Tab, 9 Ref.

    The effect of water intensive appliances and activities (washing machine, dishwasher, swimming pool, and lawn watering) on household water consumption was determined from questionnaires mailed to households in two communities. All of the activities investigated increased household water use during at least some of the time periods (December-March, April-July, and August-November). Contrary to published reports, use of a dishwasher increased household water consumption. Persons answering the questionnaires were not generally familiar with household water saving devices. Installation of such water conservation measures would produce small benefits to an individual household (about $42 a year) at the prevalent low water prices, $1-$3 per 1000 gal. However, aggregate community benefits would be significant if costs in additional water facilities would be avoided. Subsidy of water saving devices, which can reduce total community consumption by 20%, may be an alternative water management policy for some communities. (Cassar-FRC)

  9. A Study of Factors Related to the Implementation and Use of Water Conservation Technology in Mississippi

    Cartee, P; Williams, DCJr

    Available from the National Technical Information Service, Springfield VA 22161 as PB80-112709, Price codes: A04 in paper copy, A01 in microfiche. Water Resources Research Institute, Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, Report, October 1979. 49 p, 14 Tab, 34 Ref, 3 Append. OWRT-A-120-MISS (1), 14-34-0001-9026.

    This project was purposed with determining the awareness, status , and current usage of domestic water conserving technology in selected areas of Mississippi. Home builders and municipal officials were surveyed to gather pertinent data. Home builders were found to exercise the greatest selection responsibility in choosing water consuming equipment in speculatively-built houses followed next by the plumbing contractor. Only 60 percent of the builders indicated the use of one or more water conserving items in their construction, mostly water conserving toilets and energy efficient hot water heaters. Conservation aspects of equipment were not found to influence builder choices significantly as they felt it added little to marketability. Only about 22 percent felt that buyers would pay over $100 for such items. Local codes were not viewed as a deterrent. Almost all of the municipalities viewed their water supplies as adequate; none had mandated water conserving equipment requirements; most used the declining block rate structure and felt that rate manipulation would not produce significant savings. Attempts at mandated, state level water conservation via equipment regulations have not been successful.

  10. Water Conservation

    Sharpe, WE

    Water Problems of Urbanizing Areas. Proceedings of the Research Conference, New England College, Henniker, New Hampshire July 16-21, 1978. The American Society of Civil Engineers, New York. 1979. p 225-241, 1 tab, 26 ref.

    Methods of water conservation being advocated and used in domestic systems are compared. Conservation devices are more direct and effective than pricing and metering, as well as cost effective, acceptable to the user and inexpensive. Pricing alone will not be effective in achieving water conservation goals. Energy saving objectives have come to be as important as water conservation today. A California estimate is that if only 2% of households use the conservation devices, the energy saving alone will pay for giving the devices to all households. There is a need for better water budget data in municipal systems to show managers where the water is being used. Unaccounted for water is assumed to be system leakage although this may not be correct. Water conservation (reduced volume demand) in some systems is of less concern than reduction of peak hourly demand because of a desire or necessity to defer capitol investment in system enlargement. Energy supply and costs will set the trend in water pricing practice. Water utilities will follow the lead of energy utilities in rate structure changes. Most water system managers do not know the reliability of their water supplies and consequently they are unprepared for crises that occur. Public awareness education is a key responsibility of the system managers. A water conservation ethic may be useful even in wet periods of adequate supply to condition water users to more restricted use. (See also W90-04338) (Lantz-PTT)

  11. Chemical and microbial characterization of household graywater

    Casanova, LM; Gerba, CP; Karpiscak, M

    Journal of Environmental Science and Health, Part A: Toxic/Hazardous Substances & Environmental Engineering [J. Environ. Sci. Health, Pt. A: Toxic/Hazard. Subst. Environ. Eng.]. Vol. A36, no. 4, pp. 395-401. 2001.

    In arid areas, the search for efficient methods to conserve water is of paramount importance. One of the methods of water conservation available today is graywater recycling - the reuse of water from the sinks, showers, washing machine, and dishwasher in a home. The purpose of this project was to characterize the chemical and microbial quality of graywater from a single-family home with two adults. Water samples from a graywater holding tank were analyzed over a seven-month period for total coliforms, fecal coliforms, fecal streptococci, Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa), and coliphages. The pH, turbidity, biological oxygen demand (BOD), suspended solids (SS), electrical conductivity (EC), sulfates (SO sub(4)), and chlorides (Cl) were also measured. The mean numbers of total coliforms, fecal coliforms, fecal streptococci, and P. aeruginosa were 8.03 x 10 super(7), 5.63 x 10 super(5), 2.38 x 10 super(2), and 1.99 x 10 super(4) CFU/100 mL, respectively. S. aureus and coliphages were not detected. In the chemical analysis, mean values of 7.47 for pH, 43 nephelometric turbidity units (NTU) for turbidity, 64.85 mg/L for BOD, 35.09 mg/L for SS, 0.43 mS/cm for EC, 59.59 mg/L for SO sub(4), and 20.54 mg/L for Cl were measured. These data were compared to data taken in 1986 and 1987, when two adults and one child lived in the household. Analysis showed no statistically significant difference in levels of total coliforms and suspended solids between the two data sets. There were statistically significant differences in levels of fecal coliforms, pH, turbidity, chlorides, sulfates, and BOD between the two households. Fecal coliforms, turbidity, and BOD were higher in the household with two adults and one child. Levels of Cl, SO sub(4), and pH were higher in the household with two adults.

  12. Household chemicals and personal care products as sources for xenobiotic organic compounds in grey wastewater

    Eriksson, E; Auffarth, K; Eilersen, A-M; Henze, M; Ledin, A

    Water S. A. [Water S. A.]. Vol. 29, no. 2, pp. 135-146. Apr 2003.

    Despite contributing 75% of the total wastewater flow to domestic sewers, little is currently known concerning the detailed production patterns and characteristics of grey wastewater. In this study, an inventory of the consumption of household chemicals including a diary survey of water-consuming activities was carried out over seven consecutive days in a block of flats. In total 290 parameters in 92 household chemicals were registered in the inventory in which 30 out of 38 tenants participated. The study was accompanied by quantitative analyses of selected parameters and a screening for organic components in grey wastewater. More than 190 individual components were identified by GC-MS. Identified substances were grouped into eight substance classes based on their application and their concentrations were semi-quantitatively assessed. Several fragrances like citronellol, hexyl cinnamic aldehyde and menthol as well as some preservatives, e.g. citric acid and triclosan, were identified. The measurements also showed that unwanted and unexpected compounds like drugs and pesticides could be present, as well as chemicals not directly deriving from household chemicals or personal care products, e.g. flame-retardants. The inventory provided detailed information about the consumption of various types of household chemicals, but no information on compound concentrations could be assessed due to the limited data in the list of contents of the household chemicals. It was shown that tracking of potentially toxic compounds used in households was possible.

  13. Safe use of household greywater

    Hodges, D

    Water & Environment Manager. Vol. 3, no. 6, pp. 15-17. 1998.

    Greywater is defined and its uses and treatment requirements are outlined. Guidelines for its use to irrigate lawns, plants, trees and food crops are listed. Factors affecting the type and size of the system chosen to filter, store and disinfect the water are addressed. Three treatment options are discussed, namely: settling tanks, comprising septic and aerobic tanks; the use of chlorine or iodine for disinfection; and types of filter. The water quality characteristics of domestic wastewaters and their appropriate treatment are listed.

  14. Water quality study of greywater treatment systems

    Gerba, CP; Straub, TM; Rose, JB; Karpiscak, MM; Foster, KE; Brittain, RG

    Water Resources Journal. no. 185, pp. 78-84. 1995.

    The treatment of greywater from domestic washing activities for landscape irrigation and toilet flushing was studied at a family residence in Arizona. The water was stored in a sump from which it was pumped for treatment by one of 5 methods. These were: water hyacinths and sand filtration (SF); water hyacinths alone, copper ion disinfection and SF; disinfection by copper ion and SF; copper /silver ion disinfection and SF; or 20-um cartridge filtration. Copper and silver ions were generated electrolytically. All systems reduced bacterial concentrations, suspended solids and turbidity; reductions in the last 2 parameters were more influenced by influent values than the efficiencies of the methods. Water hyacinths and SF achieved the best reductions, by factors around 1000, of faecal coliforms and total coliforms. Water hyacinths, copper and SF effected the highest removal of suspended solids; turbidity was reduced most by the copper/silver system. Additional treatment or disinfection would be necessary to meet state standards.

  15. On-site wastewater technologies in Australia

    Ho, G; Dallas, S; Anda, M; Mathew, K

    Managing Water and Waste in the New Millenium. pp. 81-88. Water Science & Technology [Water Sci. Technol.]. Vol. 44, no. 6.

    Domestic wastewater reuse is currently not permitted anywhere in Australia but is widely supported by the community, promoted by researchers, and improvised by up to 20% of householders. Its widespread implementation will make an enormous contribution to the sustainability of water resources. Integrated with other strategies in the outdoor living environment of settlements in arid lands, great benefit will be derived. This paper describes six options for wastewater reuse under research by the Remote Area Developments Group (RADG) at Murdoch University and case studies are given where productive use is being made for revegetation and food production strategies at household and community scales. Pollution control techniques, public health precautions and maintenance requirements are described. The special case of remote Aboriginal communities is explained where prototype systems have been installed by RADG to generate windbreaks and orchards. New Australian design standards and draft guidelines for domestic greywater reuse produced by the Western Australian State government agencies for mainstream communities are evaluated. It is recommended that dry composting toilets be coupled with domestic greywater reuse and the various types available in Australia are described. For situations where only the flushing toilet will suffice the unique "wet composting" system can be used and this also is described. A vision for household and community-scale on-site application is presented.

  16. Practical Xeriscape sub(TM) landscaping for public facilities

    Kavouras, L

    PROCEEDINGS OF CONSERV '96., AMERICAN WATER WORKS ASSOCIATION, DENVER, CO 80235 (USA), 1995, pp. 29-30

    The Southwest Florida Water Management District (SWFWMD) is a regulatory agency created by the Florida Legislature to manage, preserve, and protect the state's water resources. The SWFWMD covers 10,000 square miles in 16 counties in west central Florida. Over three million people reside in the SWFWMD. The SWFWMD headquarters are located in Brooksville, Florida with four service offices located in Venice, Bartow, Tampa, and Inverness. Water use in residential areas in the SWFWMD has been increasing over the years, as Florida continues to draw new inhabitants daily. It has been estimated that as much as 50% of the water used by homeowners is used outdoors to water lawns and landscapes, and may be used excessively or inefficiently. This water use and the potential to increase efficiency, coupled with continuing cyclical drought conditions and water shortage restrictions on irrigation, makes the promotion of water conserving landscapes on obvious choice for the SWFWMD. As part of the Southwest Florida Water Management District's comprehensive outdoor water conservation program, three of the five service offices of the SWFWMD have been landscaped using the principles of Xeriscape sub(TM) landscaping. In an effort to demonstrate that Xeriscape can be beautiful, functional, and water conserving, the landscapes surrounding the SWFWMD offices offer sites for the public to visit and provide examples for other government agencies to follow.

  17. New law requires xeriscapes near State buildings

    Anon.

    TEXAS WATER SAVERS, vol. 1, no. 1, p. 1, 1994

    The mix of flowers and other plants that people notice near Texas highways and State-owned buildings may be taking on a whole new appearance, due to a new bill that was passed by the Texas Legislature. Better yet, the new landscapes will likely result in significant water savings. The Legislature recently passed a bill requiring xeriscape landscaping of State buildings and roadside parks (Senate Bill 814 and companion House Bill 1482). The legislation lays out guidelines for xeriscape landscaping and establishes a xeriscape assistance program that will be administered by the Texas Water Development Board (TWDB). The bill took effect in September, 1993. It defines xeriscape as "a landscape method that maximizes the conservation of water by using site-appropriate plants and efficient water use techniques... including planning and design, appropriate choice of plants, soil analysis, soil improvement using compost, efficient and appropriate irrigation, practical use of turf, appropriate use of mulches, and proper maintenance."

  18. Xeriscape: Promises and pitfalls

    Gregg, T; Curry, J

    PROCEEDINGS OF CONSERV '96., AMERICAN WATER WORKS ASSOCIATION, DENVER, CO 80235 (USA), 1995, pp. 165-168

    Xeriscaping, the use of drought-tolerant plants and sounds horticultural practices, should dramatically reduce residential outdoor water demand based on the difference in the amount of water the plants require. The actual water savings based on this correlational study is estimated to be 175 gpd or a 20 percent reduction in consumption. Other factors including irrigation method, house value, indoor water use, and money spent landscaping proved to be more important in predicting residential water consumption than plant water requirement. The importance of other factors indicates that water conservation programs should focus Xeriscape program efforts on irrigation and the attitudes towards landscaping that cause homeowners who spend more money on landscaping to consume more water.

  19. Public will decide future of water recycling

    Diaper, C; Parsons, S; Temple, C

    Water & Waste Treatment. Vol. 42, no. 6, 30 p. 1999.

    The factors affecting the growth of water recycling schemes in the U.K. are discussed. Existing technology to treat municipal wastewater to produce potable water is too expensive, with long payback times and is only economically viable in metered properties. Public acceptance of water recycling is considered important but is an unknown quantity in the U.K. and attempts to educate the public about the need for water conservation have so far not succeeded. It is hoped that successful schemes such as the recycling system at the Millennium Dome will inform the public. A metering scheme will provide data on water use for the different water saving appliances at the Dome, and Cranfield University s School of Water Sciences is examining water recycling issues with a view to reaching a consensus on water recycling methodology. The need for regulation regarding the quality of recycled water is acknowledged.

  20. Developing and Testing a Water Conservation Handbook

    Yeaman, B; Wesely, EF

    Proceedings of the National Water Conservation Conference on Publicly Supplied Potable Water April 14-15, 1981, Denver, Colorado. National Bureau of Standards Special Publication No. 624, June 1982. p 69-80.

    The selling of water conservation has become a major public policy issue. The advertising community would suggest that a good start would be by educat the residential consumer. ' Easy Ways to Save Water, Money, and Energy at Hom a 23-page booklet produced by the Potomac River and Trails Council, was designed to do this. This paper is the distillation of experience gained by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), which commissioned the booklet, and the Potomac River and Trails Council (PRTC), which designed and printed it. Also described is ' Project Water Watch ', a program undertaken by PRTC in Frederick, Maryland, a small but developing city of 30,000 where there is no perceived water supply problem. With a small EPA grant, PRTC has been testing the attitudes of local residents about water conservation, and about the booklet ' Easy Ways to Save Water, Money, and Energy at Home'. (See also W87-08420) (Author 's abstract)

  21. State-of-the-Art Summary of Incentives for Residential Water Conservation

    Elder, J

    Available from the National Technical Information Service, Springfield VA 22161 as PB81-115958, Price codes: A03 in paper copy, A01 in microfiche. Report NBSIR 80-2119, October, 1980. 37 p, 3 Tab, 84 Ref.

    Water conservation programs are being discussed and implemented throughout the country. It appears, however, that unless there is a water crisis, these programs have little effect on domestic consumption. Two general motivations for individuals to save water are the conservation ethic concerning the use of natural resources, and financial incentives. Consumer education and information programs generally focus on encouraging a conservation ethic. Consumer programs encourage water conservation by providing material on water conservation devices and tips on water conservation practices. Feedback techniques and rate structures rely to a large extent on financial incentives to encourage conservation. Utilities, government agencies, and consumer groups face a difficult problem in motivating individuals to conserve water when there is not an immediate crisis. Studies have shown that the installation of individual water meters reduces residential consumption, and it may be possible to use the water meter as a feedback device. Pricing systems, such as increasing block rate, and peak load or seasonal rates, are possible methods of encouraging conservation , but they have not yet been fully tested. (Moore-SRC)

  22. Casa del Agua: Water conservation demonstration house 1986 through 1998

    Journal of the American Water Resources Association [J. Am. Water Resour. Assoc.]. Vol. 37, no. 5, pp. 1237-1248. Oct 2001.

    Casa del Agua (Casa) in suburban Tucson, Arizona, was designed as a residential water conservation facility for applied research, demonstration of operational results, and transfer of technology to the general public. Starting in 1983, an existing residence was located, modified and retrofitted to acquire operational data on residential water use. Modifications included retrofitting existing landscapes and enlarging the rooftop to collect and harvest rainwater; separating blackwater and graywater lines; installing meters, low-water-use appliances and fixtures, and underground storage tanks for rainwater and graywater; and creating a public information center. Over the 13-plus years of actual operation, both the interior and exterior water use research results indicate large reductions in water use can be effected using water-saving devices and/or harvesting and reusing rainwater and graywater. Casa achieved over a 24 percent reduction in total water use and a 47 percent reduction in municipal water used compared to the typical Tucson residence. Overall water used was comprised of harvested rainwater (10 percent), recycled graywater (20 percent), and municipal water (70 percent). Casa's Information Center was visited by approximately 13,000 people from September 1985 through April 1999 and the research has been featured in local, national, and international media.

  23. W-Index for Residential Water Conservation

    DeCook, KJ; Foster, KE; Karpiscak, MM

    Water Resources Bulletin WARBAQ Vol. 24, No. 6, p 1295-1301, December 1988. 2 tab, 8 ref.

    An index of residential water efficiency (W-index) can serve as a measure of effectiveness of water conservation features in the home. The index provides a calculated numerical value for each dwelling unit, derived from the number and kind of water-saving features present, including indoor and outdoor water savers and water harvesting or recycling systems. A W-Index worksheet, devised for on-site evaluation of single-family residences in the Tucson, Arizona, region shows that a nonconserving residence with all the water-using features would use 151,000 gallons per year or 148 gallons per capita per day (gpcpd), while the fully conserving model would use 35,300 gallons per year or 35 gpcpd and with water harvesting and graywater recycling systems would have a maximum W-Index of W-160. A Tucson water conservation demonstration home, Casa del Agua, received a rating of W-139, and field tests of about 30 homes in new Tucson subdivisions show values ranging from W-75 to W-100, indicating the incorporation of some water conservation in current new models. By adjustment of some climatic or water-use parameters, the W-Index format can be applied to various types of dwelling units or to other urban areas. The W-Index can be used by individual home-owners or builders to evaluate water efficiency of residential units, or by water providers or water management agencies as a device for promoting and achieving water conservation goals. (See also W89-07550) (Author 's abstract)

  24. Impacts of residential water reuse in the Tucson area

    Foster, KE; DeCook, KJ

    Water Resources Bulletin. Vol. 22, no. 5, pp. 753-757. 1986.

    It was estimated that the implementation of a residential water reuse system by 30 per cent of the projected population of the Tucson Active Management Area would produce a 43 per cent reduction in the annual groundwater overdraft by the year 2025. The system involved storage of rooftop runoff and recycling of 30 gallons per capita.day of greywater from bathing and clothes and dish washing. In addition to conservation measures the water supply would be supplemented by imported water and treated municipal sewage effluent, with the aim of eliminating the groundwater overdraft.

  25. Tucson's changing landscapes: A response to state conservation requirements

    Kuranz, CB

    PROCEEDINGS OF CONSERV '96., AMERICAN WATER WORKS ASSOCIATION, DENVER, CO 80235 (USA), 1995, pp. 655-657

    Since the Arizona Groundwater Management Code was enacted in 1980, a water conservation ethic has been actively promoted. Southern Arizona, and the Tucson basin in particular has embraced the need for water conservation both indoors and in the landscape. Prior to the late 70's, Tucson residential and commercial landscapes consisted of "exotic" high water use plants resembling areas of the U.S with more temperate climates. The City of Tucson followed suit by landscaping medians with high water using plants, grass and palm trees. In the mid 1980's a transformation to attractive low water use landscaping began to take place. The City, partly in response to Arizona Department of Water Resources (ADWR) regulations began to actively promote low water use landscaping. A non-profit community organization sprung up around the same time, the Southern Arizona Water Resources Association (SAWARA). SAWARA began educating the community through the development of conservation brochures, an annual Xeriscape sub(TM) conference and a Xeriscape sub(TM) landscape contest. In addition, the ADWR has specific requirements for landscaping in public rights-of-way that became effective on January 1, 1987. A conscious effort was made by ADWR to raise community awareness of Tucson's desert environment and create a sense of place which reflects the beauty of the Sonoran desert along city streets. The regulation prevent the use of municipal groundwater for irrigating streets. The regulation prevent the use of municipal groundwater for irrigating any newly landscaped areas within the public rights-of-way, unless the plants are listed on the "Official Low Water Use Plant List" for the Tucson AMA. The City of Tucson not only complied with the State right-of-way regulations for new medians, but initiated a program to replace existing high water use plantings in medians with "Xeriscapes sub(TM)".

  26. Xeriscape demonstration gardens: Texas style

    Anon.

    TEXAS WATER SAVERS, vol. 1, no. 1, p. 3, 1994

    Cities throughout Texas are developing xeriscape demonstration gardens to promote landscapes that conserve water and energy. The City Corpus Christi has begun construction of a $500,000 xeriscape demonstration garden. Part of the garden will include a gazebo that contains interpretive panels that describe the principles of xeriscape gardening. Other panels depict the evolution of the region's water supplies. The central theme will be that principles of wise management and "stewardship" of water resources can be incorporated into attractive landscapes. Since the garden is designed to be a "learning center," there will also be a children's gazebo for teaching about conservation. The children's gazebo will also include a scale so that children can find out how much they "weigh in water."

  27. The Millennium Dome "Watercycle" experiment: to evaluate water efficiency and customer perception at a recycling scheme for 6 million visitors

    Hills, S; Birks, R; McKenzie, B

    2nd World Water Congress: Integrated Water Resources Management. pp. 233-240. Water Science & Technology [Water Sci. Technol.]. Vol. 46, no. 6-7.

    Thames Water's "Watercycle" project at the Millennium Dome was one of the largest in-building recycling schemes in Europe, designed to supply up to 500 m super(3)/d of reclaimed water for WC and urinal flushing. It catered for over 6 million visitors in the year 2000. Overall, 55% of the water demand at the Dome was met by reclaimed water. The site was also one of the most comprehensive studies ever carried out of water conservation in a public environment, evaluating a range of water efficient appliances and researching visitor perceptions of reclaimed water. Within the Dome there were six identical core buildings housing the washrooms, which were equipped with a variety of different water-efficient devices for comparison. Water usage by the different appliances was monitored using a sophisticated metering and telemetry system. The importance of correct installation and maintenance of "high tech" water efficient devices was highlighted during the research programme, as some water wastage occurred due to poor installation. The results prove that metering should complement any large-scale water efficient system, so that any faults with the appliances can be quickly identified. The visitor survey showed very positive attitudes to the use of reclaimed water for non-potable uses.