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GeoRef In Process

The GeoRef In Process database contains records that are, literally, in the process of being indexed prior to their integration in the main GeoRef database. The majority of the records originate from non-English language literature that was not necessarily published recently. GeoRef In Process does NOT contain the most current records and should not be confused with a database of Recent References. When the GeoRef indexers complete the editing and indexing of an In Process record, then the record will appear in the next GeoRef monthly update. In Process records may lack a few fields or contain minimal data in some fields. However, most records do contain descriptors (index terms) and because all areas of geoscience are covered in the In Process file, it is recommended that you select both the GeoRef and GeoRef In Process to perform the most comprehensive search.

Subject Coverage
    Major areas of coverage include:
    • Areal geology
    • Economic geology
    • Engineering geology
    • Environmental geology
    • Extraterrestrial geology
    • Geochemistry
    • Geochronology
    • Geophysics
    • Hydrogeology and hydrology
    • Marine geology and oceanography
    • Mathematical geology
    • Mineralogy and Crystallography
    • Paleontology
    • Petrology
    • Seismology
    • Stratigraphy
    • Structural geology
    • Surficial geology
Dates of Coverage
Update Frequency
    3 times a year
    Over 0 records as of May 2013
    American Geological Institute
    4220 King Street
    Alexandria, VA 22302 USA
    Voice: +1 703 379 2480
    Fax: +1 703 379 7563
Document Delivery

    The GeoRef Document Delivery Service (DDS) offers seven-day (regular) and one-day (rush) mailing of photocopies of earth-science documents and maps available in Washington-area libraries. The DDS provides copies of documents available in the U.S. Geological Survey Library in Reston, Virginia, the Library of Congress, and the AGI library. The DDS also provides copies of earth-science theses and dissertations. These requests are filled through UMI (now Bell& Howell Information and Learning) and through the degree-granting institutions involved. The normal turnaround time does not apply to requests for theses and dissertations -- these requests usually are filled within 4-8 weeks. For further details and access to an order form, see:

Sample Record

    Ontogeny of an Early Cambrian Shizhudiscus armatus Li

    AU: Author
    Li Yong
    SO: Source
    Chengdu Dizhi Xueyuan Xuebao = Journal of Chengdu College of Geology, vol.19, no.1, pp.69-76, 1992
    IS: ISSN
    PB: Publisher
    Gai Kan Bianjibu, Chengdu, China (CHN)
    AB: Abstract
    Ontogeny of the Early Cambrian eodiscoid trilobite Shizhudiscus armatus Li (sp.nov.) is divided into three development periods (protarpid, meraspid and holaspid) and eight defined stages in the paper. It shows great changes in morphology which are controlled by bio-holographic law with progressive maturity. On the basis of scaning electronic microscopy, thin section analysis and energy specitral analysis, the composition and microstructure of exoskeleten of Shizhudiscus armatus Li (sp.nov.) are also studied here.
    FE: Features
    References: 5; 2 plates, 2 tables
    LA: Language
    PY: Publication Year
    PD: Publication Date
    PT: Publication Type
    Serial; Analytic
    CP: Country of Publication
    China (CHN)
    DE: Descriptors
    Arthropoda; Cambrian; exoskeletons; Invertebrata; Lower Cambrian; maturity; morphology; ontogeny; Paleozoic; SEM data; Shizhudiscus armatus; Trilobita; Trilobitomorpha
    CL: Classification
    10, Invertebrate paleontology
    CY: Copyright
    GeoRef in Process, Copyright 2001, American Geological Institute. After editing and indexing, this record will be added to Georef. Reference includes data supplied by National Geological Library, Beijing, China
    AN: Accession Number
Field Code
    The following field codes are found in the records of this database. Here they are listed in alphabetical order by two-letter code.
    AB = Abstract LA = Language
    AF = Affiliation LL = Latitude & Longitude
    AN = Accession Number MP = Map
    AU = Author MT = Monograph Title
    AV = Availability NT = Notes
    CA = Corporate Author ON = Organization
    CD = CODEN PB = Publisher
    CE = Collection Title PD = Publication Date
    CF = Conference

    PG = Pages

    CL = Classification PT = Publication Type
    CP = Country of Publication PY = Publication Year
    CY = Copyright RP = Report Number
    DE = Descriptors SL = Summary Language
    ED = Editor SO = Source
    FE = Features TA = Target Audience
    IB = ISBN TI = Title
    IS = ISSN  

    Classification, CL=

    GeoRef classifications describe broad areas of the field of geology. Each includes a 2-digit code that, when sorted numerically, orders the categories hierarchically by subject area. The classification scheme is shown below.

    To search for a specific category, use either the word(s) or the code, eg:

    cl=mineralogy of silicates

    To search for everything in a hierarchy, truncate the code, eg:

    (Note, for very large hierarchies, truncating may slow the search process.

    01 Mineralogy and Crystallography
    01A General mineralogy
    01B Mineralogy of silicates
    01C Mineralogy of non-silicates

    physical, optical, and chemical properties of naturally occurring inorganic minerals and related synthetic minerals, mineral crystallography, including crystal structure, determination of lattice parameters and unit cells, the bonding of atoms and molecules, crystal form and symmetry, collecting minerals, as well as non-mineral gems such as amber and jet

    02 Geochemistry
    02A General geochemistry
    02B Hydrochemistry
    02C Geochemistry of rocks, soils, and sediments
    02D Isotope geochemistry

    abundance of elements, organic materials, water, trace elements, isotopes, geochemical processes and properties, geochemical cycles, geochemical surveys analytical methods such as chemical, spectroscopic, thermal, and X-ray and electron microscopy instruments used for analysis
    Related topics in other fields:

    cl=05* petrology, fluid inclusions, geologic thermometry and barometry, meteorites
    cl=03 geochronology
    cl=06* clay mineralogy
    cl=12 paleoclimatology
    cl=26* or cl=28* geochemical prospecting

    03 Geochronology

    determination by absolute age methods, including radiometric and radiogenic dating; establishing the chronology of events by methods such as lichenometry, racemization, tree rings, hydration of glass, varves, paleomagnetism, tephrochronology, thermoluminescence, radiation damage, fission-track dating and particle-track dating

    04 Extraterrestrial geology

    of the planets, asteroids, the Moon and moons of other planets planetary composition, evolution, surface features, structure, motions
    Exclusions:  astrophysics and extraterrestrial physics
    Related topics in other fields:  
    cl=05* meteorites and tektites

    05 Petrology, igneous and metamorphic
    05A Igneous and metamorphic petrology
    05B Petrology of meteorites and tektites

    igneous rocks, metamorphic rocks, metasomatism metamorphism, phase equilibria, magmas, lava, intrusions, inclusions ancient volcanology
    Related topics in other fields:
    cl=17* phase transitions
    cl=23 volcanic features
    cl=24 modern volcanology

    06 Petrology, sedimentary
    06A Sedimentary petrology
    06B Petrology of coal

    sedimentary rocks, sediments, sedimentation, diagenesis, sedimentary structures, genesis of peat, lignite and coal, clay mineralogy, chemical properties of clay minerals
    Related topics in other fields:
    cl=07 marine sedimentation
    cl=24 Quaternary sediments
    cl=29* economic studies of peat, lignite and coal

    07 Marine geology and oceanography

    continental shelf, continental slope, ocean floors, ocean waves (sediment transport), ocean circulation (sediment transport), reefs (modern)
    patterns of ocean circulation
    marine biology
    wave propagation
    Related topics in other fields:
    cl=02* geochemistry of sea water
    cl=18 ocean basin evolution
    cl=21 estuarine studies
    cl=24 Quaternary sediments and Recent lake and sea-level changes

    08 Paleontology, general studies of both fossil plants and animals

    life origin, paleontological textbooks, paleontological glossaries, fossil collecting, conodonts, problematic fossils, ichnofossils (if not related to a specific fossil group)
    Related topics in other fields:
    cl=09 fossil plants
    cl=10 invertebrates
    cl=11 vertebrates
    cl=12 biostratigraphy

    09 Paleontology, paleobotany

    algae, angiosperms, bacteria, bryophytes, fungi, gymnosperms, lichens, palynomorphs, Plantae, pteridophytes, thallophytes
    Related topics in other fields:
    cl=12 biostratigraphy
    cl=24 Quaternary palynology

    10 Paleontology, invertebrate

    Bryozoa, Coelenterata, Echinodermata, foraminifera, Graptolithina, Hemichordata, Insecta, Mollusca, Ostracoda, Porifera, Pterobranchia, Radiolaria, Trilobita, worms
    Related topics in other fields:
    cl=12 biostratigraphy

    11 Paleontology, vertebrate

    Agnatha, Amphibia, Aves, Chordata, fossil man, Mammalia, Pisces, Reptilia
    Related topics in other fields:
    cl=12 Pre-Quaternary archaeology and artifacts
    cl=24 Quaternary archaeology and artifacts

    12 Stratigraphy, historical geology and paleoecology

    lithostratigraphy (age relationships of rock strata), biostratigraphy, evolution of land masses (continental drift), paleomagnetism, paleogeography, biogeography, paleoclimatology
    Related topics in other fields:
    cl=06* reefs and sedimentation
    cl=08 or cl=09 or cl=10 or cl=11 paleontology
    cl=22 Recent ecology
    cl=24 Quaternary

    13 Areal geology, general

    area studies dealing with several aspects of geology, entries that might be placed in three or more fields, guidebooks, road logs, bibliographies of geology of an area
    Related topics in other fields:  
    cl=14 geologic maps

    14 Areal geology, maps and charts

    separately published geologic maps, geologic maps with explanatory texts, separately published geologic charts, methodology of geologic mapping
    Related topics in other fields: specific types of maps are found under the specific field, eg geomorphologic maps are found in cl=23, Surficial geology, geomorphology

    15 Miscellaneous and mathematical geology

    biography (if not related to a specific field)
    bibliography (if not related to a specific field)
    popular geology
    elementary geology (textbooks)
    general mathematical principles
    annual reports of geologic surveys and associations
    historical accounts
    education-curricula, enrollments
    directories to geology departments
    geology as a profession-career opportunities
    forensic geology-geology applied to crime solving
    Related topics in other fields: anything related to a specific field will be found in that field rather than here

    16 Structural geology

    classical tectonics (regional and local structures resulting from solid-rock movements), faults, fractures, folds, orogeny, geosynclines, deformation, structural analysis, epeirogeny, foliation, lineation
    Related topics in other fields:

    cl=18 plate tectonics, continental drift, sea-floor spreading

    Before 1975 the following subjects were found in Structural geology; they are now found in other fields:
    cl=05* batholiths, dikes, intrusions, stocks and volcanism
    cl=06* breccia, sedimentary structures
    cl=12 changes of level, paleogeography, unconformities
    cl=18 crust, diapirs, geodesy, isostasy, Mohorovicic discontinuity
    cl=22 nuclear explosions
    cl=23 cratering, cryptoexplosion features
    cl=24 glaciers

    17 Geophysics, general
    17A General geophysics
    17B Geophysics of minerals and rocks

    experimental and theoretical studies of physical properties of rocks
    transition states of various compounds under elevated
    temperature and pressure (applied to core and mantle composition)
    magnetic and electrical properties of minerals and melts that relate to the Earth's magnetic field
    history, development and education in geophysics (since 1981 in cl=18)
    magnetic and gravity fields of the Earth (since 1981 in cl=18)
    Exclusions: Meteorology, magnetosphere, astrophysics, aeronomy and solar physics
    Related topics in other fields:
    cl=04 Extraterrestrial geology

    18 Geophysics, solid-Earth

    worldwide structure of the Earth, plate tectonics, continental drift sea-floor spreading, paleomagnetism, structure of core, crust and mantle, Mohorovicic discontinuity
    Related topics in other fields:
    cl=16 Regional and local structure

    Prior to 1975 the following subjects were found in Solid-Earth Geophysics; they are now found in other fields:
    cl=20 Geophysical surveys
    cl=19 Seismology

    19 Geophysics, seismology

    earthquakes and elastic waves, including seismograms, wave velocity, seismic sources, seismicity, microearthquakes, microseisms, mechanism of tsunamis and volcanic earthquakes
    Related topics in other fields:
    cl=18 velocity structure of Earth's interior
    cl=22 geologic hazards, seismic risk
    cl=30 earthquake engineering

    20 Geophysics, applied

    applied studies not related to a specific subject including: well-logging, remote sensing, magnetotelluric surveys, gravity surveys, electrical surveys, magnetic surveys, seismic surveys, electromagnetic surveys

    21 Hydrogeology and hydrology

    ground water-geochemistry, movement, resources, mathematical models
    thermal waters, springs, geysers, fumaroles, soil-water regimes, surface water-chemistry, sediment transport, hydrologic cycle (from 1969 to 1974, fewer references to surface water were included)
    Exclusions:   biology of surface water, hydraulics
    Related topics in other fields:
    cl=02* geochemistry of water
    cl=22 pollution of water and again after 1989

    22 Environmental geology

    ecology, geologic hazards-earthquakes, floods, land subsidence, landslides, debris flows, tsunamis, volcanoes, groundwater pollution conservation, land use, pollution of surface water (seldom covered) reclamation
    With the growth of the environmental sciences, inclusion of environmental topics has increased dramatically in recent years.

    23 Surficial geology, geomorphology

    genesis and evolution of features on the Earth's surface-meteor craters, cryptoexplosion features, eolian features, erosion features, fluvial features, frost action, lacustrine features, mass movements, shore features, solution features, and volcanic features
    Related topics in other fields:
    cl=24 Quaternary glacial features and modern volcanology

    24 Surficial geology, Quaternary geology

    the last 2 million years of Earth's history, including:
    archaeology, glacial geology, stratigraphy, palynology, modern volcanology, sea-level changes

    25 Surficial geology, soils

    soils-genesis, morphology, evolution, chemistry, erosion and classification
    Exclusions: agricultural studies
    Related topics in other fields:
    cl=21 soil water regimes
    cl=22 soil pollution
    cl=23 erosion processes
    cl=30 engineering properties of soils

    26 Economic geology, general--geology of deposits

    26A General economic geology--geology of deposits
    26B General economic geology--economics

    commodity studies-more than one type of commodity
    mining geology
    Related topics in other fields:
    cl=27* metals
    cl=28* nonmetals
    cl=29* energy sources

    27 Economic geology of metal ore deposits
    27A Geology of metal ore deposits
    27B Economics of metal ores

    metal ores-genesis, resources, economics, exploration, production and utilization (includes uranium)
    Related topics in other fields:
    cl=26* general and mining geology

    28 Economic geology of non-metal deposits
    28A Geology of nonmetal deposits
    28B Economics of nonmetal deposits

    nonmetal deposits-genesis, resources, economics, exploration, production, and utilization
    Related topics in other fields:
    cl=26* general and mining geology

    29 Economic geology of energy sources
    29A Geology of energy sources
    29B Economics of energy sources

    petroleum, natural gas, coal (economic studies), oil shale geothermal energy, oil sands
    Related topics in other fields:
    cl=06* genesis of coal, peat, and lignite
    cl=26* general and mining geology
    cl=27* uranium ores

    30 Engineering geology

    waste disposal, reclamation, structures-dams, foundations, highways, marine installations, nuclear facilities, reservoirs, tunnels, underground installations and waterways when geologic subjects such as rock and soil properties are discussed

    Publication Type, PT=

    This field may contain several types of information:

    Document type, such as:
    Conference document
    Thesis or dissertation
    Summary only

    Treatment or bibliographic level, such as:
    Analytic (eg: research paper)
    Monographic (eg: book, report, thesis)
    Collective (eg: series of monographs)
    Serial (eg: journal, annual directory)

    Type of degree (when the document type is a thesis or dissertation). Possible types are:

    To search this field, enter the unique word(s), eg: pt=(thesis and doctoral)
    To exclude records that have been indexed from a summary only and not a fulltext document, add:
    not pt=summary
    to the end of your search, eg:
    (precambrian and ichnofossils) not pt=summary