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National Criminal Justice Reference Service Abstracts

The NCJRS: National Criminal Justice Reference Service Abstracts Database is published by the Office of Justice Programs, U.S. Department of Justice's National Criminal Justice Reference Service, an information clearinghouse for people around the U.S. and the world involved with research, policy, and practice related to criminal and juvenile justice, and drug control. The NCJRS Abstracts Database contains summaries of over 189,000 U.S. and international publications, including federal, state, and local government reports, books, research reports, journal articles, audiovisual presentations, and unpublished research. The NCJRS Abstracts Database excludes most legal decisions, opinions, and statutes. The collection has been developed to meet the needs of criminal justice professionals, researchers, policymakers, and technical and legal experts. Unique elements of the collection include agency produced documents and final grant reports of Office of Justice Programs sponsored research. Documents are either written in English or have an English-language summary.

Subject Coverage
    Major areas of coverage include:
    • Alternatives to Incarceration
    • Community Involvement
    • Correctional Facility Design
    • Corrections
    • Corrections Technology
    • Crime Mapping
    • Court Management
    • Courts
    • Crime Deterrence and Prevention
    • Criminal Justice Statistics
    • Criminology
    • Defense Technology
    • Domestic Preparedness
    • Drug Policy
    • Forensic Technology
    • Human Resource Development
    • Juvenile Justice
    • Law Enforcement
    • Police Training
    • Probation and Parole
    • Program Evaluation, Policy and Planning
    • Restorative Justice
    • Substance Abuse
    • Terrorism/Counter Terrorism
    • Victims of Crime
Dates of Coverage
    1970 - current
Update Frequency
    Monthly. Approximately 5,500 new records added per year.
    Over 218,461 records as of August 2013
Print Equivalent
    A print version of the NCJRS Database is not available.
Obtaining NCJRS Documents
    NCJRS offers document delivery, Interlibrary Loan, and online access to many documents listed in the database.
    NCJRS Research and Information Center
    2277 Research Boulevard
    Rockville, MD 20850 USA
    Voice: +1 301-519-5063
Sample Record
    TI: Title
    Characteristics of Street Gangs
    AU: Author
    Callanan, Paul
    SO: Source
    Campus Safety Journal, vol. 9, no. 10, pp. 16, November 2001
    PG: Pages
    RL: Resource Location
    AB: Abstract
    Gang officers or gang specialists must familiarize themselves with those elements that are unique to the gang culture, including, but not limited to, the motivating forces behind street gangs; gang structure and hierarchy; gang communication methods; and the connection to violence and drugs. Most gangs today are either turf-oriented or profit-oriented. Turf-oriented gangs are traditional in nature. The heritage of its members can be traced back for generations, and these gangs lay claim to an area, usually the area surrounding their neighborhood, as "their territory." Profit-oriented gangs operate primarily to make money and are nontraditional. They tend to be mobile, moving from area to area in attempts to expand their business ventures. The typical street gang is still loose-knit in structure. Less than 10 percent of a gang's membership is hardcore (deeply committed). Most who claim membership are somewhat involved in the gang's daily activities. Associate members are friends, acquaintances, and relatives of active members. The language of the gang subculture consists of street-slang terminology. Basic rules of grammar do not apply. Nonverbal forms of communication include graffiti, clothing, hand signs, and tattoos. Research through the U.S. Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention has shown that gang homicides are "characterized by periodic spurts and declines, they have been increasing nationwide and evidence an overall growth trend in certain cities." The use of firearms has contributed significantly to the homicide rate. Internally, violence strengthens the bond between gang members. Externally, gangs use violence to protect their turf or business operations, to expand their territory, to defend their honor, and to control their neighborhoods. Studies have shown that although a youth who belongs to a street gang has a higher propensity to use drugs and that a fair portion of those who belong to gangs sell drugs locally, the typical street gang lacks the necessary organizational structure required to succeed in the drug-trafficking business.
    LA: Language
    PY: Publication Year
    CP: Country of Publication
    United States
    DE: Descriptors
    *Gangs (08049); Juvenile gangs (04585); Juvenile gang behavior patterns (08721); Communication techniques
    (09635); Gang violence (11257)
    UD: Update
    AN: Accession Number
Field Codes
    AB = Abstract LA = Language
    AF = Affiliation NT = Notes
    AN = Accession Number OT = Original Title
    AU = Author PG = Pages
    AV = Availability PT = Publication Type
    CA = Corporate Author PY = Publication Year
    CP = Country of Publication RL = Resource Location
    CR = Contract Number RP = Report Number
    DE = Descriptor SO = Source
    DI = Project Director SP = Sponsor
    ED = Editor TI = Title
    GI - Grant Information UD = Update
    IB = ISBN  

    Accession Number, AN=

    The Accession Number is a unique number that identifies each record in the database. The Accession Number is equivalent to the NCJ Number.

    Publication Type, PT=
    This field may contain two types of information:
    Document type, listed as:
    Electronic Spreadsheets
    news media
    Treatment, listed as:
    Issue overviews
    Programs/project description/evaluation
    Histories/historical perspectives
    Policies/procedures handbook/manuals
    Applied research
    Annual/periodic reports/yearbooks
    Program/project evaluation
    Statistical data
    Studies/research reports
    Legislation/policy analysis
    Literature reviews
    Training material
    Technical assistance reports
    Directories/table reorganizations/institutions
    Reference material
    Overview texts
    Citizen involvement materials
    Conference/meeting materials
    State-of-the-art reviews
    Training Hanbook/manual
    There are two ways to search by publication type:

    Option 1 - Go to the Browse Indexes button in the lower left margin, select Publication Type index in NCJRS Abstracts, click the Display button and select from the resulting display.

    Option 2 - Enter the unique word(s) directly in the query box and, if desired, combine this with the rest of your search,
    pt=(training material) and kw=(arson investigation)