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Paperslnvited Subject Classification System

PapersInvited Classification Schema
Below are listed the subject categories used to classify the conference and publication records in PapersInvited. This information is found and can be searched in either of two places -- in the Classification field where the category code is also displayed (e.g., 9.3 Biological Remediation) or as a subject index term in the Descriptors field. There are several ways to search by and for these specific categories:

Generalities, Library Science and Journalism Social Sciences
Philosophy, Religion and Mythology Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering
Psychology and Other Related Fields Natural Sciences
Arts, Architecture, Museums and Sports Mathematical Sciences and Astronomy
Literature and Languages Human Biology, Medicine and Health Sciences
Geography and History Engineering and Technology
Management and Related Areas Computers and Information Technology

1 Generalities, Library Science and Journalism

    1.1 Knowledge
    (Includes Atlantis, Bermuda Triangle, Catalogs, Collections, Controversial Knowledge, Exhibits, Historical Bibliography, Humanities, Intellectual Life, Interdisciplinary works on the Book, Inventories, Lists, Museology, Museums, Mysteries, Pyramid Power, Research, Scholarship And Learning, Statistical Methods, The Book, Theory of Knowledge, Trade Catalogs and Directories, Unidentified Flying Object (UFO), etc.)
    1.2 Library and Information Science
    (Includes Communication and Use of Information, Digital Library, Economics of Information, Human Information and Communication Behavior, Information and Access Services in Science and Technology, Information Retrieval Design, Information Science, Legal Information and Access Services, Management of Information Resources in Organizations, Public library, Research Methodology, etc.)
    1.3 Media, Journalism and Mass Communication
    (Includes All kind of Media, Cyber journalism, Entertainment and Media, Issues relating to Media, Media and Free Speech, etc.)
2 Philosophy, Religion and Mythology
    2.1 Oriental Philosophy
    (Includes Ancient and Medieval Philosophy of Far East and South Asia, Arab and other Oriental Countries, Egypt, India, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Lebanon, Palestine, Syria, etc.)
    2.2 Greek Philosophy
    (Aristotelian Philosophy, Epicurean Philosophy, Platonic Philosophy, Pre Socratic Greek Philosophies like Sophistic, related Greek Philosophies, Skeptic and Neoplatonic Philosophies, Socratic, Stoic Philosophy)
    2.3 Medieval Western Philosophy
    (Includes Early Christian Philosophy, Patristic Philosophy, Scholastic Philosophy and Mystic Philosophy)
    2.4 Modern Western Philosophy and other Non-Oriental Philosophy
    (Includes Europe, Russia, Scandinavia, United States and Canada, and other Geographic areas)
    2.5 Other Areas/Schools of Philosophy
    (Includes Agnosticism, Atomism, Constructivism, Critical Philosophy, Deconstruction, Dogmatism, Dualism, Eclecticism, Existentialism, Humanism, Idealism, Individualism, Instrumentalism, Intuitionism and Bergsonism, Kantianism, Liberalism, Materialism, Mechanism, Modern Platonism and Neoplatonism, Monism, Mysticism, Naturalism, Nominalism and conceptualism, Objectivism, Optimism, Pantheism, Personalism, Pessimism, Phenomenology, Pluralism, Positivism, Postmodernism, Pragmatism, Rationalism, Realism, Relativism, Romanticism, Sensationalism, Skepticism, Structuralism, Syncretism, Traditionalism, Transcendentalism, Utilitarianism)
    2.6 Ethics (Moral Philosophy)
    (Includes Economic and Professional Ethics including Euthanasia, Ethics of Consumption, Ethics of family relationships, Ethics of Recreation and Leisure, Ethics of Sex and Reproduction, Ethics of Social Relations, Political Ethics, Systems and Doctrines, and other Ethical norms)
    2.7 Religion and Mythology
    (Includes Advaita Vedanta, African Diaspora, Agnosticism, Atheism, Bahá'I, Buddhism, Cao Dai, Christianity, Deism, Divination, Eckankar, Esoteric, Falun Dafa, Fourth Way, Gnosticism, Hinduism, History of Religion, Humanism, Interfaith, Islam, Jainism, Judaism, Meditation, Morality, Mysticism, Natural theology, New Age, Pagan, Pantheism, Philosophy of Relig, Prophecies, Rastafarianism, Religious Studies, Religious Tolerance, Satanism, Scientology, Sex and Genderion, Shamanism, Shintoism, Sikhism, Spiritualism, Tantra, Taoism, Unitarian Universalism, Unity, Universal Life Church, Yoga, Zoroastrianism)
3 Psychology and Other Related Fields
    3.1 Psychology
    (Includes Applied Psychology, Cognitive Science, Communication, Comparative Psychology, Conscious Mental Processes and Intelligence, Creativity, Differential and Developmental Psychology, Dreams, Emotions, Epistemology, Hypnosis, Hypnotism, Ideas, Imagination, Industrial Psychology, Intuition, Judgment, Memory and Learning, Metaphysics, Movement, Paranormal Phenomena, Perceptual Process, Philosophy, Psychological Drives, Psychological Systems, Psychology related to Forensics and law, Psychology related to Health and Sports, Reasoning, Schools, Sensory Perception, Sleep, Social Psychology, Subconscious and Altered States and Processes, Theory of Psychology, Thinking, Thought, Value, Viewpoints, Will)
    3.2 Logic
    (Includes Analogy, Argument and Persuasion, Deduction, Fallacies, Induction, Sources of Error, Syllogisms Hypotheses, Use of Logic in Philosophy and Other areas, etc.)
4 Arts, Architecture, Music and Sports
    4.1 Arts
    (Includes Antiques, Art Theory, Decorative and Applied Arts, Drawing, Native and Tribal Art, Philosophy and History of Art, Plastic Arts, Sculpture)
    4.2 Graphic Arts
    (Includes Art Therapy, Body Art, Calligraphy, Casing, Ceramic Arts, Digital Art, Glass Art, Metalwork's, Painting and paintings, Photography and Photographs, Plastic Art, Printmaking and prints, Sculptures, Typography)
    4.3 Music
    (Includes Chamber Music, General Principles and Musical forms, Instrumental Ensembles, Instruments, Music for Single Voices, Music Instrument Technology, Rock Music, Vocal Music)
    4.4 Performing Arts
    (Includes Documentaries, Film Making, Films, Public Performances, Stage presentations and Theatre)
    4.5 Recreational Arts/Sports and Games
    (Includes Animal Racing, Aquatic and Air Sports, Athletics, Equestrian Sports, Fishing, Gambling, Games of Chance, Hunting and Shooting, Indoor Games and Amusements, Indoor Games of Skill, Outdoor Sports and Games)
    4.6 Civic and Landscape Art
    (Includes Area Planning, Civic Planning, Environmental Architecture, Landscape Architecture, Landscape Architecture of Traffic ways, Landscape Design, Roadside Vegetation, Town Planning, Traffic Planning and Design, Urban Planning Development)
    4.7 Architecture
    (Includes Ancient Architecture, Architectural Drawing, Architecture Structure, Building Technology, Climate and Architecture, Construction and Materials, Environmental Design, Foundation Design, History and Theory, Human comfort and Architecture, Philosophy, Renovation, Restoration, Ruins, Structural Design and Related Technology)
5 Literature and Languages
    5.1 Literature
    (Includes American Literature in English, Autobiographies, Biography, English Literature, French Literature, Germanic (Teutonic) Literature, Greek Literature, Italian Literature, Latin Literature, Literatures of Italic Languages, Literatures of Other Languages, Literatures of Romance Languages, Old English Literature, Spanish and Portuguese Languages, Spanish Literature, Spanish literature, Works of Renowned Authors, World Literature)
    5.2 Languages
    (Includes Bilingualism, Discourse Analysis, Language in Multimedia Systems, Lexicography, Linguistics, Machine Translation, Mathematical and Psychological principles and creation of Languages, Multilingual Processing, Philosophy and Theory, Phonetics, Phonology, Psycholinguistics, Scientific, Semantics, Semiotics, World Languages, etc.)
6 Geography and History
    6.1 Geography
    (Includes Census/Population, Cities and Transport, Climate and Weather, Country Facts, Cultural Geography, Geo Education, Geography, GIS and GPS, Historic Maps, Latitude/Longitude, Maps. Cartography, Physical Geography, Rivers and Streams, Time and Time Zones, and Other geographical related activities and Sciences)
    6.2 Archaeology
    (Includes Archaeoastronomy, Archaeological evidence of different cultures and culture contact, Artifact Analyses, Underwater Archaeology)
    6.3 History
    (Includes Ancient History, Art History, History of Sciences, Modern History and other History related Topics, Philosophy of History, Theory of History, World History)
7 Management and Related Areas
    7.1 Management
    (Includes Business Information Systems, Change Management, Corporate Planning, Distribution Management, E-Business, eCRM, Education Management, Electronic Business, E-Management, E-Marketing, Enterpreneurship, ERP, Foreign Trade Management, Health Management, Hospital Management, Human Resource Management, Industrial Marketing, Integrated exploration and exploitation, Marketing Management, Mobile Business, Operations Research, PetriNets, Project Management, Sales Management, Sports Management, Strategic Management and Policy, Supply chain Management, Tourism Management, Transport Management, Uncertainty Management in Multi-Agent Systems)
    7.2 Finance
    (Includes Banking, Credit and Loans, Electronic Banking, Financial Institutions, Financial Modeling and Financial Engineering, Investments, Money, Portfolio Management, Risk Management, Securities and other forms of Credit)
    7.3 Accounting and Auditing
    (Includes Auditing and all other Issues related to Accounting and Auditing, Cost and Management Accounting, Cost Control, Cost Management, Financial Accounting, Tax)
    7.4 Knowledge Management
    (Includes Adaptation and Evolution of Knowledge Networks, Distributed Knowledge Systems, Knowledge Aggregation, Knowledge Discovery, Knowledge Sharing, Reasoning and Planning)
    7.5 Behavioral Sciences
    (Includes Behavioral Self-organization, Classification and Characterization of Complex Behaviors, Co evolution, Collective Group Behavior, Coordinating Perception Thought and Action, Coordination and Action, Coordination and Cooperation, Distributed Intelligence, Dynamics of Group and Populations, Efficiency in Distributed Systems, Emotion, Formal/Computational Modeling, Intention, Market Based Computing, Population Evolution, Rationality, Social Behavior, Social Integration, Swarms, Taxonomy of Agent Environments, Theories of Perception)
    7.6 Economics
    (Includes Agricultural Economics, Banks, Commercial papers, Credit and loan institutions, Managerial Economics, Money, Other Media of exchange including Barter, Theory of Economics, etc.)
    7.7 Commerce
    (Includes Commercial Policies, Domestic Commerce and Trade, Foreign Trade Management, Insurance, International Finance, International Marketing, Inter-regional and Inter-state Trade, Retail Trade, Wholesale Trade)
    7.8 Disaster Recovery and Business Continuity Planning
    (Includes Disaster Management (both natural and man-made disasters) and Related Topics)
    7.9 Trade Unions
    (Includes Bargaining, Economics in Labor, Labor, Labor Laws, Labor Movement, Organizing Activities, Strikes, Trade Union, Worker, ect.)
8 Social Sciences
    8.1 Sociology
    (Includes Communities, Coordination and Control, Costume and Personal Appearance, Culture and institutions, Customs, Customs of life Cycle and Domestic Life, Demography, Etiquette, Factors affecting social behavior, Folklore, Genetic Factors, Human Ecology, Media, Planning and Development, Population and movement of people, Role Theory, Semiotics, Social Change and Conflict, Social groups, Social Interaction, Social processes, Social Psychology, Specific kinds of Communities, Structure, etc.)
    8.2 Anthropology
    (Includes Cultural Anthropology, Genealogy, Human Evolution, Linguistics, Physical Anthropology, World Cultures, etc.)
    8.3 Political Science and International Relations
    (Includes Aspects of Terrorism, Civil Conflict, Demilitarization, Demobilization, Diplomacy, Diplomacy of Economies, Diplomacy of War, Federalism, International and Comparative Politics, International Political Economy, International Relations, Management and Governance, Peace building Challenges, Political Economy, Political Processes, Political Theory, Political Violence, Politics, Politics of Ethnic Cleansing, Public Administration, Public Policy, Regulation Theory, Terrorism, etc.)
    8.4 Women's Studies
    (Includes Gender and Education, Mothers Without Their Children, Reproductive Rights, Sex Discrimination, Sexual Harassment, Technologies of Gender, Violence and Women, Women and Aging, Women and Power, Women and Society, Women in Art, Women in Print , Women in Sport, Women in the Workforce, Women's Health and all other issues relating to Women)
    8.5 Law and Judiciary
    (Includes Civil Rights, Commercial Law, Computer and Internet law, Constitutional and Administrative Law, Consumer Law, Copyright and Patent Law, Criminal Law, Dispute Resolution and Legal Ethics, Environmental Law, Family Law, Health and Medical Law, History and Philosophy of Law, Human Rights Law, International law, International Trade Law, Jurisprudence, Labor Rights and Labor Law, Media Law, Migration Law, Taxation)
    8.6 Public Administration
    (Includes Association, Criminology, e-Governance, General Clubs, General Social Problems, Government and Governance, Insurance, Miscellaneous kind of Associations, Penal and Related Institutions, Social Welfare Problems and Services)
    8.7 Social Services
    (Includes Charitable Organizations, Charity, etc.)
    8.8 Education and Instructional Technology
    (Includes Educational Administration and Educational Leadership, e-Learning, Instructional Course Design and Matters Relating to Education, Methods of Education, Philosophy of Education, Theories of Education)
    8.9 Ethnic and Multicultural Studies
    (Includes African and Asian Studies, American Black Civil Rights Movement, Anti-Racism, Changes in Society due to Migration and Immigration, Conflict Studies, Ethnic Relations, Ethnicity, Hate, Holocaust Denial, Human Rights and Liberties, Immigration, Migrant communities and their business and Social Practices, Migration Studies, Native American Studies, Race and Racism, Social and Economic matters of Migration and Immigration, Studies of Multi-racial and Multilingual Communities, Workplace Discrimination)
    8.10 Communication
    (Includes Postal Communication, Telecommunications)
    8.11 Transportation
    (Includes Air, Ferry Transportation, Inland waterways, Intelligent Transportation Systems, Railroad Transportation, Water)
    8.12 National Security and Terrorism
    (Includes Bio-Terrorism, Counter Insurgency Operations, Counter Terrorism, Homeland Security, Terrorism, Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD) and other related Anti-Social Activities)
    8.13 Children and Youth
    (Includes Child Care, Child Development, Child Education, Children and Youth related issues, Children Rights, Exceptional Children, Infants/Toddlers, etc.)
9 Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering
    9.1 Bioinformatics
    (Includes Annotation Databases, BioDatabase Mining, Bioinformatics and Biological Computing, Computational biology, Data specification for storing and describing biomolecular interactions, Database mining, DNA microarray Visualization, Genetic analysis, Human Brain Mapping, Interfacing genetic Data, Interpreting Biological sequences, Molecular Bioinformatics of Gene Regulation, molecular complexes and pathways, Programming, Protein sequence Databases, Proteomics, Viral Genome Databases and Others)
    9.2 Biomedical Engineering
    (Includes Animal Research, Bioethics, Biofabrication, Biomedical Entrepreneurship, Biomedicine, Biorobotics, Biosensing Technologies, Cardiovascular Systems, Cell and Molecular Bioengineering, Cellular and Molecular Systematics, Computational Biology, Computational Neurobiology, Development of Bioengineering and Medical Technologies, Endoscopy, Image Processing, Laser Treatment and Others, Mass Spectrometry, Medical Equipment, Neurological Systems, Neuron Therapeutics, Orthopedic, Orthopedic Biomechanics, Prosthetics and Biomechanics, Rehabilitation Engineering, Signal Processing, Tissue Engineering, Ultrasound)
    9.3 Biological Remediation
    (Includes Anaerobic process, Biofiltration, Biogeochemistry, Composting, Environmental Microbiology, Fixed Film Reactors, Hydrogeologic Factors, Microbial Ecology, Microbiological Degradation, Phytoextraction, Phytoremediation, Reactor Engineering, Remediation Technology)
    9.4 Gene Therapy
    (Includes All aspects of Human Gene Therapy, DNA, Gene Based Drug discovery, Gene Based Immunotherapy, Gene Based Therapeutics (gene medicines), Gene Transfer Technology, etc.)
    9.5 Genetics
    (Includes Analysis of Gene Linkage, Animal Genetics, Biocomplexity, Cellular Genetics, Chemical Genomics, Chemogenomics, chromosomal Anomalies, Clinical Genetics, Combinatorial Biology, Cytogenetics and Cell Culture, Gene Expression, Gene Manipulation, Gene Mapping, Gene Sequencing, Gene Technology, Genetic Algorithms, Genetic Architecture, Genetic Disorders, Genetic Mechanism of Disease, Genetic Variations, Genome Mapping, Immunogenetics, Molecular Evolution, Molecular Genetics, Nature Genetics, Oncogene, Population Genetics, Prokaryotes, Protein Engineering, Recombination, Transgenics and Cloning and Others)
    9.6 Stem Cells
    (Includes Angiogenesis, Applications of Stem Cells, Brain Stem Cell Transplantation, Cell Based Therapies, Cell Culture, Cell Separation, Cellular Mechanisms, Chemokines Antibodies, Cytokines, Embryonic Stem Cells, Hematopoietic and Mesenchymal Cells, Tissue Culture Reagents and Supplies, etc.)
    9.7 Genomics
    (Includes Comparative Genomics, Computational and Experimental Genomics, Functional Genomics, High-Throughput Sequencing, Human Gene Nomenclature, Mouse Gene Nomenclature, Nanogenomics, Oncogenomics, Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM), Pharmacogenomics, Physiological Genomics, Population Genomics, Sequence Structure Function Paradigm, Shotgun Sequencing Technology Development, etc.)
    9.8 Bio-Technology
    (Includes 3D-Macromolecular Structure and Dynamics, Agricultural biotechnology, Analytical Biochemistry, Animal Biotechnology, Bioactive Materials, Biochemistry Techniques & Data Analysis, Biofilms and Biocorrosion, Biological control, Biological molecules, Biomaterials, Biopesticides, Biopharmaceutics, Bioreactors and Bioprocessing, Biosensor Technology and In Vitro, Biosynthesis, Cellular Biochemistry, Cloning, DNA fingerprinting, DNA sequencing, Environmental Biotechnology, Food and Industrial Microbiology, Gene Splicing, Human Genome Project, In Vivo Biotechnical Activities, Marine Biotechnology, Mass Spectrometry, Microarrays, Molecular Aspects of Cell Biology, Monoclonal Antibodies, Plant Biochemistry & Biotechnology, Protein Biochemistry, Protein Chemistry and Engineering, Vaccines, Xenobiotics, Xenotransplantation)
10 Natural Sciences
    10.1 Physics
    (Includes Automic and Molecular Physics, Bio-Physics, Electricity and Electronics, Electrodynamics (Electric currents) and thermoelectricity, Electrostatics, Energy, Fluid Mechanics, Heat, Light, Magnetism, Nuclear Physics, Nuclear Physics and Solar Energy, Plasma Physics, Pneumatics, Quantum Electrodynamics, Quantum Electronics, Radiation, Relativity Theory, Semi conductivity, Solid Mechanics, Superconductivity, Thermodynamics)
    10.2 Chemistry and Allied Sciences
    (Includes Amino acids, Analytical Chemistry, Biochemistry, Chemoreception, Chromatography, Clinical and Medical Chemistry, Crystallography, Environmental Chemistry, Inorganic Chemistry, Nuclear Chemistry, Nucleic acids, Organic Chemistry, Photochemistry, Physical Chemistry, Theoretical Chemistry, Tribo Chemistry)
    10.3 Life Sciences and Biology
    (Includes Bioaccumulation, Biochemistry, Biomechanics, Biophysics, Biospeleology, Cell biology, Cellular and Molecular Biology, Cryobiology, Enzymes, Phonology, Physiology, Proteins Science, Reproduction, Tissue Biology)
    10.4 Evolution and Paleontology
    (Includes Adaptations, Extinction of species, Human Evolution, Mass Extinctions, Molecular Evolution, Natural history of Animals, Natural history of Plants, Origin of Life, Origin of Species, Paleobotany, Paleozoology, Primatology, Speciation, Theory and Experiments)
    10.5 Ecology
    (Includes Aquatic Ecology, Behavioral Ecology, Biodiversity, Biogeography, Contaminated Ecosystems and Phytoremediation, Contemporary Issues in Evolutionary Biology and Animal Behavior, Ecological Taxonomy, Ecosystems, Ecotourism, Ecotoxicology, Environmental Chemistry, Evolutionary Ecology, Field experimentation and Statistical Design, Marine Ecology, Population Biology, Psychobiology and Sociobiology, Restoration Ecology, Soil and Plant Analysis, Spatial Analysis, Synecology, Tropical Aquatic Biology, Wildlife Ecology)
    10.6 Microbiology
    (Includes Bacteriology, Biofilms, Cell Culture, Microbiology of Algae and other Non Taxonomic kinds of Microorganisms, Virology)
    10.7 Botany
    (Includes Algology, Angiosperms, Bryophytes, Conifers, Cycads, Environmental Plant Physiology, Gymnosperms, Lichens, Monocotyledons, Mycology, Plant Cell biology, Plant Development biology, Plant Genetics, Plant Metabolism, Pteridophytes, Shrubs and Vines)
    10.8 Agricultural and Food Sciences
    (Includes Agricultural Economics, Animal Husbandry, Apiculture, Aquaculture, Farming Practices and Systems, Food Processing, Horticulture, Nematology, Pest Management, Seed Science, Sericulture, Soil Science, Water Conservation)
    10.9 Veterinary Science
    (Includes Animal Internal Medicine, Animal Physiology, Animal Surgery, Theriogenology, Veterinary Clinical Sciences, Veterinary Medicine, Veterinary Pathobiology)
    10.10 Forest Science
    (Includes Agro Forestry, Biochemistry of Trees, Birds, Conservation Biology, Dendrology, Forest Ecology, Forest Economics, Forest Genetics, Forest Harvesting Technology, Forest Resource Management, Forest Soils, Silvics and Silviculture, Tree Physiology, Wildlife Conservation, Wood Science)
    10.11 Zoology
    (Includes Acoelomates, Animal Behavior, Animal Genetics, Animal Health, Annelida, Anthrozoology, Aquatic Conservation, Biofouling, Birds, Conchology, Cryptozoology, Echinodermata, Entomology, Exobiology, Fisheries and Fisheries Management, Mammalogy, Nematology, Ornithology, Parasitology, Porifera, Wildlife Management, Zooarchaeology, Zoology of Marine Animals and other Seashore Invertebrates, Zoos and Aquariums)
    10.12 Geosciences and Earth Sciences
    (Includes Beaches, Carbonaceous materials, Climatology and weather, Formation and structure of deposits, Gemology, Geochemistry, Geodynamics, Geology, Geomorphology and hydrosphere, Geophysics, GIS, GPS, Hydrogeochemistry, Hydrogeology, Hydrology, Marine Geochemistry eg.. (Sediment Dynamics), Metals and semimetals, Meteorology, Mineralogy, Oceanography, Offshore and Polar Engineering, Ozone, Remote Sensing Technology, rocks and microscopic petrology, Sedimentology, Seismology, Stratigraphy, Volcanology, Water)
11 Mathematical Sciences and Astronomy
    11.1 Mathematics
    (Includes Algebra, Approximations, Arithmetic, Calculus, Combinatorial Analysis, Combinatorics, Expansions, Geometry, Mathematical Logic, Mathematical Systems, Theory and Construction of Graphs, Topology, etc.)
    11.2 Astronomy and Allied Sciences
    (Includes Archaeoastronomy, Asteroids, Black Holes, Celestial Bodies, Celestial mechanics, Chromospheres, Corona, Cosmogony, Electromagnetic, End of Universe Theories, Expanding Universe Theories, Galaxies, Intergalactic Matter, Interstellar Matter, Meteor Shower, Meteors, Neutron Stars, Photosphere, Planetoids, Quasars, Radioactive, Satellites and Rings, Solar Interior and Eclipses, Solar system, Solar Wind, Stars, Supernovas, The Universe, Thermal Phenomena, Zodiacal Light)
    11.3 Astronomical Geography
    (Includes Ariel Surveying, Celestial Navigation, Chronology, Ephemeredes, Geodesy and Geomatics, Geodetic Astronomy, Geodetic Surveying, Geographical Positions, GIS, GPS, Gravity Determinations, Map Projections, Photogrammetry, Space Surveying, Surveying)
    11.4 Applied Mathematics
    (Includes Large Scale Scientific Computing, Simulation)
    11.5 Statistics
    (Includes Actuarial Science, Bayesian Analysis, BLUEs and BLUPs, Business Statistics, Computer Based Regression and Classification, Fixed and Random Effects, Inference space, Inferential Statistics, Item Response Theory and Its Applications, Kappa Coefficient, Latent Class and Latent Trait Models, Meta-Analysis, Power Analysis for ANOVA Designs, Principles of Mixed Model Analysis, Raw Agreement Indices, REML Estimation of Variances, Statistical Consulting, Statistical Data Analysis, Statistical Methods for Rater Agreement, Tetra choric and Polychoric Correlations, Weighted Kappa, etc.)
12 Human Biology, Medicine and Health Sciences
    12.1 Nursing and Nursing Management
    (Includes Clinical decision making and patient education, Clinical psychology and developmental psychology, Community Nursing, Critical Care Nursing, Ethics in Nursing, Family Care, Health promotion, History of Nursing, ICUs and Nursing, Menopause, Midwifery, Nurse Anesthesia, Patient/provider decision making and nursing education, Perinatal Neonatal Nursing)
    12.2 Human Anatomy and Human Physiology
    (Includes Aging, Blood and Circulation, Brain, Cardiovascular Organs, Cellular Neurophysiology, Development and Maturation, Digestion, Digestive Tract Organs, Disability, Excretion and Related Functions, Gerontology, Integument, Liver, Lymphatic and Glandular Organs, Musculoskeletal System, Nervous System, Other Regional Physiology and Other Regional and topographical anatomy, Reproduction, Respiration, Respiratory Organs, Secretion, Sense Organs, Sensory Functions, Spinal Cord, Thrombosis, Urogenital Organs)
    12.3 Neuroscience
    (Includes Alzheimer's Disease, Computational Neuroscience, Dementia, Depression, Developmental Neuroscience, Diseases of Nervous System and Mental Disorders, Epilepsy, Genetics of chemosensory perception, Huntington's Disease, Molecular neurobiology, Neurobiology, Neurons, Neurosurgery, Parkinson's Disease, Psychiatry and Clinical Psychology, Sleep, Synaptic Transmission, Understanding Diseases of the Nervous and Muscular Systems)
    12.4 Health, Nutrition, Fitness and Sport Medicine
    (Includes Alcohol, Behavioral Medicine, Beverages, Birth Control, Clinical Nutrition, Dietetics, Disability, Family Medicine, Family Planning, Geriatric Medicine, Industrial and occupational health, Narcotics and drug abuse, Obesity Control and Techniques, Physical Medicine/Rehabilitation Medicine, Physiotherapy, preventive techniques, Repetitive Strain Injuries, Strain, Stress, Substance, Tobacco, Yoga)
    12.5 Forensic Medicine, Medical Jurisprudence
    (Includes Forensic Psychology, Forensic Science and Forensic Toxicology)
    12.6 Public Health and Public Preventive Medicine
    (Includes Allergy, Anti-Infective, Blood Banking and Transfusion Medicine, Blood Products, Chronic Diseases, Chronic Fatigue Syndrome, Clinical Bacteriology, Clinical Microbiology, Clinical Parasitology, Clinical Pathology, Clinical virology, Communicable Diseases, Community Health, Congenital Diseases, Cytopathology, Dermatopathology, Diseases and Prevention, Drug Reactions, Drug Therapies, Drugs, E-Health, Epidemiology, Forensic Pathology, Gastroenterology, Genetic/Hereditary diseases and prevention, Histopathology, Incidence of Disease, Managed Care Pharmacy, Mental Health and Disabilities, Molecular Genetic Pathology, Neuropathology, Organic And Inorganic, Over The Counter, Pathogenicity, Pathological Biochemistry, Pathophysiology, Pediatric Pathology, Pharmaceutical Science, Pharmacodynamics, Pharmacology, Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Pharmacy, Posology, Psychosomatic Medicine, Rare/Orphan Diseases, Serums, Speech and Communication Disorders, Telemedicine, Therapeutics, Toxicology, Tuberculosis (TB), Vaccines, Veterinary Drugs)
    12.7 Epidemiology
    (Includes Bacillary Diseases, Bacterial and Viral Diseases, Bacterial Blood Diseases, Behavioral Epidemiology, Cancer Epidemiology, Cardiovascular Epidemiology, Cholera, Dysenteries, Environmental Epidemiology, Eruptive Diseases, Hepatitis, HIV/AIDS, Hospital Epidemiology, Immunology, Lipids, Liver, Malaria, Melanoma, Molecular Epidemiology, Nutritional Epidemiology, Parasitic Diseases, Protozoan Diseases, Quantitative Epidemiology, Rare Diseases, Reproductive Epidemiology, Sexually Transmitted Diseases, Zoonoses)
    12.8 Oncology
    (Includes AIDS-Related Cancers, Bone and Cartilage diseases and Other kinds of Cancers, Breast Cancer, Cancer Genetics, Endocrine Cancers, Eye Cancers, Gastrointestinal Cancers, Gynecologic Cancers, Gynecologic Oncology, Head and Neck Cancers, Kinases, Leukemia/Lymphoma, Liver Cancer, Lung Cancer, Male Reproductive Cancers, Neuralgic Cancers, Osteology, Sarcoma, Skin Cancer, Thoracic Cancers, Urinary Tract Cancers)
    12.9 Nuclear Medicine
    (Includes Chiropractic Radiology, Neuroradiology, Nuclear Radiology, Pediatric Radiology, Radiation Oncology, Radiology, Radiotherapy, Roentgenology, Vascular and Interventional Radiology)
    12.10 Surgery and Related Disciplines
    (Includes Anesthesiology, Blood and Marrow Transplantation, Cardio thoracic Surgery, Colon/Rectal Surgery, Cosmetic and Plastic Surgery, Cryosurgery, Dentistry, Endodontics, Glands and lymphatic system, Headaches/Migraine, Heart surgery, Ilizarov Technique, Laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK), Neurological surgery, Neurosurgery, Neurosurgery, Nose, Ophthalmology, Organ Transplant, Orthodontics, Orthopedic Surgery, Orthopedics, Otology and Audiology, Pain, Pain Management, Pedodontics, Photo Refractive Keratectomy (PRK), Prosthodontics, Skull Based Surgery, Surgery of cardiovascular system, Surgery of digestive system, Surgery of Ear, Surgery of Musculoskeletal system and integument, Surgery of Urogenital system, Thoracic Surgery, Throat, Transplant Surgery, Urological Surgery)
    12.11 Pediatrics
    (Includes Developmental-Behavioral Pediatrics, Neurodevelopmental disabilities, Pediatric Cardiology, Pediatric critical Care Medicine, Pediatric Dermatology, Pediatric Endocrinology, Pediatric Gastroenterology, Pediatric Hematology, Pediatric Hematology-Oncology, Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Pediatric Nephrology, Pediatric Oncology, Pediatric Pulmonology, Pediatric Rehabilitation Medicine, Pediatric Rheumatology, Pediatric Surgery)
    12.12 Gynecology, Obstetrics and Andrology
    (Includes Andrology, Cesarean surgery, Childbirth, Complicated Labor, Diseases and Complications of Pregnancy, Dystocia, Embryology, Fertility Medicine, Gynecologic Endoscopy, Gynecology, Labor, Maternal And Fetal Medicine, Neonatal-Prenatal Medicine, Normal Puerperium, Obstetrical Surgery, Obstetrics, Parturition, Puerperal Diseases and prevention, Reproductive Endocrinology, Sterility)
    12.13 Emergency Medicine
    (Includes Accident Medicine, Automotive Medicine, Disaster Medicine, Environmental Medicine, Injuries, Intensive and Critical Care Medicine, Medical Toxicology, Occupational Diseases, Occupational Medicine, Orthopedic Surgery, Pediatric Emergency Medicine, Plastic Surgery, Poisoning, Sports Medicine, Trauma, Trauma Medicine, Traumatology, Undersea and Hyperbaric Medicine)
    12.14 Aviation and Aerospace Medicine
    (Includes Aeromedical Transport, Astrobiology, Exobiology, Gravitational and Space Biology, etc.)
    12.15 Cardiology and Cardiovascular Surgery
    (Includes Cardiac Arrest, Cardiology, Clinical Cardiac Electophysiology, Diseases of Cardiovascular System, Hypertension, Invasive Cardiology)
    12.16 Orthopedics
    (Includes Arthroscopy, Bone Densitometry, Bone Structure, Bone Synthesis, Cervical Lateral Mass Plate Fixation, Orthopedic Anatomy, Osteoporosis, Reconstructive Surgery, Orthopaedics, etc.)
    12.17 Ophthalmology
    (Includes Amblyopia Therapy, Autoimmune Retinopathy, Congenital Microphthalmia, Conjunctival Melanoma, Dry Eye Syndrome, Glaucoma Medical Therapy, Iris and Ciliary Body, Ocular Therapy, Orbital Roof Fractures, Reconstructive Surgery, Tumors, Vision Correction)
    12.18 Nephrology/Urology
    (Includes Diseases of Urogenital System and Urinary System, Nephrology, Urology)
    12.19 Hematology
    (Includes Diseases of Blood-Forming, Glandular Systems, Lymphatic)
    12.20 Rheumatology
    (Includes Arthritis, Diseases of Musculoskeletal System)
    12.21 Dermatology
    (Includes Diseases of Hairs, Integument, Investigative Dermatology, Nails, Neonatal and Infantile Erythrodermas, Pediatric Dermatology)
    12.22 Ear Nose and Throat (ENT)
    (Includes Ear-Nose-and-Throat Diseases and Infections, Otolaryngology, Otorhinolaryngology)
    12.23 Endocrinology
    (Includes Adrenal and Pancreatic Problems, Diabetes, Diabetes Insipidus and fluids and electrolytes, Diabetic Ketoacidosis, Diseases of Endocrine System, Endocrine Disorders, Endocrine-Related Cancer, Hormones, Molecular Endocrinology, parathyroid, Pediatric Endocrinology, Reproductive Endocrinology, Thyroid, Thyroid Disease Endocrinology)
    12.24 Pulmonary Medicine
    (Includes Asthma Related, Respiratory Care, Respiratory Disorders, Respiratory Therapy)
    12.25 Rehabilitation Medicine
    (Includes Acute Care, Home Care, Medical Rehabilitation, Occupational Therapy, Pain Management, Patient Therapy)
    12.26 Alternative and Other Medicine
    (Includes Accupathy, Acupuncture, Ayurvedic Medicine, Botanical Medicine, Chiropractic, Herbal Medicine, Holistic Medicine, Homeopathy Medicine, Iridology, Naturopathy, Oriental Medicine, Osteopathic Medicine, Osteopathy, Reiki, Yoga)
    12.27 Health Care Management
    (Includes Clinical Laboratory, Health Economics, Healthcare Safety, Quality and Medication Safety)
    12.28 Gastroenterology
    (Includes Diseases Affecting the Gastrointestinal Tract including the Bile Duct, Gallbladder, Intestines and Stomach)
13 Engineering and Technology
    13.1 Electrical Engineering
    (Includes Antiques, Arc Lighting, Color Perception, Color Physics, Control Systems and Engineering, Day Lighting, Dielectrics and Electrical Insulation, Electric Lighting, Electric Power Supply, Electrical Machines, Electrical Power Stations, Gas Lighting, Generation of Power, Incandescent Lighting, Magnetic engineering, Modification of Power, Non-Electric Lighting, Power Engineering, Software, Storage, Superconductivity, Transmission of Electric Power, Vapor Lighting)
    13.2 Instrumentation Engineering
    (Includes Aquatic Instrumentation, Components, Electromagnetic Compatibility, Packaging and Manufacturing Technology, Process Instrumentation)
    13.3 Electronics Engineering
    (Includes Aerospace Systems, Analog to Digital Converters, Broadcast Technology, Cavity Resonators, Circuits, Components, Components, Consumer Electronics, Converters, Crystal Devices, Devices, Digital to Analog Converters, Diodes, Electron Devices , Electronic Systems, Electronic Tubes, Ferroelectrics, Fiber Optics, Frequency Control, Gas Tubes, Industrial Electronics, Klystrons, Liquid Crystal Displays, Magnetrons, Masers, Measuring Components, Microlithography, Microwave Electronics, Miniaturization, Nanotechnology (Electronics), Optical Computing, Optoelectronic Devices, Optoelectronics, Photoelectric Devices, Photoelectronic Devices, Power Electronics, Printed circuits, Semiconductors, Solid-State Circuits, Testing Components, Thin-Film Technology, Traveling-wave Tubes, Vacuum Tubes, Video display Devices, Wave Guides)
    13.4 Communications Technology
    (Includes Broadband Communications, Communication Theory and Experiments, Detection Theory, E-Communications, Embedded Systems, Equalization, Estimation Methods, Estimation Theory, Information Theory and Coding, Laser Communication Systems, Mobile Communication, Modulation (DMT,OFDM), Multimedia Communication, Multiple Access Techniques, Multiplexing Technologies, Photonics Technologies, Satellite Communication, Space Communication, Spread Spectrum Techniques, Stochastic Signals, Stochastic Systems, Synchronization, Transmission Technologies, TV and Radio, Wireless Communication, Wireless Security)
    13.5 Signal Processing
    (Includes Antennas and Propagation, Audio Processing, CAD for VLSI Digital Signal Processors, Efficient DSP Implementation Techniques, Filter Design, Filter Structures, Image Coding, Microwave Circuits, Microwave Systems, Multimedia Signal Processing, Novel DSP Applications, Processing, Radar Meteorology, Radio Meteorology, Radio Transmission Technologies, Remote sensing, Speech, Video Coding, Wavelets)
    13.6 Communication Network
    (Includes BISDN, Communication Security, Communication Standards, Data Protection and Security, Internet and Communication, Internet Security, ISDN, Mobile Networks, Multimedia Network, Network Operations and Management, Network Protocol, Network Signaling, Optical Network Architectures, Photonic Networks, Routers, Sound Processing, Speech Processing, Streaming Media, Switching, Wireless Automated Teller Machines (ATM) Networks and Technology, Wireless Personal Area Network)
    13.7 Computer Engineering
    (Includes Central Processing Units, Computer Reliability, Electronic Digital Computers, General Computer Performance Evaluation, Quantum Computing, etc.)
    13.8 Software and Systems Engineering
    (Includes Algorithm Development, CASE Tools, Information Quality, Information Systems Audit and Control, Requirements Management, Semantics, Software Architecture, Software Product Planning, Software Productivity Research, Software Project Management, etc.)
    13.9 Optical Engineering
    (Includes Electro-Optics Technology, Infrared technology, Lasers Technology, Measurement of Electrical Quantities, Photo-Optics, Spectroscopy, Technological Photography, Testing of Electrical Quantities, Ultraviolet Technology)
    13.10 Mechanical Engineering
    (Includes Air-Conditioning (HVAC), Bowers, CAD/CAM Mechanical, Desalination, Destructive Evaluation, Destructive Testing, Energy Engineering, Fans, Heat Engineering, Heating, Hydraulic Engineering, Machine Engineering, Machine Tools, Mechanical Engineering Design, Mechanics Engineering, Mechatronics, Micro-electromechanical Systems, Micromechanics, Nanotechnology (Mechanical), Non-Destructive Evaluation, Non-Destructive Testing, Pneumatics, Pumps, Railway, Thermal Engineering, Turbines, Vacuum, Ventillation, Wind Energy, Wind Engineering)
    13.11 Tribology
    (Includes Bio Tribology, Condition Monitoring Tribology, Macro Scale Tribology, Maintenance Tribology, Micro Scale Tribology, Models, NanoTribology, Outerspace Tribology, Principles, Theory, Tribochemistry, Tribology History, Tribotesting)
    13.12 Manufacturing Engineering
    (Includes Automatic Control Engineering, Automation, Computer Aided Manufacturing (CAM), Computer Numerical Control (CNC), Elastomers, Engineering Economics, Fine Particle Technology, Flexible Manufacturing Systems, Forging, Foundry Engineering, Machining, Metrology, Packaging Technology, Precision Instruments, Process Engineering, Production Engineering, Quality Engineering, Reliability Engineering, Remote Control Technology Tele-control Technology, Robotics, Sensors Technology, Six Sigma, Welding Engineering)
    13.13 Industrial Engineering
    (Includes Agile Manufacturing, Concurrent Engineering, Ergonomics, Human Factors Engineering, Material Handling, Materials Storage, Noise, Operations Research, Optimization, PetriNets, Plant Layout, Pollution Control, Quality and Six Sigma, Safety Engineering, Simulation, Sound, Value Analysis, Value Engineering, Work Study, Work System Design)
    13.14 Automobile Engineering
    (Includes Automobile CAD/CAM, Automobile Design, Automobile Electricals, Automobile Electronics, Automobile Engines, Automobile Fuel Technology, Automobile Production Technology, Automobile Structures, Automobile Vehicle Safety, CAN, Chassis, Control Systems, CVT, Mobile Radio, Transmission, VAN)
    13.15 Aerospace and Aeronautical Engineering
    (Includes Aerodynamics, Aerospace Design, Aerospace Materials, Aerospace Structures, Aerospace Systems, Aircraft Design, Astrodynamics, Astronautics, Aviation, Computational Mechanics, Electronic Systems, Flight Control, Flight Mechanics, Flight Simulation, Jet Propulsion, Missile Systems, Propulsion, Remote Sensing, Satellite Orbital Mechanics, Satellite Systems, Spacecraft Design, Turbomachinery)
    13.16 Nuclear Engineering and Related Technology
    (Includes Cold Fusion, Fission, Fusion, Nuclear Biomedical Applications, Nuclear Chemical Engineering, Nuclear Environmental Engineering, Nuclear Instrumentation, Nuclear Materials, Nuclear Physics, Nuclear Power Engineering, Nuclear Power Plants, Nuclear Power Plants Safety, Nuclear Propulsion, Nuclear Radiation, Nuclear Reactions, Nuclear Reactors, Nuclear Waste, Particle Accelerators, Plasma Chemistry, Plasma Engineering, Plasma Physics, Radioactive Isotopes, Radiological Engineering)
    13.17 Civil Engineering
    (Includes Airport Engineering, Architectural Engineering, Bridge Engineering, Buildings Technology, Cement, Civil Engineering Design, Civil Engineering Materials, Construction Engineering, Earthquake Engineering, Engineering Geology, Foundation Engineering, Geoenvironmental Engineering, Geotechnical Engineering, Highway Engineering, Intelligent Transportation Systems, Rail-Roads Reengineering, Railway Engineering, Rock Engineering, Rock Mechanics, Soil Mechanics, Structural Engineering, Sub-way Engineering, Survey Engineering, Transport Engineering, Transport Safety, Tropic Engineering, Tunnel Engineering)
    13.18 Marine Engineering
    (Includes Air Cushion Vehicle, Availability, Biofouling, Dredging, Geo-Navigation, Maintenance of Marine Systems, Marine CAD/CAM, Marine Communications, Marine Engine Components, Marine Engines, Marine Platforms, Marine Pollution, Marine Safety, Marine Structural Vibrations, Nautical Engineering, Naval architecture, Navigation, Navigational Safety, Offshore Engineering, Port Safety, Power plant of Nautical Craft, Reliability, Ship Design, Ships Building, Shipyards, Submarine Building, Submarine Design, Torpedo, Underwater Drilling, Warships)
    13.19 Mining Technology
    (Includes Excavation Techniques, Fossil Fuels, Mine Drainage, Mine Environment, Mine Health, Mine Safety, Mine Transport Systems, Mineral Prospecting, Ocean Mining, Ore Dressing, Petrography, Petroleum Engineering, Petrology, Underwater Drilling, Underwater Mining)
    13.20 Environmental Engineering
    (Includes Acid Rain, Air Pollution and Prevention, Coastal Engineering, Environment Protection, Environmental Chemistry, Environmental Health, Environmental Information Systems, Environmental Management Systems, Environmental Monitoring, Environmental Technology, Fire Fighting, Fire Safety, Industrial Sanitation Engineering, In-Situ Environmental Activities, Lakes and Oceans, Marine Environments, Natural Resource, Noise Pollution and Prevention, Oceanic Engineering, Pest Control, Polar Environments, Pollution Control Technology, Public Lighting, Sever, Sewage Treatment, Soil Pollution and Prevention, Sustainable Development, Waste disposal, Waste Management, Water Pollution and Prevention, Water Resources, Water Supply)
    13.21 Chemical Engineering
    (Includes Adhesives, Agricultural Chemicals, Beverage and Food Technology, Colors/dyes/pigments/inks/polishes/lackers/coating, Cosmetics, Explosives and Fuel Technology, Fertilizers, Glecerine, Industrial Chemical Technology, Industrial Oils, Perfumes, Plastics, Polymer Science Technology, Surfactants, Technology of Organic and Inorganic Chemistry)
    13.22 Materials Engineering
    (Includes Alloys, Artificial Minerals, Atomistic Simulation, Castings, Ceramic Technologies, Ceramics, Coated Systems, Coatings, Composite Material, Corrosion, Enamels, Failure Analysis, Fiber Reinforced Composites, Glass, Materials Modeling, Metallurgical Engineering, Metallurgical Thermodynamics, Metallurgy, Metals, Phase Transformations, Pottery, Super Alloys, Synthetic Minerals)
    13.23 Military Engineering
    (Includes Airfields and Pavements in Cold Regions, Applied Research, Atmospheric Investigations, Civil Engineering Research, Cold Regions Theater of Operations Engineering, Electronic Warfare, Energy Technology Applied to Military Facilities, Force Projection, Image Intelligence and Space Technology, Mobility and Weapons Effects Technology, Snow and Ice, Topography, Winter Military Engineering, Winter Terrain Effects on Army Simulation)
    13.24 Printing Technology
    (Includes Digital Imaging and Publishing Technology, Electronic Publishing and Printing Technology, Image Preparation, Imaging Arts and Sciences, Imaging Technology, Printing Process Technology, Publication Technology)
    13.25 Pulp and Paper Technology
    (Includes Mass Transfer, Modeling and Simulation of Pulping and Bleaching Processes, Paper Manufacture and Testing, Paper Technology, Pulp Manufacture and Testing, Pulp Technology, Reaction Kinetics, Wood Chemistry)
    13.26 Textile and Fiber Engineering
    (Includes Analytical Modeling, Automated Image Processing, Continuously Monitored Data, Cotton Fiber Selection, Enzyme treatment for Cellulosics, Fabric Finger Printing, Friction Studies, Geotextiles, Graphical Integrated Numerical Analysis, Image Analysis, Optical Brighteners, Perform Mapping, Textile Composites, Waste Re-utilization)
    13.27 Leather and Fur Technology
    (Includes Adhesives in Shoe Production, Chemistry and Physics of Polymers Used in Shoe Production, Clean Leather Technology Application and Control of New Auxiliary Materials in Leather Processing, Environmental Issues of Leather Technology, Enzyme Processing, Fundamentals of Leather Technology, Fundamentals of Shoe Industry, Fur Technology, Industrial Design Technology Projecting in Shoe Industry, Machines in Leather Processing, Material Science of Leather- and Shoe Industry, Modification of Collagen Aiming at Hide Waster Recovery, Polyurethane Wastes Recycling, Shoe Technology Machines in Shoe Production, Shoes Shaping Theory, Structure and Chemistry of Collagen, Waste Utilization from the Slaughterhouses, Waste Water Treatment in the Tanneries, Water PU Dispersions CAD-CAM Sisters in Shoe Production)
    13.28 Rheology
    (Includes Applied Rheology, Classical Fluid Mechanics, Deformation of Materials, Design of Polymer Processing Equipment, Elastic Recoil and Flow Birefringence, Macroscopic, Nonlinear Viscoelastic Properties, Properties of Materials, Rheological, Stress Distributions, Viscosity or Elastic Modulus)
    13.29 Acoustics and Acoustics Engineering
    (Includes Airborne Sound Insulation of Walls, Architectural Acoustics and Lighting, Audio Spectrum Analysis, Bioacoustics, Fundamentals of Modal Analysis, Fuzzy Technology Implemented in Sonar Systems, Mechanical Acoustics, Noise, Noise Control Engineering, Principles of Underwater Acoustics, Sonoluminescence, Sound, Theory of Sound, Ultrasonics, Vibration, Vibration Engineering, Vibrational Holography)
14 Computers and Information Technology
    14.1 Computer Science
    (Includes Algorithm Analysis, Algorithms, Automata and Complexity Theory, Cluster and Grid Computing, Communications Theory, Compiler and Interpreters, Computational Linguistics, Computer Algebra, Computers and Society, Data Structures, Distributed Computing, DNA-Based Computing, High Performance Computing, Knowledge Representation and Reasoning, Microprocessor Software, Mobile and Wireless Computing, Pervasive Computing, Quantum Computing, Real-Time Computing, Scientific Computing, Symbolic Computation, System Analysis and Design)
    14.2 Software Applications
    (Including Accounting, Data Processing, Document Management, Handwriting - Recognition)
    14.3 Computer Software
    (Includes Accounting and other business related Software, Antivirus and utilities, Browsers, Communications Software, Computer Games, Database, Embedded Systems, ERP, Security and Encryption Software, System Management and Enhancement Software)
    14.4 Computer Hardware
    (Includes CD, Chips, Computer Architecture, Computer peripherals, Data storage and Memory, DVD, Electronic Computer Aided Design, Embedded Systems and other semiconductor devices, firmware, Hardware Programming, Integrated Circuits (ICs), Microprocessors, Minidisk, Modems, Motherboards, Ports and Interfaces, VCD, etc.)
    14.5 Programming and Programming Languages
    (Includes Agent Technology, Application Programming Interfaces (APIs), Compiled Languages, Declarative, Drivers, Framework, Functional and Symbolic and logic-based Languages, GUI Programming, Imperative and Procedural Languages, Interpreted Languages, Machine and assembly Languages, Mark-up Languages, Memory Management, Object-oriented Languages, Object-oriented Programming, Open-source Languages, Operating Systems Programming, Reflective Languages, Reverse Engineering, Scripting Languages, Software Systems analysis and design, Stochastic Programming, Wirth Languages)
    14.6 Operating Systems
    (Includes AIX, Amoeba, Apple II, BeOS, BSD, DOS, Java-based Oss, Linux, Microsoft Windows, NetWare, Palm OS, Unix)
    14.7 Middleware
    (Includes Enterprise Java Beans, Microsoft Transaction Server, etc.)
    14.8 Databases
    (Includes Data Mining, Data Processing, Data structures, Data transmission and communications, Data warehouse, Database design and Architecture, Meta Data, Multimedia Databases, Text Mining, Web Mining)
    14.9 Multimedia and Computer Graphics
    (Includes 2D and 3D Graphics and Software, CAD/CAM in Multimedia, Computer Games, Digital Art, Graphics and related Technology, Vector Graphics, Videoconferencing, Virtual Reality)
    14.10 Digital Arts
    (Includes Digital Animation, Digital Imaging, Digital Publishing, Interactive Multimedia, Motion Graphics)
    14.11 Artificial Intelligence and Related Technologies
    (Includes Agent Technology, Artificial Intelligence and Creativity, Computational Intelligence, Computer Modeling and Simulation, Computer pattern recognition, Computer Sound Synthesis, Computer Vision, Distributed Decision Making, DSS, Electronic Computer Artificial Intelligence Design, Handwriting Recognition, Human-Computer Interaction (HCI), Hybrid Systems, Integrated Intelligence System, Knowledge-based Systems and Expert Systems, Machine Learning, Natural Language, Neural Networks and Technology, Robotics and Automation, Speech Recognition and Speech Synthesis, Virtual Reality)
    14.12 Internet and Online Services
    (Includes Audio on Demand, Computer Crime, Copyright, Deceptive Trade Practices, Electronic Banking, Electronic Business, Electronic Commerce, Internet Law, M-Commerce, Mobile Computing, Patent, Privacy Issues, Trade Secret Issues, Trademark, Video on Demand, Web Based Simulation)
    14.13 Networks and Communications
    (Includes ATM Based Broadband Satellite Communications, Digital Communication, High Speed and Broadband Networking, ISDN, LAN and WAN, Ports and Interfaces, Protocols and Standards, Telecommunications, VPN, Wireless Communication and Technologies)
    14.14 Computer Security
    (Includes Alarms and related Techniques, Biometrics, Breach Detection, CHAP, Computer Viruses and Anti-virus, Cryptography, Data Backup and Recovery, Digital Certificate, Digital Signature, Encryption, Firewall, Fraud and Prevention Techniques, Internet Security)
    14.15 Information Technology and Information Systems
    (Includes General topics in Information Technology (IT) and Information Systems (IS))