The classification codes and descriptions are broad subject headings that are specific to various databases. The codes appear in the Classification, CL=, field in an IDS record and, due to the interdisciplinary nature of much of the material covered, one record may have several classifications, e.g.:
- SW 0815 Precipitation; SW 5040 Data acquisition
Each code is prefaced by another two-character code SW that
indicates the Water Resources database.
To find a suitable code(s) to use when searching the Water
Resources database, use the 'Find' feature on your browser and look for relevant
words. When you have found a code or codes, you can search for these by entering
them in the 'Words in any field' query box, e.g.:
cl=(0840 or 2040)
The database has 10 main divisions each with separate sub-divisions
within. Scope notes of each chapter and sub-division are listed.
NATURE OF WATER
Fundamental research on the water substance.
0540 Properties of Water
Study of the physical
and chemical properties of pure water and its thermodynamic behavior in various
0560 Aqueous Solutions and Suspensions
Study of the effects of
various solutes on properties of water; surface interactions; colloidal suspensions.
Analysis and interpretation of the natural occurrence, character, transport,
and distribution of water. This category covers research of the dimensions of
the hydrologic cycle, in contrast to the application of research to water management
problems. The category represents an essential supporting effort to applied
problems in later categories.
Studies involving two
or more phases of the water cycle such as hydrologic models; rainfall-runoff
relations; surface and groundwater relationships; watershed studies.
Investigation of spatial
and temporal variations of precipitation; physiographic effects; time trends;
extremes; probable maximum precipitation; structure of storms.
0820 Snow, Ice, and Frost
Studies of the occurrence
and thermodynamics of water in the solid state in nature; spatial variations
of snow and frost; formation of ice and frost; breakup of river
and lake ice; glaciers; permafrost.
0830 Evaporation and Transpiration
Investigation of the process
of evaporation from lakes, soil, transpiration process in plants; methods of
estimating actual evapotranspiration or energy balance.
0835 Streamflow and Runoff
Mechanics of flow in streams;
mechanics of overland flow; flood routing; bank storage; space and time variations
(including high and low-flow frequency); droughts;
Mechanics of groundwater
movement; multiphase systems; sources of natural recharge; mechanics of flow
to wells and drains; subsidence; properties of aquifers.
0845 Water in Soils
and storage of water in the zone of aeration, including soil.
hydrobiological, and thermal regimes of lakes and reservoirs; water level fluctuations;
0860 Water and Plants
Role of plants in
the hydrologic cycle; water requirements of plants; interception.
0870 Erosion and Sedimentation
Erosion process; prediction
of sediment yield; sedimentation in lakes and reservoirs; stream erosion; sediment
transport. (erosion and sediment control classified
0880 Chemical Processes
Chemical interaction between
water and its natural environment; chemistry of precipitation.
Tidal effects on flow
and stage; effects of sediment deposition, sea water intrusion, or other special
problems of the estuarine environment.
WATER SUPPLY AUGMENTATION AND CONSERVATION
Quantitative increases in the availability of water through improved management
and conservation practices.
1010 Saline Water Conversion
Methods of desalting sea
water and brackish water.
1020 Water Yield Improvement
or improving its distribution through land management; determining hydrologic
response to artificially induced rainfall; water harvesting from
impervious area; phreatophyte control; reservoir evaporation suppression.
1030 Use of Water of Impaired Quality
Use of low-quality water
for specific agricultural, industrial, or municipal purposes; agricultural use
of water of high salinity.
1040 Conservation in Domestic and Municipal Use
Methods of reducing domestic
and municipal water use without impairment of service.
1050 Conservation in Industrial Use
Reduction in both consumption
and diversion requirements for industry.
1060 Conservation in Agricultural Use
More efficient irrigation
practices; chemical control of evaporation and transpiration; lower water-use
WATER QUANTITY MANAGEMENT AND CONTROL
Practices or processes for management of water exclusive of conservation, and
for determining the effects of man's nonwater activities on water quantity.
Emphasis for this category is on the evaluation of man's water quality control
2010 Control of Water on the Surface
Effects of land management
on runoff; land drainage; seepage control; effects of control programs and devices
on the stage and time distribution of streams, lakes
and estuaries; stream forecasts; control of noxious weeds and objectionable
plant growth in surface channels.
2040 Groundwater Management
Artificial recharge; conjunctive
operation; irrigation effects.
2060 Effects on Water of Man's Nonwater Activities
Effects of urbanization,
highways, logging or urban land use on water yields and flow rates.
2080 Watershed Protection
Methods for controlling
erosion which reduces sediment load and conserves soil.
WATER QUALITY MANAGEMENT AND PROTECTION
Methods for identifying, describing, and controlling pollution caused by increasing
quantities of municipal, industrial, agricultural, and other wastes containing
physical, chemical and biological pollutants entering ground and surface waters.
This category includes studies on the fate of pollutants in the environment
and the effects of pollution on various uses of water resources. Routine sampling
and data collection are excluded.
3010 Identification of Pollutants
Techniques for detection,
identification, and quantification of physical, chemical, and biological pollutants;
analytical techniques; analytical equipment.
3020 Sources and Fate of Pollutants
Determination of sources
of pollutants in water; determination of pathways by which pollutants move from
sources through surface, ground, and coastal waters;
studies on changes in their character or composition due to physical, biological
or chemical action; acidification.
3030 Effects of Pollution
Definition of the effects
of pollutants, singly and in combination on different water uses: municipal,
industrial, agricultural, recreational, and on the propagation of aquatic
life and wildlife; studies on the cause of eutrophication in fresh and marine
waters; toxicity studies on aquatic life; bioaccumulation.
3040 Wastewater Treatment Processes
Single or combined physical,
chemical, and biological treatment processes to remove or modify impurities
found in wastewaters; improvement of conventional treatment
methods for more complete purification of wastewaters, including treatment for
direct reuse; collection systems.
3050 Ultimate Disposal of Wastes
Treatment and disposal
of waste concentrates resulting from the treatment of contaminated waters. Such
wastes include material removed from municipal, industrial,
and agricultural wastes during treatment, the waste brines from desalting plants
or oil fields, radioactive waste concentrates, wash water from filters of
water treatment plants.
3060 Water Treatment and Distribution
Protection of water
supply sources to minimize need for or load on, treatment facilities; development
of more efficient and economical methods of water treatment
for municipal, industrial, agricultural, or recreational uses; alteration of
water quality for health; deterioration during storage and distribution.
3070 Water Quality Control
Research on methods
to control surface and groundwater quality (except wastewater treatment) such
as: production modification or substitution, process changes,
improved agricultural practices for preventing pollution from pesticides and
other agricultural chemicals; management of groundwater impoundments, estuaries,
and streams to improve water quality, and supplemental aeration; groundwater
pollution treatment studies.
WATER RESOURCES PLANNING
Methods, procedures, and techniques for improving the planning and decision-making
process. Primary emphasis of this category throughout is on development of methodologies
and criteria for providing meaningful decision rules in planning which will
adequately reflect the physical, economic, legal, and social aspects of water
management. This category excludes economic, legal, or social analyses which
represent and integral phase of research activities conducted under other major
categories, and is not limited to evaluation of the physical aspects only of
applied management techniques.
4010 Techniques of Planning
Applications of systems
analysis to project planning; treatment of uncertainty; probability studies.
4020 Evaluation Process
Methods, concepts, and
criteria for evaluating project benefits; discount rate; project life; economic,
social, and technological projections; reliability of projections;
value of water in various uses.
4030 Cost Allocation, Cost Sharing, Pricing/Repayment
Methods of calculating
repayment and establishing prices for vendible products; techniques of cost
allocation; cost sharing pricing, and repayment policies.
4040 Water Demand
Water quantity and quality
requirements of various uses, both diversion and consumption.
4050 Water Law and Institutions
State, local, and
federal law studies on changes and additions to encourage more efficient water
use; institutional structure and constraints which influence water
decisions at all levels of government.
4060 Nonstructural Alternatives
Achievement of water resources
development aims by nonstructural methods such as flood plain zoning, flood
4070 Ecologic Impact of Water Development
Effects of water resources
management operations on the overall ecology of an area.
Strategies for establishing field data collection programs, developing more
efficient data acquisition methods or equipment, and initiating programs. This
category includes studies to determine data needs as well as most efficient
methods to meet these needs. Design of instrument networks which are incidental
to the primary purpose of the effort should be placed under the other appropriate
5010 Network Design
Data requirements and
methods of collecting data.
5040 Data Acquisition
New and improved instruments
and techniques for collection of water resources data; telemetering equipment;
measuring instruments; remote sensing.
5080 Evaluation, Processing and Publication
Methods of processing
data; form and nature of published data; maps of data.
Improved technology for designing, constructing, and operating works which are
required to implement water development plans. This category excludes works
relevant to a specific goal, such as water treatment or desalination.
Design or construction
criteria and techniques for all structures associated with the development of
water resources or the control of surface or ground water.
Included are dams, locks,
bridges, conduits, lined tunnels, floodwalls, water supply intakes, wells pipelines,
and storage reservoirs (earth and rockfill
structures are under 6040).
Studies on the static
and dynamic behavior of water as it influences design theory for spillways,
penstocks, conduits, tunnels, canals, riprap, breakwaters,
floodwalls, and other
similar structures; design of wells and well systems, including both collecting
and relief wells.
6030 Hydraulic Machinery
Design and performance
of hydraulic machinery and equipment, including gates, valves, pumps, turbines
and similar facilities. Includes associated control facilities,
generators, transmission systems and power system operation to the extent each
is unique to problem of water utilization.
6040 Soil Mechanics
Design theory, criteria,
techniques, and engineering properties of soils as related to the design, construction,
and performance of cut slopes, earth foundations, embankments,
and rockfill structures.
6050 Rock Mechanics and Geology
Behavior of rock masses
and rock foundations; engineering characteristics; structural properties of
rock materials; design techniques applicable to foundations for
Cementing materials, aggregates,
and other concrete components; engineering characteristics of concrete construction
methods and techniques.
other than soil, rock, concrete and concrete components; detection measuring,
and material testing techniques and equipment. Areas included
are: bituminous, chemical, synthetic, plastic or metallic materials; paints;
materials corrosion where associated with structures for water control.
6080 Rapid Excavation
Mechanical chemical, and
nuclear explosive techniques and equipment for rapidly excavating and moving
large volumes of earth or rock.
6090 Fisheries Engineering
Development of techniques
and design of facilities to attract and pass fish past dams and other water
control structures; methods for improving the design, maintenance,
and functioning of fish spawning areas.
MANPOWER, GRANTS, AND FACILITIES
Support of education and training as an essential ingredient of water resources
research programs as well as the planning and design of water development projects.
This category also includes grant and contract programs for which allocation
to other categories is impossible.
Support of education in
water resources at universities.
Government employee training
7060 Research Facilities
Laboratories, field stations
7080 Grants, Contracts and Research Act Allotments
SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNICAL INFORMATION
Development of adequate manual or mechanized procedures for acquisition, storage,
retrieval, and dissemination of scientific and technical information is a vital
and an integral part of a successful research program. This category includes
all separately identifiable activities involved in the handling of recorded
knowledge resulting from basic or applied research in the water-related aspects
of the physical, life, and social sciences.
8010 Acquisition and Processing
storage or exchange of documents in the full size or reduced form and the organization
or arrangement of these documents for retrieval.
8020 Reference and Retrieval
Selected search and retrieval
of an organized document collection in response to a specific user request.
8030 Secondary Publication and Distribution
Selective review, indexing,
subject classification, coding, abstracting, announcing, listing or distribution
of documents or their bibliographical surrogates to provide
service such as current awareness or selective dissemination of information,
abstract bulletins, and topical bibliographies.
8040 Specialized Information Center Services
Activities described under
groups 8010, 8020, and 8030 where performed by a separate functional element
whose mission includes additional subject are technical
competence to critically review, digest, analyze, evaluate or summarize scientific
and technical information in specially defined areas, or to provide advisory
and other services.
Conversion, to or from
English, of scientific or technical documents in whole or in part, where performed
as a separate or specific activity.
8080 Preparation of Reviews
Preparation of state of
the art critical reviews and compilation in specified technical subject areas,
where performed as a separate activity exclusive of the output
of group 8040.